Watford Football Club is a professional football club based in Watford, England, that plays in the Premier League, the highest level in the English football league system. Founded in 1898 by the amalgamation of West Herts and Watford St. Mary's. After finishing the 1914–15 season as Southern League champions under the management of Harry Kent, Watford joined the Football League in 1920; the club played at several grounds in its early history, before moving to a permanent location at Vicarage Road in 1922, where it remains. Watford spent most of the following half century in the lower divisions of The Football League, changing colours and crest on multiple occasions. England manager Graham Taylor's tenure at the club saw Watford scale new heights. Between Taylor's appointment in 1977 and departure in 1987, Watford rose from the Fourth Division to the First Division; the team finished second in the First Division in the 1982–83 season, competed in the UEFA Cup in 1983–84, reached the 1984 FA Cup Final.
Watford experienced a decade of decline between 1987 and 1997, before Taylor returned as full-time manager, leading the team to successive promotions from the renamed Second Division to the Premier League for one season in 1999–2000. The club experienced a further one season stint in the top division of English football during the 2006–07 season, under Aidy Boothroyd's management. Watford secured promotion in 2014–15, have competed in the Premier League since the 2015–16 season finishing 13th, 17th and 14th respectively. Watford is owned by the Pozzo family, which owns Udinese Calcio in Italy and Granada CF in Spain. Sir Elton John, who owned Watford during both of Graham Taylor's successful periods as manager, served alongside Taylor as the club's joint Honorary Life President until 2008, only to resume the role he shared alongside Graham Taylor until Taylor's death. Watford Football Club was formed on 15 April 1898 by the amalgamation of two strong local clubs, West Herts and Watford St Mary's.
The Watford Observer of 7 May 1898 reported - When three-parts of the season was gone, there were whispers of the advantages of amalgamation of the two clubs. That the principle was right few disputed, the question narrowed itself down to a few minor difficulties, it was ascertained that the executive on both sides regarded the suggestion favourably, joint meetings of the officials were arranged. The proposals took a definite shape, soon amalgamation was a thing accomplished, it was decided, that each club should finish off its fixtures. Next season the Watford club will play on the Cassio-Road ground, one of the chief ideas of the amalgamation is to have a second team of sufficient strength to be an attraction while the first string is engaged elsewhere; the details of the amalgamation scheme we have given in these columns. Speaking the local football season which has just closed has been a most important one, it has witnessed two steps which have marked fresh epochs - the adoption of professionalism and the amalgamation of West Herts and Watford St. Mary's.
The amalgamation was approved by the full F. A. committee on 27 May 1898 as reported by the Lichfield Mercury of 28 May 1898 "permission was given to Watford St. Mary's and West Herts to take the name of Watford Football Club, the two clubs having amalgamated." West Herts were known as Watford Rovers who were formed in 1881 by Henry Grover, who went on to play for the club as a full back. Rovers composed of amateur players, held home games at several locations in the town of Watford; the team first competed in the FA Cup in the 1886–87 season, in 1889 Watford won the County Cup for the first time. The team became the football section of "West Hertfordshire Club and Ground" in 1891, moved to a ground on Cassio Road; as "West Herts" they joined the Southern Football League in 1896. West Herts fortunes slumped at the start of the 1897/98 season and attendances were less than 200, they took the bold step of turning their fortunes revived. Watford St. Mary's were runners up in the Hertfordshire Senior Cup of 1894/95 and attracted crowds of 400 to 500 when West Herts were at home.
The two clubs talked of an amalgamation, which occurred on 15 April 1898. This was reported by the Watford Observer of 7 May 1898, it was agreed. The new club was named Watford Football Club. Following relegation to the Southern League Second Division in 1903, Watford appointed its first manager – former England international and First Division top scorer John Goodall, he led Watford to promotion, kept the team in the division until his departure in 1910. Despite financial constraints, Watford won the Southern League title in the 1914–15 season under his successor, Harry Kent. Watford held the title for five years following the suspension of the Southern League during the First World War – after finishing the 1919–20 season runners-up on goal average, the club resigned from the Southern League to join the new Football League Third Division. From 1921–22, the third tier of The Football League consisted of two parallel sections of 22 clubs, fighting both for promotion to the Second Division and battling to hold on to their league status.
