Casual wear/attire/clothing is a Western dress code category that comprises anything not traditionally appropriate with more formal dress codes: formal wear, semi-formal wear, or informal wear. In general, casual wear is associated with emphasising personal comfort and individuality over formality or conformity; as such, it may referred to as leisurewear. In a broader sense, the word "casual" may be defined as anything relaxed, spontaneous, "suited for everyday use", or "informal" in the sense of "not formal". In essence, because of its wide variety of interpretations, casual wear may be defined not by what it is but rather by what it is not: Formal wear, such as: Morning dress White tie but ceremonial dress variants, including: Court uniforms Full dress uniform Religious clothing Folk costumes Academic clothing Semi-formal wear, such as: Black lounge suit Black tie Informal attire, such as: Business professional wear, comprising lounge suits, dress shirts, neckties and dress shoesYet, when indicated as a dress code for instance on an invitation to a gathering or in an office place, casual wear may still be expected to be done tastefully, meaning that trousers and shirts do not have holes, tears, or stains.
It may be combined with informal wear dress code components, illustrated by dress codes such as business casual, smart casual. Furthermore, dress codes within casual wear category such as business casual, smart casual or casual Friday may indicate expectation of some sartorial effort, including suit jacket, dress trousers, resembling the result of informal attire. With the popularity of spectator sports in the late 20th century, a good deal of athletic gear has influenced casual wear, such as jogging suits, running shoes, track clothing. Work wear worn for manual labor falls into casual wear. Basic materials used for casual wear include denim, jersey and fleece. Materials such as velvet and brocade are associated with more formal cloths. While utilitarian costume comes to mind first for casual dress, there is a wide range of flamboyance and theatricality. Punk fashion and fashion of the 1970s and 1980s is a striking example. Madonna introduced a great deal of lace and cosmetics into casual wear during the 1980s.
In the 1990s, hip hop fashion played up elaborate jewelry and luxurious materials worn in conjunction with athletic gear and the clothing of manual labor. Sport coat, jeans, dress shirt, a T-shirt describe to be casual wear for men in the 21st century. Casual wear is the dress code in which forms of gender expression are experimented with. An obvious example is masculine jewelry, once considered shocking or titillating in casual circles, is now hardly noteworthy in semi-formal situations. Amelia Bloomer introduced trousers of a sort for women as a casual alternative to formal hoops and skirts; the trend toward female exposure in the 20th century tended to push the necklines of formal ball gowns lower and the skirts of cocktail dresses higher. For men, the exposure of shoulders and backs is still limited to casual wear. Western dress codes Formal wear Semi-formal wear Informal attire Casual wear Smart casual Business casual Workwear Combat uniform Sportswear Sportswear
The bow tie is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, called the bow knot for that reason, it consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner so that the two opposite ends form loops. There are three types of bow ties: the pre-tied, the clip on, the self tie. Pre-tied bow ties are ties in which the distinctive bow is sewn onto a band that goes around the neck and clips to secure; some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, is known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie. Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics; some fabrics are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties. The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts.
This was soon adopted by the upper classes in France a leader in fashion, flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is uncertain whether the cravat evolved into the bow tie and four-in-hand necktie, or whether the cravat gave rise to the bow tie, which in turn led to the four-in-hand necktie; the most traditional bow ties are of a fixed length and are made for a specific size neck. Sizes can vary between 14 and 19 inches as with a comparable shirt collar. Fixed-length bow ties are preferred when worn with the most formal wing-collar shirts, so as not to expose the buckle or clasp of an adjustable bow tie. Adjustable bow ties are the standard when the tie is to be worn with a less formal, lie-down collar shirts which obscure the neckband of the tie. "One-size-fits-all" adjustable bow ties are a invention that help to moderate production costs. To its devotees, the bow tie suggests iconoclasm of an Old World sort, a fusty adherence to a contrarian point of view; the bow tie hints at intellectualism, real or feigned, sometimes suggests technical acumen because it is so hard to tie.
