Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari
Kimura is the 17th most common Japanese surname. Notable people with the surname include: Arawa Kimura, Japanese footballer Arika Kimura, Japanese botanist Asami Kimura, Japanese idol and singer Atsushi Kimura, Japanese footballer Ayaka Kimura, Japanese singer Ayaka Kimura known as Yuka Inokuchi, Japanese voice actress Ayako Kimura, Japanese hurdler Ben Kimura, Japanese erotic artist Ben Kimura, Japanese politician Bunji Kimura, Japanese footballer and manager Bunzo Kimura, Japanese rower Kimura Buzan, Japanese painter Chie Kimura, Japanese field hockey player Daisaku Kimura, Japanese film director and cinematographer Darren Kimura, American businessman Doreen Kimura, Canadian psychologist Dustin Kimura, American mixed martial artist Eri Kimura, Japanese swimmer Eriko Kimura, Japanese audio director Fumikazu Kimura, Japanese baseball player Fumino Kimura, Japanese actress Hana Kimura, Japanese professional wrestler Heitarō Kimura, Japanese general Hidefumi Kimura, Japanese writer and animator Hiroshi Kimura, Japanese businessman Hiroyuki Kimura, Japanese video game designer Hisashi Kimura, Japanese astronomer Hitoshi Kimura, Japanese politician Ihei Kimura, Japanese photographer Isao Kimura, Japanese actor Izumi Kimura, Japanese classical pianist Jiroemon Kimura, Japanese supercentenarian Jon Kimura Parker, Canadian pianist Juri Kimura, Japanese voice actress Jutaro Kimura, Japanese baseball player Kaela Kimura, Japanese singer Kan Kimura, Japanese political scientist Kazuaki Kimura, Japanese scientist Kazuki Kimura, Japanese shogi player Kazuo Kimura, Japanese high jumper Kazushi Kimura, Japanese footballer and manager Keichi Kimura, American painter and illustrator Keiichi Kimura, Japanese photographer Keiichi Kimura, Japanese Paralympic swimmer Kengo Kimura, Japanese professional wrestler Ken-ichi Kimura, Japanese architect Kenichi Kimura, Japanese rugby union player Kenji Kimura, Japanese volleyball player Kimura Kenkadō, Japanese scholar and art connoisseur Kiminobu Kimura, Japanese alpine skier Kiyoshi Kimura, Japanese businessman Koichiro Kimura, Japanese mixed martial artist Koji Kimura, Japanese table tennis player Kokichi Kimura, Japanese footballer and manager Komako Kimura, Japanese suffragist, dancer, theatre manager and magazine editor Kosuke Kimura, Japanese footballer Kyoko Kimura, Japanese professional wrestler and mixed martial artist Larry Kimura, American linguist Madoka Kimura, Japanese voice actress and singer Makoto Kimura, Japanese footballer Mamoru Kimura, better known as Kimurayama Mamoru, Japanese sumo wrestler Mari Kimura, Japanese classical violinist and composer Masaaki Kimura, Japanese academic Masafumi Kimura, Japanese voice actor Masahiko Kimura, Japanese judoka and professional wrestler Masahiko Kimura, Japanese bonsai artist Masahiko Kimura, Japanese footballer Masanobu Kimura, Japanese golfer Masatake Kimura, Japanese handball player Masatomi Kimura, Imperial Japanese Navy admiral Masaya Kimura, Japanese cross-country skier Mineshi Kimura, Japanese video game designer Minori Kimura, Japanese manga artist Minoru Kimura, Brazilian kickboxer Mitsunori Kimura, Japanese artist Mitsuru Kimura, Japanese rower Motoo Kimura, Japanese biologist and theoretical population geneticist Nozomi Kimura, Japanese footballer Rie Kimura, Japanese women's footballer Rusher Kimura, Japanese professional wrestler Ryo Kimura, Japanese actor Ryōhei Kimura, Japanese voice actor Ryuji Kimura, Japanese baseball player Saeko Kimura, Japanese synchronized swimmer Saori Kimura, Japanese volleyball player Seibei Kimura, Japanese water polo player Seiji Kimura, Japanese footballer Kimura Shigekore, Japanese samurai Kimura Shigenari, Japanese samurai Shinichiro Kimura, Japanese anime director Shintaro Kimura, Japanese sprinter Shinya Kimura, motorcycle builder Shiroshichi Kimura, Japanese diplomat Sho Kimura, Japanese boxer Shogo Kimura, Japanese baseball player and cricketer Shota Kimura, Japanese baseball player Shota Kimura, Japanese footballer Shourai Kimura, Japanese swimmer and journali
Robert Guza Jr. is an American television writer and producer, held the position as head writer on the ABC Daytime soap opera General Hospital. Guza has been married to fellow writer Meg Bennett since the late 1980s. Guza has lost two children. During the 2007 WGA strike, Garin Wolf assumed head writing duties through March 17, 2008, at which time Guza's post-strike episodes hit the air waves. Script Writer Head writer March 1996 – September 1996: with Karen Harris December 1997 – December 2000: Solo June 13, 2002 – March 10, 2006: with Charles Pratt Jr. March 13, 2006 – January 2007: Solo February 2007 – October 2007: with Meg Bennett October 2007 – January 3, 2008. Script Writer and Story Editor: 1994Port Charles Storyline Consultant: 1998Santa Barbara Breakdown Writer: 1988–1991Sunset Beach Co-Creator and head writer: January 1997 – October 1997Prom Night co-written with William GrayCurtains Melanie Guza has been nominated for twenty Daytime Emmy Awards, the first being in 1994. Guza has won three Daytime Emmys for his work as head writer, four Emmys for his role as a consulting producer in GH's wins for Outstanding Drama Series, one as a breakdown writer for Santa Barbara's win of Outstanding Writing Team.
Guza was nominated six times for a Writers Guild of America Award, has been nominated for a Genie Award. List of General Hospital crew ABC Daytime: GH EntertainmentWeekly SoapCentral NewYorkTimes Robert Guza Jr. on IMDb SoapOperaDigest: The Write Stuff Serial Writing