There was a re-election system in place which meant the bottom two teams in each of the two divisions had to apply for re-election to the league. Watford finished outside the top six league positions in every season between 1922 and 1934. Following Kent's departure in 1926, they finished 21st out of 22 clubs in 1926–27, but were unanimously re-elected to the league after a ballot of clubs in the top two divisions of The Football
Brandon Kenneth Lewis is a British Conservative Party politician serving as Chairman of the Conservative Party and Minister without Portfolio since 2018, has served as Member of Parliament for Great Yarmouth since 2010. Lewis was born on 20 June 1971 in Harold Wood in London, he was educated at Forest School in Walthamstow. He received a degree in Economics from the University of Buckingham, an LLB in Law from Buckingham, an LLM in Commercial Law from King's College London, he was called to the bar by the Inner Temple. He was a director of Woodlands Schools Limited, a provider of private primary schools based in Hutton, Essex until September 2012 when he resigned his position. In May 1998 Lewis was first elected as a representative of the Conservative Party when he became a Borough Councillor for Hutton South on Brentwood Borough Council, he was re-elected in 2006 with an increased vote share. He became Conservative Group leader in 2002 and leader of the council in 2004, after his party took control of the local authority.
He remained in this position until 2009, when he resigned as a councillor in Essex to focus on seeking election as an MP in Norfolk. During his time as leader of the council he co-hosted The Eric and Brandon Show with local MP Eric Pickles on Phoenix FM, a local radio station in Brentwood. Under Lewis's leadership the council refused to identify land for additional traveller sites when required to by the government, citing greenbelt classification. Lewis claimed that the council was being "victimised", but campaigners argued the Council were just being asked to meet their proportion of national requirements. Lewis stood unsuccessfully as the Conservative Party candidate for election in the Sherwood constituency in the 2001 general election, losing to Paddy Tipping the Labour party candidate with a 34% share of the vote, he was selected to represent the Conservative party in the Great Yarmouth in 2006 and was elected at the 2010 general election, defeating sitting Labour MP Tony Wright with a majority of just over 4000 - a swing to the Conservatives of 8.7% in the seat, number 66 on their list of target seats.
Lewis served on the Work and Pensions Select Committee and the Regulatory Reform Select Committee from his election until 2012. He has been a member of a number of All Party Parliamentary Groups, including time as the chair of the Local Growth group and co-chair of a group discussing coastal erosion. A report by the Local Growth group in September 2012, when it was chaired by Lewis, criticised the government for an "uncoordinated" approach to its Local Enterprise Partnership policy which, according to Lewis, left "gaps and weaknesses". In January 2013, Lewis was criticised for comments he had made about local councillors' allowances by Clive Betts, the Chair of the Communities and Local Government Select Committee. In 2013 Lewis was critical of local councils, including many Conservative run councils, planning council tax rises in 2013 against the wishes of the government, saying that there was "still massive scope" for councils to cut "waste and inefficiency", he has criticised the Local Government Association for producing proposals to give local councils more freedom over their levels of council tax in the future.
In September 2012 Lewis, was appointed Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department for Communities and Local Government, working under Eric Pickles. In July 2014, Lewis was promoted to Minister of State for Housing and Planning, when the Prime Minister brought the portfolios of Housing and Planning together for the first time under his premiership, he claimed that there had been a "dramatic swing" in public opinion - with half of people now in favour of new housing in their area. This related to the new National Planning Policy Framework, the primary framework for town planning in the country, which some argued made it easier for developers to build on greenfield land. In January 2016, the Labour Party unsuccessfully proposed an amendment in Parliament that would have required private landlords to make their homes "fit for human habitation". According to Parliament's register of interests, Lewis was one of 72 Conservative MPs who voted against the amendment who derived an income from renting out property.
The Conservative Government had responded to the amendment that they believed homes should be fit for human habitation but did not want to pass the new law that would explicitly require it. In July 2016, Lewis was promoted to be the Minister of State for the Home Office with a portfolio including Police and Fire services, as well as Europol and Interpol:On 29 September 2016, he was appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and may therefore use the title "The Right Honourable". Following the Grenfell Disaster, Lewis was criticised for having rejected calls to increase fire safety regulations in his former role as housing minister, he had argued adding extra safety requirements, such as sprinklers in high rise buildings, should not be taken forward as the extra costs could discourage house building. In a January 2018 cabinet reshuffle, Lewis was promoted to Chairman of the Conservative Party succeeding long-time cabinet member Patrick McLoughlin. Lewis was appointed Minister without portfolio.