Bow ties are worn by magicians, country doctors and professors and by people hoping to look like the above. But most of all, wearing a bow tie is a way of broadcasting an aggressive lack of concern for what other people think. - Warren St John in The New York Times Popular perception tends to associate bow tie wearers with particular professions, such as architects, finance receipt collectors, university professors, teachers and politicians. Pediatricians wear bow ties since infants cannot grab them the way they could grab a four-in-hand necktie. Bow ties do not droop into places where they would get soiled or where they could, whether accidentally or deliberately, strangle the wearer. Clowns sometimes use an oversize bow tie for its comic effect. Classical musicians traditionally perform in white tie or black tie ensembles, of which both designs are bow ties. Bow ties are associated with weddings because of their universal inclusion in traditional formal attire. Bow ties, or slight variations thereof, have made their way into women's wear business attire.
The 1980s saw professional women in law and the corporate world, donning conservative tailored suits, with a rise of 6 million units in sales. These were worn with buttoned-up blouses, some with pleats up the front like tuxedo shirts, accessorized with bow ties that were fuller than the standard bow ties worn by their male counterparts, but consisting of the same fabrics and patterns as men's ties. Russell Smith, style columnist for Toronto's The Globe and Mail, records mixed opinions of bow tie wearers, he observed that bow ties were experiencing a potential comeback among men, though "the class conscious man recoils at the idea" of pre-tied bow ties and "eft-wingers"... "recoil at what they perceive to be a symbol of political conservatism." He argues that, that anachronism is the point, that bow tie wearers are making a public statement that they disdain changing fashion. Such people may not be economic conservatives, he argues, but they are social conservatives. In Smith's view, the bow tie is "the embodiment of propriety," an indicator of fastidiousness, "an instant sign of nerddom in Hollywood movies," but "not the mark of a ladies' man" and "not sexy."
To this image he attributes the association of the bow tie with newspaper editors, high-school principals, bachelor English teachers. Most men, only wear bow ties with formal dress; the four-in-hand necktie is still more prominent in contemporary Western society, it being seen the most at business meetings, formal functions and sometimes at home. However, the bow tie is making a comeback at fun-formal events such as dinners, cocktail parties, nights out on the town. Bow ties are worn with suits by those trying to convey a more dressed-up, formal image, whether in business or social venues. Bow ties are still popular with men of all ages in the American South, having never gone out of fashion there. Traditional opinion remains that it is inappropriate to wear anything other than a bow tie with a dinner jacket. Bow ties are sometimes worn as an alternative to ascot ties and four-in-hand neckties when wearing morning dress; the dress code of "black tie" requires a black bow tie. Most military mess dress uniforms incorporate a bow tie.
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Black lounge suit
The black lounge suit, stroller, or Stresemann, is a men's day attire semi-formal intermediate of a formal morning dress and an informal lounge suit. This makes it identical to the formal morning dress from which it is derived, only having exchanged the morning coat with a suit jacket, yet with equivalent options otherwise, such as necktie or bowtie for neckwear, a waistcoat, French cuffs dress shirt of optional collar type, black dress shoes or dress boots; the correct hat would be bowler, or boater hat. Just as morning dress is considered the formal daytime equivalent of formal evening attire dress coat i e. white tie, so the stroller is considered the semi-formal daytime equivalent of the semi-formal evening attire dinner jacket i.e. black tie. Unlike other dress codes, there is no clear equivalent for women, though typical morning dress and cocktail dress have both been identified as alternatives. For a semi-formal wedding day attire, the groom may dress in a dark-grey suit jacket with a dove-grey or buff waistcoat and optionally a wedding tie.
For a semi-formal funeral day attire, the mourner may wear a matching black jacket and waistcoat with black necktie. In British English it is called black lounge suit. Since black was reserved for formal wear, it was unknown as a colour for lounge suits, so the term was unambiguous, it has been referred to as Marlborough suit in the U. K. In American English, the style is sometimes called a stroller. Around continental Europe, the style is called a Stresemann after the German chancellor Gustav Stresemann of the Weimar Republic, who wore the style as an alternative to morning coat. In Germany it is known as Bonner Anzug after the capital of post World War II Western Germany. However, it is known as director's suit from the term inside director, or citydress. In early 20th century, Gustav Stresemann, like other German politicians of his age, wore morning coat or a frock coat in the Reichstag or when making public appearances. However, Stresemann found the long knee-length coats impractical for daily work in the Chancellery.
