Battle of Fei River
The Battle of Fei River or “Feishui” was a battle in 383, where Fu Jiān of the Di Former Qin Empire was decisively defeated by the numerically inferior Jin army of Eastern Jin.. The battle is considered to be one of the most significant battles in the history of China; the aftermath of the battle includes the Former Qin empire falling into massive civil war and its eventual destruction, ensuring the survival of Eastern Jin and other Chinese regimes south of the Yangtze River. The state of Former Qin, led by ethnic Di tribesmen, rose from a string of successes in the 350s. Fu Jiān, nephew of the founder Fu Jiàn, was a vigorous leader of tremendous ambition. In 370 he in 373 seized modern Sichuan and Chongqing from Jin. In 379 the strategically important city of Xiangyang, gateway to the Middle Yangtze, fell to Qin. By 381 he was preparing for an invasion of the south. In May 383 a Jin army of 100,000 commanded by Huan Chong attempted to recover Xiangyang but was driven off by a Qin relief column of 50,000 men.
In response, Fu Jiān ordered a general mobilization against Jin: 6 of every 10 able-bodied men were conscripted, 30,000 elite guards were gathered. In August 383 Fu Jiān sent his brother, Fu Rong, the Duke of Yangping, with an army of 300,000 as the advance force; that month Fu Jiān marched with his army of 270,000 cavalry and 600,000 infantry from Chang'an. In September Fu Jiān reached Xiangcheng. Separate columns were to push downstream from Sichuan, but the main offensive would occur against the city of Shouchun on the Huai River. Emperor Xiaowu of Jin hurriedly made preparations for defense, he gave Huan Chong responsibility for the defense of the Middle Yangzi. The pressing defense of the Huai River was given to Xie Shi and Xie Xuan and the elite 80,000-strong Beifu Army. Prime Minister Xie An oversaw overall strategy and, while he lacked military abilities, he calmed the panicking officials and people by himself acting in a calming manner. Fu Jiān's force was composed of many smaller armies levied from the conquered northern territories, along with cavalry drawn from the nomadic peoples of the north.
Most men had little or no loyalty to the Former Qin, many were forced to join or joined only because of military rations and pay. Many battalions had problems following orders. Fu was warned of the poor training of his heterogeneous army, but instead chose to rely on the vast number of men that made up the army, saying, "My army is so huge that if all the men throw their whips into the Yangtze, its flow will be stopped," Xie Xuan's local army were well motivated to protect their homeland and had a good knowledge of the local terrain—an advantage that would allow them to engage advance elements of the enemy and withdraw quickly. In October 383 the Former Qin forces under Fu Rong captured the important Jin city of Shouyang. Fu Jiān, seeing the possibility of achieving a quick victory, left his main force at Xiangcheng and led 8000 light cavalry to rendezvous with Fu Rong. Fu Jiān sent captured Jin official Zhu Xu as a messenger to try to persuade Xie Shi to surrender. Instead, Zhu tipped Xie Shi to the fact that the entire Former Qin force had not yet arrived, that he should try to defeat the advance Former Qin forces to cripple the Former Qin's campaign.
At Zhu's suggestion, Xie Xuan and Liu Laozhi led 5000 elite troops to engage the advance Former Qin force and scored a devastating victory, killing 15,000 men. Afterwards, Jin troops were lined up in a wide formation to give the illusion that the Jin forces could match Former Qin's manpower; because of the early minor defeats and the Jin formation, Fu Jiān overestimated the amount of Jin forces. In November 383 the Former Qin troops set up camp west of the Fei River; the Jin forces could not advance. Xie Xuan sent a messenger to Fu Rong, suggesting that the Former Qin forces retreat west to allow Jin troops to cross the Fei River so that the two armies could engage. Most Former Qin generals opposed that plan, since maneuvering such a large army in that manner was too complicated for the benefits that might be obtained with so many poorly trained troops. Fu Jiān overruled them, planning to attack the Jin army as it was crossing the river to seize a tactical advantage, as the Jin would be split in two.