In the House of Commons he has sat on the Speaker's Committee on the Electoral Commission, the Work and Pensions Committee and the Regulatory Reform Committee. Lewis has run a variety of campaigns as Member of Parliament for Great Yarmouth. Campaigns have included opposing the removal of free bus passes for school children in Belton & Burgh Castle, cutting fuel duty, protecting Norfolk bus services, improving Great Yarmouth railway station; as the local MP, Lewis declined to support local campaigners who were
Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School to the senior school at age thirteen; the school has around 750 pupils. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament 1 Corinthians 3:6, it is one of the original nine public schools of England as defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1861. Charging up to £7,800 per term for day pupils and £11,264 for boarders in 2014/15, Westminster is the 13th most expensive HMC day school and 10th most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK. Westminster School is the most prestigious academic secondary school in the UK, having achieved the highest percentage of students accepted by Oxbridge colleges over the period 2002–2006, has been ranked as the best boy's school in the country in terms of GCSE results in 2017.
The earliest records of a school at Westminster date back to the 1370s and are held in Westminster Abbey's Muniment Room, with parts of the buildings now used by the school dating back to the 10th century Anglo-Saxon Abbey at Westminster. In their annual accounts the school cites their origin as lying in a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1179 though the evidence for this is unclear. In 1540, Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in England, including that of the powerful Abbots of Westminster, but ensured the School's survival by his royal charter; the Royal College of St. Peter carried on with forty "King's Scholars" financed from the royal purse. By this point Westminster School had become a public school. During Mary I's brief reign the Abbey was reinstated as a Roman Catholic monastery, but the school continued. Elizabeth I refounded the school in 1560, with new statutes to select 40 Queen's Scholars from boys who had attended the school for a year. Queen Elizabeth visited her scholars, although she never signed the statutes nor endowed her scholarships, 1560 is now taken as the date that the school was "founded".
Elizabeth I appointed William Camden as headmaster, he is the only layman known to have held the position until 1937. It was Dr Busby, himself an Old Westminster, who established the reputation of the school for several hundred years, as much by his classical learning as for his ruthless discipline by the birch, immortalised in Pope's Dunciad. Busby prayed publicly Up School for the safety of the Crown, on the day of Charles I's execution, locked the boys inside to prevent their going to watch the spectacle a few hundred yards away. Regardless of politics, he thrashed Puritan boys alike without fear or favour. Busby took part in Oliver Cromwell's funeral procession in 1658, when a Westminster schoolboy, Robert Uvedale, succeeded in snatching the "Majesty Scutcheon" draped on the coffin. Busby remained in office throughout the Civil War and the Commonwealth, when the school was governed by Parliamentary Commissioners, well into the Restoration. In 1679, a group of scholars killed a bailiff, ostensibly in defence of the Abbey's traditional right of sanctuary, but because the man was trying to arrest a consort of the boys.
Dr Busby obtained a royal pardon for his scholars from Charles II and added the cost to the school bills. Until the 19th century, the curriculum was predominantly made up of Latin and Greek, all taught Up School; the Westminster boys were uncontrolled outside school hours and notoriously unruly about town, but the proximity of the school to the Palace of Westminster meant that politicians were well aware of the boys' exploits. After the Public Schools Act 1868, in response to the Clarendon Commission on the financial and other malpractices at nine pre-eminent public schools, the school began to approach its modern form, it was separated from the Abbey, although the organisations remain close and the Dean of Westminster Abbey is ex officio the Chairman of the Governors. There followed a scandalous public and parliamentary dispute lasting a further 25 years, to settle the transfer of the properties from the Canons of the Abbey to the school. School statutes have been made by Order in Council of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Dean of Christ Church and the Master of Trinity College, are ex officio members of the school's governing body. Unusually among public schools, Westminster did not adopt most of the broader changes associated with the Victorian ethos of Thomas Arnold, such as the emphasis on team over individual spirit, the school retained much of its distinctive character. Despite many pressures, including evacuation and the destruction of the school roof during the Blitz, the school refused to move out of the city, unlike other schools such as Charterhouse and St. Paul's, remains in its central London location. Westminster Under School was formed in 1943 in the evacuated school buildings in Westminster, as a distinct preparatory school for day pupils between the ages of eight to 13. Only the separation is new: for example, in the 18th century, Edward Gibbon attended Westminster from the age of 11 and Jeremy Bentham from the age of eight; the Under School has since moved to Vincent Square. Its current Master is Mark O'Donnell
Peter Greenaway, is a British film director and artist. His films are noted for the distinct influence of Renaissance and Baroque painting, Flemish painting in particular. Common traits in his film are the scenic composition and illumination and the contrasts of costume and nudity and architecture, furniture and people, sexual pleasure and painful death. Greenaway was born in Newport, Wales, to a teacher mother and a builder's merchant father. Greenaway's family left South Wales when he was three years old and settled in Essex, he attended Forest School in northeast London. At an early age Greenaway decided on becoming a painter, he became interested in European cinema, focusing first on the films of Ingmar Bergman, on the French nouvelle vague filmmakers such as Jean-Luc Godard and, most Alain Resnais. He now lives in Amsterdam. In 1962, Greenaway began studies at Walthamstow College of Art, where a fellow student was musician Ian Dury. Greenaway trained as a muralist for three years. In 1965, he joined the Central Office of Information, working there fifteen years as a film editor and director.