To avoid having to change he began to wear the prototype of this jacket at his office, thus giving reason to the style's synonym, while switching to a morning coat when engaged on more formal business. This his style was introduced during the negotiations of the Locarno Treaties in 1925, caught on as a more practical variation of morning dress Winston Churchill is depicted in many photographs and paintings wearing a black lounge suit and striped formal trousers while serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom this mode of dress is now unusual, though the dress code sometimes does occur in fraternal orders such as Freemasonry for semi-formal daytime meetings, it is still worn within the legal profession by barristers. Indeed, the striped formal trouser are in some circles referred to as "barrister trousers"; the stroller's apparent decline in use, as opposed to the staying power of its evening counterpart the dinner jacket, could be attributed to several factors: daytime formality in general, the standard of changing clothes for various occasions, fell out of general use in post-World War II Western culture.
By the late 20th century, fictional characters in media depicted wearing strollers were portrayed as self-important or inflexible snobs in opposition to more sympathetic characters dressed casually. Traditionally, in Continental Europe and the British Commonwealth of Nations, morning dress is worn to formal day events, white tie for formal evening events. However, when both dress codes declined in use in the United States, this affected the use of the stroller. Yet, notably, at his first inauguration in 1981, former U. S. President Ronald Reagan wore a black stroller. In the 1964 Walt Disney film Mary Poppins, the character of Mr. Banks wears a stroller to work every day at the bank. In the long-running BBC sitcom Are You Being Served?, the character Captain Peacock always wore a stroller as the store's floorwalker. Gentlemen's valets of the early 20th century are depicted in television and film wearing strollers as their standard apparel; the character of John Bates of Masterpiece's Downton Abbey appears in a stroller while serving as his lord's valet.
Media related to Stresemann at Wikimedia Commons "Morning Dress," The Black Tie Guide, accessed 14 June 2012. "The Morning Dress Guide," Andrews & Pygott, accessed 21 October 2018
Diplomatic uniforms are ornate uniforms worn by diplomats—ambassadorial and consular officers—at public occasions. Introduced by European states around 1800 and patterned on court dress, they were abandoned by most countries in the twentieth century, but diplomats from some countries retain them for rare, formal occasions. Up until the 18th century, diplomats wore their own court clothing to solemn occasions. Diplomatic uniforms were first introduced by France in 1781 and adopted by other European nations around 1800 in the course of administrative reforms undertaken as a response to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. In several countries, diplomatic uniforms were among the first civilian uniforms to be adopted. Apart from saving diplomats the expense of maintaining a full court wardrobe, diplomatic uniforms served to emphasize the importance of the office and to deemphasize the person of its holder. Several non-European courts adopted European-style diplomatic uniforms during the 19th century.
Notably, Japan during the Meiji Revolution introduced European uniforms instead of traditional clothing for all officials in 1872. The Ottoman court was another non-European court that adopted the uniforms, which were introduced during the Tanzimat period; the final period during which the majority of diplomatic services retained formal uniforms for the accredited members of their overseas missions was that prior to World War II. A detailed study of contemporary uniforms, both military and civil, published in 1929 gives descriptions of the diplomatic uniforms still being worn by representatives of the majority of states in existence; these included a number of Latin American and Asian countries. It is however noted that several states which had only been created following World War I, had not adopted diplomatic uniforms and that others had discarded them; the uniforms described are nearly all of the traditional style of bicorne hat and tailcoat with braiding according to grade, from third secretaries to ambassadors.
Consular staff were less to have authorised uniforms than their diplomatic colleagues and where consular uniforms existed they were of simpler style. As an example, the British Consular Service had silver braiding rather than the gold of diplomats. While most countries abandoned diplomatic uniforms at some time during the 20th century, several long-established foreign services have retained them for wear by senior staff on ceremonial occasions such as the formal presentation of credentials by ambassadors. A photo of the 2001 New Year's reception at the Vatican shows the ambassadors of Monaco, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain and Belgium all clad in diplomatic uniform. Diplomatic uniforms followed 19th century court fashion and included a tailcoat with standing collar, breeches or pantaloons, a sword and a two-cornered plumed hat. There were at least two versions, a dress uniform for ceremonial events and a simpler version for less formal occasions which required the use of uniform dress.
