Former Residence of Mao Zedong or Mao Zedong's Former Residence was built in the late Qing dynasty. It is located in Shaoshan Village of Shaoshan Township in Shaoshan, Hunan, China; the building was the birthplace and childhood home of Mao Zedong, the first leader of the People's Republic of China. It has a building area of about 472.92-square-metre, embodies buildings such as the old houses, the Mao Zedong Memorial Hall, the Bronze Statue of Mao Zedong, the Cultural relics Exhibition Hall, the Dishui Hole. In 1893, Mao Zedong was born here, he lived here about 17 years before leaving for his studies, he returned home in 1912 to mobilize his relatives to join the revolution, he again returned home in 1925 and 1927. Having led the Peasant Movement in Guangzhou, he sought to start a similar movement in Hunan; the house was destroyed by the government in 1929, but in 1950, the newly triumphant Communist government rebuilt the house, it was visited by Mao's oldest son Mao Anying in May 1950. Mao again returned in 1959, eight years after the new house had been opened as a museum, five years after it had been renamed Mao Zedong's Former Residence.
In 1961, it was listed as a "Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level" by the State Council of China. In 1966, in the Cultural Revolution, the number of tourists was inflated; the site was open at all times of the night. On June 27, 1983, Central Advisory Commission chairman Deng Xiaoping wrote "Mao Zedong's Former Residence" on the horizontal tablet. On December 20, 1993, the Communist Party general secretary Jiang Zemin attended the unveiling of the statue of Mao Zedong outside the house. In July 1997, it was listed as a National Patriotic Education Base by the Propaganda Department of the Communist Party of China. In December 2004, it was closed for rebuilding and repairs
James Wallace Quinton was a British colonial administrator who served as Chief Commissioner of Assam from 1889 until his death. He was born the son of a wine merchant in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh and was educated at Trinity College and graduated BA in 1853, he subsequently served as president of the University Philosophical Society. Having been appointed to the Bengal civil service in 1856, he served in the North-West Provinces and Oudh until 1875, when he officiated for two years as judicial commissioner in Burma. Returning to the North-West Provinces in 1877, he was appointed magistrate and collector of the Allahabad district in April 1877, officiating civil and sessions judge in April 1878, he was on special duty in July 1878 at Naini Tál as a member of the North-West Provinces famine commission. He afterwards served as commissioner in the Jhánsi and Lucknow divisions, in February 1883 was appointed an additional member of the governor-general's council, an office which he held in 1884, again in 1886 and 1889.
In the earlier of those years he was an ardent supporter of Lord Ripon's policy, which the majority of Anglo-Indians disapproved. In 1884 he was appointed commissioner of the Agra division, became a member of the board of revenue in 1885, he served as a member of the public service commission in 1886. He was gazetted CSI in 1887, was appointed chief commissioner of Assam on 22 October 1889. In March 1891, owing to a rebellion having broken out in the small native state of Manipur, led by two of the younger brothers of the rájá, who abdicated and took refuge at Calcutta, Quinton was sent to Manipur with an escort of five hundred Ghurkhas, with instructions to recognise as the ruler of the state the second brother, acting as regent, to arrest one of the younger brothers, who, as sínapati, or commander of the forces, had been the prime mover in the deposition of the late rájá. Quinton reached Manipur on 22 March, at once summoned a durbar, at which he intended to arrest the sínapati; the latter, did not attend, upon an attempt being made on the following day to arrest him in the fort, resistance was met by the Manipur troops, was followed by an attack upon the British residency and camp, attended by considerable slaughter.