In that time he created a filmography of experimental films, starting with Train, footage of the last steam trains at Waterloo station, edited to a musique concrète composition. Tree, is a homage to the embattled tree growing in concrete outside the Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank in London. By the 1970s he was confident and ambitious and made Vertical Features Remake and A Walk Through H; the former is an examination of various arithmetical editing structures, the latter is a journey through the maps of a fictitious country. In 1980, Greenaway delivered The Falls – a mammoth, absurdist encyclopaedia of flight-associated material all relating to ninety-two victims of what is referred to as the Violent Unknown Event. In the 1980s, Greenaway's cinema flowered in his best-known films, The Draughtsman's Contract, A Zed & Two Noughts, The Belly of an Architect, Drowning by Numbers, his most successful film, The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover. Greenaway's most familiar musical collaborator during this period is composer Michael Nyman, who has scored several films.
In 1989, he collaborated with artist Tom Phillips on a television serial A TV Dante, dramatising the first few cantos of Dante's Inferno. In the 1990s, he presented Prospero's Books, the controversial The Baby of Mâcon, The Pillow Book, 8½ Women. In the early 1990s, Greenaway wrote ten opera libretti known as the Death of a Composer series, dealing with the commonalities of the deaths of ten composers from Anton Webern to John Lennon, the other composers are fictitious, one is a character from The Falls. In 1995, Louis Andriessen completed Rosa -- A Horse Drama, he is professor of cinema studies at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Greenaway presented the ambitious The Tulse Luper Suitcases, a multimedia project that resulted in three films, a website, two books, a touring exhibition, a shorter feature which reworked the material of the first three films, he contributed to Visions of Europe, a short film collection by different European Union directors. Nightwatching and Rembrandt's J'Accuse two films on Rembrandt which were released in 2007 and 2008 respectively.
Nightwatching is the first feature in the series "Dutch Masters", with the next project titled as Goltzius and the Pelican Company. On 17 June 2005, Greenaway appeared for his first VJ performance during an art club evening in Amsterdam, with music by DJ Serge Dodwell, as a backdrop,'VJ' Greenaway used for his set a special system consisting of a large plasma screen with laser controlled touchscreen to project the ninety-two Tulse Luper stories on the twelve screens of "Club 11", mixing the images live; this was reprised at the Optronica festival, London. On 12 October 2007, he created the multimedia installation Peopling the Palaces at Venaria Reale at the Royal Palace of Venaria that animates the Palace with 100 videoprojectors. Greenaway was interviewed for Clive Meyer's Critical Cinema: Beyond the Theory of Practice, voiced strong criticisms of film theory as distinct from discussions of other media: "Are you sufficiently happy with cinema as a thinking medium if you are only talking to one person?"On 3 May 2016, he received a Honoris Causa doctorate from the University of San Martín, Argentina.
In 2006, Greenaway began a series of digital video installations, Nine Classical Paintings Revisited, with his exploration of Rembrandt's Night Watch in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. On 30 June 2008, after much negotiation, Greenaway staged a one-night performance'remixing' da Vinci's The Last Supper in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan to a select audience of dignitaries; the performance consisted of superimposing digital imagery and projections onto the painting with music from the composer Marco Robino. Greenaway exhibited his digital exploration of The Wedding at Cana by Paolo Veronese as part of the 2009 Venice Biennial. An arts writer for The New York Times called it "possibly the best unmanned art history lecture you'll experience," while acknowledging that some viewers might respond to it as "mediocre art, Disneyfied kitsch o
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Edward L. Atkinson
Edward Leicester Atkinson, was a Royal Navy surgeon and Antarctic explorer, a member of the scientific staff of Captain Scott's Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13. He was in command of the expedition's base at Cape Evans for much of 1912, led the party which found the tent containing the bodies of Scott, "Birdie" Bowers and Edward Wilson. Atkinson was subsequently associated with two controversies: that relating to Scott's orders concerning the use of dogs, that relating to the possible incidence of scurvy in the polar party, he is commemorated by the Atkinson Cliffs on the northern coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, at 71°18′S 168°55′E. Atkinson was born on 23 November 1881 on Saint Vincent in the Windward Islands, where he spent much of his childhood, he was educated at the Forest School and received his medical training at St Thomas's Hospital, where he became the hospital's light heavyweight boxing champion. He qualified in 1906 and two years joined the Naval Medical Service as a surgeon, based at the Royal Naval Hospital, Haslar, in Gosport, Hampshire.