Unlike their military and naval counterparts, diplomats did not wear uniforms for everyday purposes but substituted the appropriate civilian clothing. Diplomatic uniforms were richly embroidered with gold similar to the uniforms of high court officials. Diplomatic rank was distinguished by the quality of the embroidery. In contrast to military uniforms, which underwent rapid changes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, the diplomatic uniforms tended to keep their traditional design. While the uniforms of the different foreign services shared the common features noted above, there were considerable national differences, though of minor detail. Thus, as examples, French ambassadors were distinguished by pearl-handled court swords with gold and silk frogs, their Portuguese colleagues by oak leaves and acorns represented in gold embroidery on their dress coats, while Norwegian diplomats wore gold embroidery of pine cone design on their dark blue "swallow-tail" coats. Belgian diplomats of all ranks had "royal blue" tail coats and retained the 18th century fashion of white breeches and stockings with low shoes.
Today, Belgian diplomats wear blue and gold waist sashes, Spanish diplomats red cuffs on their dark blue tail-coats, Danish diplomats distinctive red coats. In 1817, Prussian diplomats received as uniforms dark blue tail coats with cuffs and a standing collar of black velvet, decorated with oak leaf scrolls embroidered in gold. In 1888, the German Empire introduced the Altbrandenburgischer Waffenrock, a long military-style coat, as the general state uniform for high-ranking officials. Military uniform was worn instead of court uniform by military officers and by those political figures who were reserve officers, which included most diplomats: it was impossible under the Empire for one to be a civil servant or a state secretary of ministerial rank without being a reserve officer. Diplomatic uniforms were abandoned under the Weimar Republic, but the Nazi regime, which had a general fondness for uniforms, reintroduced them; the stage designer Benno von Arent designed the "startling" Nazi diplomatic uniform, consisting of a dark blue tailcoat whose modern lapels were embroidered with silver oak leaves, a silver sash, a silver aiguillette and a small dagger.
Following the Meiji Restoration, the Dajō-kan released an edict on December 12, 1872, implementing regulations for the uniforms of civil officials and nobles, issuing another edict on December 29 of that year regulating their proper wear. Three of the highest subcategories of civil officials were allocated specific court (dip
A pantsuit or pant suit known as a trouser suit outside the United States, is a woman's suit of clothing consisting of pants and a matching or coordinating coat or jacket. The prevailing fashion for women included some form of a coat, paired with a skirt or dress—hence the name pantsuit; the pantsuit was introduced in the 1920s, when a small number of women adopted a masculine style, including pantsuits, hats and monocles. However, the term, "trouser suit" had been used in Britain during the First World War, with reference to women working in heavy industry. During the 1960s pant suits for women became widespread. Designers such as Foale and Tuffin in London and Luba Marks in the United States were early promoters of trouser suits. In 1966 Yves Saint-Laurent introduced his Le Smoking, an evening pantsuit for women that mimicked a man's tuxedo. Whilst Saint-Laurent is credited with introducing trouser suits, it was noted in 1968 that some of his pantsuits were similar to designs, offered by Luba Marks, the London designer Ossie Clark had offered a trouser suit for women in 1964 that predated Saint Laurent's'Le Smoking' design by two years.
In Britain a social watershed was crossed in 1967 when Lady Chichester, wife of the navigator Sir Francis Chichester, wore a trouser suit when her husband was publicly knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. Pantsuits were deprecated as inappropriately masculine clothing for women. For example, until 1993, women were not permitted to wear pantsuits on the United States Senate floor. In 1993, Senators Barbara Mikulski and Carol Moseley Braun wore pants onto the floor in defiance of the rule, female support staff followed soon after, with the rule being amended that year by Senate Sergeant-at-Arms Martha Pope to allow women to wear pants on the floor so long as they wore a jacket, thus allowing pantsuits, among other types of clothing. Hillary Clinton, well known for wearing pantsuits, once referred to her presidential campaign staff as "The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pantsuits", a play on The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. During the 2016 Presidential election, the pantsuit became a symbolic rallying cry among supporters of Hillary Clinton, many of whom donned pantsuits when they went to the polls to cast their ballots.