Quinton thereupon offered to treat with the rebels, was induced to repair to the fort, accompanied by Frank St. Clair Grimwood, the political agent, by Colonel Skene, the officer commanding the Ghurkhas, by two other officers, all without arms. On their arrival they were taken prisoners and murdered. Quinton's hand was cut off, his body hacked to pieces, his dismembered limbs thrown outside the city walls to be devoured by pariah dogs. Manipur was subsequently retaken by a British force. A young boy belonging to the family was recognised as rájá, during his minority the government of the state was entrusted to a British officer as political resident. Pensions of 300l. and 100l. A year were granted to Quinton's widow and mother. "Quinton, James Wallace". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Manuel José Piñera Carvallo was a Chilean engineer and Christian Democratic politician. He was born in Paris in 1917 and died in Santiago in 1991. Piñera Carvallo was the son of Elena Carvallo Castillo, his great-grandfather, José Piñera Lombera, a native of Lima, but from Asturias, arrived in La Serena in 1827, being the first Piñera to arrive in Chile. José Piñera Carvallo lived in Paris, where he received a secular education in conjunction with his siblings Bernardino and Marie Louise. At 17, he returned to Chile, studying at the Padres Franceses school in the capital and in the School of Engineering at the Catholic University of Chile. While still young he married Magdalena Echenique Rozas, daughter of José Miguel Echenique Correa and Josefa Rozas Ariztía. Carvallo's mother was the granddaughter of the aristocratic Luisa Pinto Garmendia, daughter of President Francisco Antonio Pinto, sister of President Aníbal Pinto and sister in law of President Manuel Bulnes. With Magdalena Carvallo had six children: Guadalupe, José, Paul and Magdalena.
He separated from his wife in 1975. He died of pulmonary emphysema in 1991. In university Piñera Carvallo joined the National Falange, the germ of the Christian Democratic Party, of which he was a founding member, he was founder and first president of the Federation of Catholic University Students. In 1954 he joined the state Production Development Corporation, where he worked his entire life. During the government of President Eduardo Frei Montalva, he was appointed ambassador, first to Belgium and to the UN in the United States; as representative in Brussels he participated in the management of Chile's external debt, working with another diplomat, Gabriel Valdes. In 1967, Piñera Carvallo received the Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
Close to a World Below is the fourth album by Immolation. It was released on Metal Blade Records in 2000. Since its release, Close to a World Below has received universal acclaim. Todd Nief of AllMusic gave the Close to a World Below four and a half stars, calling the album a late-career classic, he stated that with Close to a World Below, Immolation released one of the most profound and creative death metal albums of the 2000s which gave a new voice to a genre deluged with cookie-cutter clones. Metal Storm gave Close to a World Below a near-perfect 9.7 out of 10 praising Ross Dolan's vocals along with the overall brutality of the album. ImmolationRoss Dolan – bass guitar, vocals Robert Vigna – guitar Thomas Wilkinson – guitar Alex Hernandez – drumsProductionPaul Orofino – production, mastering Immolation – productionVisual artJeff Wolfe – photography Andreas & Alex Marschall – cover art Close to a World Below at AllMusic Close to a World Below at Metal Blade Records
Giora Bernstein is a conductor, classical violinist, Professor Emeritus of Music at the University of Colorado. He was its Artistic Director for 24 years. Giora Bernstein was born in Vienna in 1933 and emigrated to Palestine in 1938, arriving there in 1939, he began his music education in Israel, where he studied violin from 1953 to 1955 at the Tel Aviv Music Academy as well as music history with Leo Kestenberg. In 1955, he went to the United States, where he studied violin with Edouard Dethier at the Juilliard School, received a Master of Fine Arts in composition from Brandeis University, he went on to study for his Doctorate in Music at Boston University, graduating in 1967. His PhD thesis was on the influence of oriental music idioms on Israeli contemporary music. Bernstein was a violinist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1963 until 1967 and moved to California to become a professor at Pomona College. During his time at Pomona College, he founded the Claremont Music Festival and served as its Music Director from 1968 to 1975.
In 1975 Bernstein was appointed Professor of Music and head of the conducting program at the University of Colorado. The following year, he founded the Colorado Music Festival and became its first Artistic Director, a post he held until 2000. Under his directorship the festival was the venue for several world and North American premieres, won five ASCAP Adventurous Programming Awards. A champion of contemporary music, Bernstein has conducted several world premieres. New works were a feature of his programming at both the Claremont Music Festival which commissioned Paul Chihara's Grass, the Colorado Music Festival, where both Tōru Takemitsu's Dreamtime and Krzysztof Penderecki's Concerto for viola and orchestra received their North American premieres. Since his retirement, Giora Bernstein has been based in Vienna, where he plays violin in chamber concerts, although he has periodically returned to the Colorado Music Festival as a guest conductor. Giora Bernstein has played in or conducted the world premieres of the following works: Peter Pindar Stearns' String Quartet No. 3 in A minor, New York City, 21 February 1958.