He was a researcher, had published a paper on gonorrhoeal rheumatism when he was appointed physician and parasitologist to the Terra Nova expedition. Atkinson spent the winter at Cape Evans base camp doing scientific work. Eleven days before Scott's teams set off towards the pole, Scott gave the dog driver Meares the following written orders at Cape Evans dated 20 October 1911 to secure Scott's speedy return from the pole using dogs: About the first week of February I should like you to start your third journey to the South, the object being to hasten the return of the third Southern unit and give it a chance to catch the ship; the date of your departure must depend on news received from returning units, the extent of the depot of dog food you have been able to leave at One Ton Camp, the state of the dogs, etc.... It looks at present as though you should aim at meeting the returning party about March 1 in Latitude 82 or 82.30 The march south began on 1 November 1911, Atkinson departed south with Scott's team, first as a pony leader and as a man-hauler.
The dogs with their dog-driver Meares turned back to base before the ascent of the Beardmore Glacier. By this time, it was becoming that Meares would leave the expedition, Scott reminded Atkinson of the orders concerning the dogs: "with the depot, laid at One Ton, come as far as you can". Atkinson and others accompanied Scott during the ascent of the Beardmore Glacier. On 22 December, at the glacier summit, lat. 85deg7'S, Atkinson returned to base with the First Support Party, reaching Cape Evans on 29 January 1912 after a straightforward journey. On his return to Cape Evans, Atkinson took command, he learned that the chief dog driver, Cecil Meares, had resigned from the expedition, was waiting for the ship to take him home and was "not available" for Barrier work. In any case, neither Meares nor anyone else replenished the dog food in the depots. At the beginning of February, the Terra Nova arrived, Atkinson directed Polar team members to unload supplies and fresh dogs from the Terra Nova, rather than set off with the dogs to meet Scott.
In his book The Worst Journey in the World, Cherry-Garrard called this decision a "mistake". In his 1948 "Postscript" to this book, published in the edition of 1951, Cherry-Gerrard elaborated: "In October Scott issued certain orders: those for the dogs are dated October 20. In these original orders for the dog teams under Meares The third journey was to start about the first week of February ". On page 588, Cherry-Garrard writes: "We reached Cape Evans on January 28. In my opinion he would not have been fit to take out the dogs in the first week of February". On 13 February Atkinson arrived at Hut Point with the dog assistant, the Bulgarian Dimitri Gerov and the dogs to avoid being cut off by disintegrating sea ice. Atkinson and Gerov were delayed by bad weather at Hut Point when, on 19 February, Tom Crean arrived on foot from the Barrier and reported that Lt Edward Evans was lying ill in a tent some 35 miles to the south, in urgent need of rescue. Atkinson decided that this mission was his priority and, during a break in the weather, set out with the dogs to bring Evans back.
This was achieved and the party was back at Hut Point on 22 February. Atkinson sent a note back to the Cape Evans base camp requesting either the meteorologist Wright or Cherry-Garrard to take over the task of meeting Scott with the dogs. Chief meteorologist Simpson however was unwilling to release Wright from his scientific work, Atkinson therefore selected Apsley Cherry-Garrard, it was still not in Atkinson's mind that Cherry-Garrard's was a relief mission, according to Cherry-Garrard's account, told him to'use his judgement' as to what to do in the event of not meeting the polar party by One Ton, that Scott's orders were that the dogs must not be risked. Cherry-Garrard left with Gerov and the dogs on 26 February, carrying extra rations for the polar party to be added to the depot and 24 days' of dog food, they did not proceed further south. Instead, he and Gerov decided to feed the dog food generously to the dogs, after waiting there for Scott for several days mostly in blizzard conditions, they returned to Hut Point on 16 March, in poor physical condition and without news of the polar party.