This was in part due to the influence of a Facebook group of 2.9 million Hillary Clinton supporters called Pantsuit Nation. Business wear Women and trousers
Court dress comprises the style of clothes prescribed for courts of law, for royal courts. Members of the old Judicial Committee of the House of Lords and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council never wore court dress. Instead they were dressed in ordinary business clothing. Since the creation of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in 2009, the Justices of that court have retained the Law Lords' tradition of sitting unrobed. On ceremonial occasions they wear a robe of black damask embellished with gold with the logotype of the Supreme Court embroidered at the yoke. Court dress is worn at hearings in open court in all Senior Courts of England and Wales and in county courts. However, court dress may be dispensed with at the option of the judge, e.g. in hot weather, invariably where it may intimidate children, e.g. in the Family Division and at the trials of minors. Court dress is not worn in magistrates' courts. In July 2007, The Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers, the serving Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, announced that changes would be made to court working dress in the English and Welsh courts.
The reforms were due to take effect on 1 January 2008. The new robes for judges were designed by Betty Jackson and unveiled in May 2008, although a survey of judges published in March 2009 revealed substantial opposition to the new designs, as well as widespread annoyance at the lack of consultation prior to the change; the Chairman of the Bar announced in April 2008 that, as a result of a survey of the profession, the Bar would recommend that advocates should retain their existing formal robes in all cases and criminal, with possible exceptions in the County Court. In a letter to the profession, he said: Criminal barristers will keep wigs and gowns, as the Lord Chief Justice intends to keep the current court dress in criminal proceedings; the Bar is a single advocacy profession with specialisation in particular practice areas. There is logic in having the same formal court dress, where formality and robes are required, for criminal and civil barristers... There is strong identification of the Bar of England and Wales in the public's mind and its formal dress nationally and internationally.
For the most part, the changes only affect what is worn by judges in civil courts, who now wear a simplified robe and no wig. Dress worn in criminal courts remains unchanged; the changes have been reflected in the dress allowances made to judges. English and Welsh advocates who appear before a judge, robed must themselves be robed. All male advocates wear a white stiff wing collar with bands, they wear either a dark double-breasted suit or a black coat and waistcoat and black or grey morning dress striped trousers. The black coat and waistcoat can be combined into a single garment, a waistcoat with sleeves, known as a bar jacket or court waistcoat. Female advocates wear a dark suit, but wear bands attached to a collarette rather than a wing collar. Junior barristers wear an open-fronted black gown with open sleeves and decorated with buttons and ribbons, a gathered yoke, over a black or dark suit, hence the term stuffgownsman for juniors. In addition barristers ties down the back. Solicitors wear the same wing collar with collarette, as barristers.
Their gowns are of a different style, with a square collar and without gathered sleeves. By virtue of the Consolidated Criminal Practice Direction at I.1.1, "Solicitors and other advocates authorised under the Courts and Legal Services Act 1990... may wear short wigs in circumstances where they would be worn by Queen's Counsel or junior counsel." Barristers or solicitors who have been appointed Queen's Counsel wear a silk gown with a flap collar and long closed sleeves. For this reason, barristers who are appointed Queen's Counsel are said to have "taken silk", QCs themselves are colloquially called "silks"; the QC's black coat, known as a court coat, is cut like 18th-century court dress and the sleeve of the QC's court coat or bar jacket has a turned back cuff with three buttons across. On special ceremonial occasions, QCs wear a long wig, black breeches, silk stockings and buckled shoes, lace cuffs and a lace jabot instead of bands. Judicial robes have always exhibited variety depending on the status of the judge, the type of court and other considerations.