Fu Rong agreed, ordered a retreat. The Jin's tactic of ambush and bribery now paid off. Many soldiers in the Former Qin army began to wonder. Retreating and demoralized, the Former Qin army went into a panic when Zhu Xu raised a cry of "the Qin army has been defeated" and it was routed. Xie Xuan and generals Xie Yan and Huan Yi launched a major assault; the "Qin is Defeated" rumor spread like wildfire, chaos followed. Fu Rong tried to halt the retreat and reorganize his troops, but his horse fell and he was killed by advancing Jin troops; the Jin generals noticed the chaotic footprints and wheel marks, declared that the Former Qin army was not in an organized retreat but was indeed in total disarray. The Jin soldiers continued their pursuit, the entire Former Qin force collapsed. A large amount of food and supplies were abandoned as Former Qin soldiers tried to escape with their lives. In the ensuing retreat and pursuit, a
Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia to the north and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, Shaanxi to the east; the Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu covers an area of 453,700 square kilometres; the capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China; the Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor. Gansu is a compound of the names of Ganzhou and Suzhou, the seat of Jiuquan Prefecture the two most important Chinese settlements in the area. Gansu is abbreviated as "甘" or "陇", is known as Longxi or Longyou, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu. Gansu’s name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty of two Sui and Tang dynasty prefectures: Gan and Su, its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.
In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC; the Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively. The Yuezhi lived in the western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE; the State of Qin to become the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu the Tianshui area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, from the area. Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County. In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province; the Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan and Yangguan fort towns along it.
Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi and other nomadic tribes dwelt figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics. By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period. After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD. Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and Buddhist grottoes such as those at Mogao Caves and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and revealing murals. An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006.
The province was the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77. Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims; the revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai. There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896; as a result of frequent earthquakes and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932. The Muslim Conflict in Gansu was a conflict against the Guominjun. While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.
Xinjiang came under Kuomintang control. Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight. Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang. Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua. Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway; the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu. Gansu has an area of 454,000 square kilometres, the vast majority of its land is more than 1,000 metres above sea level, it lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, Xinjiang to the west. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province; the province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at 35°50′40.9″N 103°27′7.5″E.
Part of the Gobi Desert is loca
The Later Yan was a Murong–Xianbei state, located in modern-day northeast China, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. All rulers of the Later Yan declared themselves "emperors". Battle of Canhebei Wu Hu List of past Chinese ethnic groups Xianbei
The Later Qin known as Yao Qin, was a state of Qiang ethnicity of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty in China. The Later Qin is distinct from the Qin dynasty, the Former Qin and the Western Qin, its second ruler, Yao Xing, supported the propagation of Buddhism by the Madhyamakin monk Kumārajīva. All rulers of the Later Qin declared themselves emperors, but for a substantial part of Yao Xing's reign, he used the title Tian Wang. Ethnic groups in Chinese history Five Barbarians Chinese Buddhism Emperor Wu of Liu Song Helian Bobo
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia; the Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; these Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization; the Zhou dynasty supplanted the Shang, introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, the country splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture and philosophy first developed during those troubled times. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty. Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history and philosophy, were selected through difficult government examinations.
China's last dynasty was the Qing, replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China. Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War. China was dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China. Traditional culture, influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world, form the basis of the modern culture of China. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago. The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire by Homo erectus, dated 1.27 million years ago, Homo erectus fossils in China include the Yuanmou Man, the Lantian Man and the Peking Man.
Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan. Evidence of Middle Palaeolithic Levallois technology has been found in the lithic assemblage of Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China, dated to 170,000–80,000 years ago; the Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. The earliest evidence of cultivated rice, found by the Yangtze River, is carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago. Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC. Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, stars and scenes of hunting or grazing"; these pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC, Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC.
Some scholars have suggested. Excavation of a Peiligang culture site in Xinzheng county, found a community that flourished in 5,500 to 4,900 BC, with evidence of agriculture, constructed buildings and burial of the dead. With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators. In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture, the first villages were founded. Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, centered on the Yellow River from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site, The Bronze Age is represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a unknown Bronze Age culture; the site was first discovered in 1929 and re-dis
The Former Yan was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin Dynasty -created title "Prince of Yan," but subsequently, in 352, after seizing most of the former Later Zhao territory, Murong Jun would declare himself emperor, after that point, the rulers of the Former Yan declared themselves "emperors". During the winter of 342, the Xianbei of Former Yan, ruled by the Murong clan and destroyed Goguryeo's capital, capturing 50,000 Goguryeo men and women to use as slave labor in addition to taking the queen mother and queen prisoner, forced King Gogukwon to flee for a while; the Xianbei devastated Buyeo in 346, accelerating Buyeo migration to the Korean peninsula. Their capital was Yan in 350 Yecheng in 357, Luoyang in 364. Xianbei List of past Chinese ethnic groups Wu Hu