John Bavicchi's Sonata for violin and piano No. 2 Boston, Massachusetts, 26 July 1959 Malloy M. Miller's Poem Brookline, Massachusetts, 16 November 1960 William Thomas McKinley's Concerto for clarinet and orchestra Boulder, Colorado, 5 July 1980 Boston Symphony Orchestra, Concert Bulletins, Issues 1-12, 1963 Blotner, Linda Solow, The Boston Composers Project: A bibliography of contemporary music, MIT Press, 1983. ISBN 0-262-02198-6 Bernstein, Giora G; the influence of oriental music idioms on the contemporary music of Israel, Boston University, 1966. Chihara, Liner notes: Chihara Guitar Concerto, Albany Records, 2005 International Leo Kestenberg Society, Biography: Giora Bernstein Siddons, Toru Takemitsu: a bio-bibliography, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. ISBN 0-313-27237-9 Sigma Alpha Iota, Pan Pipes, Volume 50, Issue 2, 1958 Shulgold, Marc, 20 Years of High Notes, Giora Bernstein Ignores Naysayers to Build the Award-winning Colorado Music Festival, Rocky Mountain News, 12 June 1996 Shulgold, Marc, "Building a better fest", Rocky Mountain News, 22 June 2006 University of Colorado at Boulder, Faculty - College of Music
The 5th Bavarian Reserve Division was a unit of the Royal Bavarian Army, part of the German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914 as part of I Royal Bavarian Reserve Corps; the division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I. The division was raised and recruited in Bavaria in Upper Bavaria and Upper and Middle Franconia; as a reserve division, it included. The 5th Bavarian Reserve Division fought in the opening phases of the war in the Battle of the Frontiers, it participated in the Race to the Sea, including the Battle of Arras in October 1914. It remained in the trenchlines in Flanders until 1916, when it entered the Battle of the Somme in August 1916, it remained in the Somme and Aisne area until January 1917, when it went into 1st Army reserve to rest and refit. After returning to the line, it saw action in the Second Battle of the Aisne called the Third Battle of Champagne. In 1917, it participated in the Battle of Passchendaele.
In 1918, the division fought in the German Spring Offensive. The division ended the war fighting against the American Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Allied intelligence rated the division as a good second class division; the order of battle of the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division on mobilization was as follows: 9. Bayerische Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 6 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 7 11. Bayerische Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 10 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 13 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 1 Reserve-Kavallerie-Regiment Nr. 5 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 5 4. Kompanie/Kgl. Bayerisches 2. Pionier-Bataillon 1. Reserve-Kompanie/Kgl. Bayerisches 2. Pionier-Bataillon Divisions underwent many changes during the war, with regiments moving from division to division, some being destroyed and rebuilt; the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division was triangularized in April 1915, losing the 9th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Brigade headquarters and the 6th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment.
Over the course of the war, other units were exchanged with other divisions, cavalry was reduced, engineers increased, an artillery command and a divisional signals command were created. The 5th Bavarian Reserve Division's order of battle on April 4, 1918, was as follows: 11. Bayerische Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 7 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 10 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 12 2. Eskadron/Kgl. Bayerisches 3. Chevaulegers-Regiment Herzog Karl Theodor Kgl. Bayerischer Artillerie-Kommandeur 17 Kgl. Bayerisches Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 5 II. Bataillon/Kgl. Sächs. Reserve-Fußartillerie-Regiment Nr. 19 Kgl. Bayerisches Fußartillerie-Bataillon Nr. 17 Stab Kgl. Bayerisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 18 Kgl. Bayerische Reserver-Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 2 Kgl. Bayerische Reserve-Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 19 Kgl. Bayerische Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 205 Kgl. Bayerischer Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 405 5. Bayerische-Reserve-Division - Der erste Weltkrieg Hermann Cron et al.
Ruhmeshalle unserer alten Armee Hermann Cron, Geschichte des deutschen Heeres im Weltkriege 1914-1918 Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815-1939. Bd. 1 Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919