In addition to robes, judges have worn a short bench wig when working in court and a wing collar and bands at the neck. All judges in criminal cases continue to wear these traditional forms of dress, which are described in more detail below. Judges in civil and family cases, have since 2008 worn a new design of working robe with no wig, collar or bands; the status of the wearer is indicated by a pair of different colored tabs below the colla
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order. Traditionally some plain garb recognisable as a religious habit has been worn by those leading the religious eremitic and anchoritic life, although in their case without conformity to a particular uniform style. In the typical Roman Catholic or Anglican orders, the habit consists of a tunic covered by a scapular and cowl, with a hood for monks or friars and a veil for nuns. Modern habits are sometimes eschewed in favor of a simple business suit. Catholic Canon Law requires only that it be in some way identifiable so that the person may serve as a witness of Gospel values; this requires creativity. For instance in Turkey, a Franciscan might wear street clothes. In many orders, the conclusion of postulancy and the beginning of the novitiate is marked by a ceremony, during which the new novice is accepted clothed in the community's habit by the superior. In some cases the novice's habit will be somewhat different from the customary habit: for instance, in certain orders of women that use the veil, it is common for novices to wear a white veil while professed members wear black, or if the order wears white, the novice wears a grey veil.
Among some Franciscan communities of men, novices wear a sort of overshirt over their tunic. In some orders, different types or levels of profession are indicated by differences in habits. Kāṣāya, "chougu" are the robes of Buddhist nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye. In Sanskrit and Pali, these robes are given the more general term cīvara, which references the robes without regard to color. Buddhist kāṣāya are said to have originated in India as set of robes for the devotees of Gautama Buddha. A notable variant has a pattern reminiscent of an Asian rice field. Original kāṣāya were constructed of discarded fabric; these were stitched together to form three rectangular pieces of cloth, which were fitted over the body in a specific manner. The three main pieces of cloth are the antarvāsa, the uttarāsaṅga, the saṃghāti. Together they form tricīvara; the tricīvara is described more in the Theravāda Vinaya. A robe covering the upper body, it is worn over antarvāsa. In representations of the Buddha, the uttarāsaṅga appears as the uppermost garment, since it is covered by the outer robe, or saṃghāti.
The saṃghāti is an outer robe used for various occasions. It comes over the upper robe, the undergarment. In representations of the Buddha, the saṃghāti is the most visible garment, with the undergarment or uttarāsaṅga protruding at the bottom, it is quite similar in shape to the Greek himation, its shape and folds have been treated in Greek style in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhāra. Other items that may have been worn with the triple robe were: a waist cloth, the kushalaka a buckled belt, the samakaksika In India, variations of the kāṣāya robe distinguished different types of monastics; these represented the different schools that they belonged to, their robes ranged from red and ochre, to blue and black. Between 148 and 170 CE, the Parthian monk An Shigao came to China and translated a work which describes the color of monastic robes utilized in five major Indian Buddhist sects, called Dà Bǐqiū Sānqiān Wēiyí. Another text translated at a date, the Śariputraparipṛcchā, contains a similar passage corroborating this information, but the colors for the Sarvāstivāda and Dharmaguptaka sects are reversed.
In traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, which follow the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, red robes are regarded as characteristic of the Mūlasarvāstivādins. According to Dudjom Rinpoche from the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, the robes of ordained Mahāsāṃghika monastics were to be sewn out of more than seven sections, but no more than twenty-three sections; the symbols sewn on the robes were the endless knot and the conch shell, two of the Eight Auspicious Signs in Buddhism. In Chinese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called gāsā. During the early period of Chinese Buddhism, the most common color was red; the color of the robes came to serve as a way to distinguish monastics, just as they did in India. However, the colors of a Chinese Buddhist monastic's robes corresponded to their geographical region rather than to any specific schools. By the maturation of Chinese Buddhism, only the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage was still in use, therefore the color of robes served no useful purpose as a designation for sects, the way that it had in India.
In Japanese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called kesa. In Japan, during the Edo and Meiji periods, kesa were sometimes pieced together from robes used in Noh theatre; the Eastern Orthodox Church does not have distinct religious orders such as those in the Catholic Church. The habit is the same throughout the world; the normal monastic color is symbolic of repentance and simplicity. The habits of monks and nuns are identical; the habit is bestowed as the monk or nun advances in the spiritual life. There are three degrees: the beginner, known as the Rassaphore the intermediate, known as the Stavrophore, the Great Schema worn by Great Schema Monks or Nuns. Only the last, the Schemamonk or S