On 17 March, Cherry-Garrard notes in his diary that the base camp members were "anxious" about the Polar party's welfare, on 26 March Atkinson set out with Patrick Keo
Richard J. Evans
Sir Richard John Evans, is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany. He is the author of eighteen books, including his three-volume The Third Reich Trilogy, hailed as "brilliant" and "magisterial." Evans was Regius Professor of History at the University of Cambridge from 2008 until his retirement in 2014, President of Cambridge's Wolfson College from 2010 to 2017. He has been Provost of Gresham College in London since 2014. Evans was appointed Knight Bachelor for services to scholarship in the 2012 Birthday Honours. Evans was born at Woodford, Essex, of Welsh parentage and was educated at Forest School, Jesus College, St Antony's College, Oxford. In a 2004 interview, he stated that frequent visits to Wales during his childhood inspired both an interest in history and a sense of "otherness", he said that one reason that he was drawn to the study modern German history in the late 1960s was his identification of parallels between the Vietnam War and German imperialism.
He admired the work of Fritz Fischer, whom he credits with inspiring him to study modern German history. Evans first established his academic reputation with his publications on the German Empire. In the early 1970s, Evans travelled to Germany to research his dissertation, a study of the feminist movement in Germany in the first half of the 20th century, it was published as The Feminist Movement In Germany, 1894–1933 in 1976. Evans followed his study of German feminism by another book, The Feminists, which traced the history of the feminist movement in North America and Europe from 1840 to 1920. A theme of both books was the weakness of German middle-class culture and its susceptibility to the appeal of nationalism. Evans argued that both liberalism and feminism failed in Germany for those reasons despite flourishing elsewhere in the Western world. Evans' main interest is social history, he is much influenced by the Annales school, he agrees with Fischer that 19th-century German social development paved the way for the rise of Nazi Germany, but Evans takes pains to point out that many other possibilities could have happened.
For Evans, the values of the 19th-century German middle class contained the germinating seeds of National Socialism. Evans studied under Fischer in Hamburg in 1970 and 1971 but came to disagree with the "Bielefeld School" of historians, who argued for the Sonderweg thesis that saw the roots of Germany’s political development in the first half of the 20th century in a "failed bourgeois revolution" in 1848. Following a contemporary trend that opposed the previous "great man" theory of history, Evans was a member of a group of young British historians who in the 1970s sought to examine German history during the German Empire "from below"; these scholars highlighted "the importance of the grass-roots of politics and the everyday life and experience of ordinary people". "History is about people, their relationships. It’s about the perennial question of ‘how much free will do people have in building their own lives, making a future," Evans has said, he says he supported the creation of a "new school of people's history", a result of a trend that "has taken place across a whole range of historical subjects, political opinions, methodological approaches and has been expressed in many different ways".
In 1978, as editor of a collection of essays by young British historians entitled Society And Politics In Wilhelmine Germany, he launched a critique of the ‘top-down’ approach of the Bielefeld School associated with Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Jürgen Kocka in regards to the Wilhelmine Germany. With the historians Geoff Eley and David Blackbourn, Evans instead emphasized the "self-mobilization from below" of key sociopolitical groups, as well as the modernity of National Socialism. In the 1980s, Evans organized ten international workshops on modern German social history at the University of East Anglia that did a good deal to refine these ideas, to pioneer research in this new historical field and, in six collections of papers, present it to an Anglophone readership. Among Evans' major research works are Death in Hamburg, a study of class conflict and liberal government in 19th-century Germany using the example of Hamburg’s cholera epidemics and applying statistical methods to the exploration of social inequality in an industrializing society, Rituals of Retribution, a study of capital punishment in German history applying structural anthropological concepts to the rituals of public execution up to the mid-19th century and exploring the politics of the death penalty until its abolition by East Germany in 1987.
In Death in Hamburg, Evans studied the cholera outbreak in Hamburg in 1892, which he concluded was caused by a failure in the medical system to safeguard against such an event. Another study in German social history was Tales from the German Underworld, where Evans traced the life stories of four German criminals in the late 19th century, namely a homeless woman, a forger, a prostitute and a conman. In Rituals of Retribution, Evans traced the history of capital punishment in Germany, using the ideas of Michel Foucault, Philippe Ariès and Norbert Elias as his guide argued that opposition to the death penalty was strongest when liberalism was in the ascendancy, support for capital punishment coincided when the right was in the ascendancy. Thus, in Evans' view, capital punishment in Germany was never a mere matter of law being disinterestedly applied but was rather a form of state power being exercised. In addition, Evans examined such subjects as belief in witchcraft, the last words of the executed, the psychology of mobs, varying forms of execution from the Thirty Years War to the 198