A piste is a marked ski run or path down a mountain for snow skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports. This European term is synonymous with ` trail', ` slope', or ` groomed run' in North America; the word is pronounced using a long "e" sound. North Americans employ its common European antonym,'off piste', to describe backcountry skiing when referring to skiing outside approved areas of a ski resort. Pistes are maintained using tracked vehicles known as snowcats to compact or "groom" the snow to out trail conditions, remove moguls, redistribute snow to extend the ski season. Natural snow is augmented with snow making machines early in the season or when the snowpack is low. Grading is done by the resort, grades are relative to other trails within that resort; as such, they are not classified to an independent standard. In North America, a color–shape rating system is used to indicate the comparative difficulty of trails. Australia and New Zealand share the same rating system. Ski trail difficulty is measured by percent slope, not degree angle.
A 100% slope is a 45 degree angle. In general, beginner slopes are between 6% and 25%. Intermediate slopes are between 25% and 40%. Difficult slopes are 40% and up. However, this is just a general "rule of thumb." Although slope gradient is the primary consideration in assigning a trail difficulty rating, other factors come into play. A trail will be rated by its most difficult part if the rest of the trail is easy. Ski resorts assign ratings to their own trails, rating a trail compared only with other trails at that resort. Considered: width of the trail, sharpest turns, terrain roughness, whether the resort grooms the trail. In Europe, pistes are classified by a color-coded system; the actual color system differs in parts for each country - in all countries blue and black are used. Shapes are not always used - sometimes all ratings are circles as being defined in the basic rules of the German Skiing Association DSV; the three basic color codes of the DSV have been integrated into the national standards DIN 32912 in Germany and ÖNORM S 4610 f in Austria.
Slopes marked green, blue or red are groomed in all countries. All other classifications are not groomed. Sometimes slopes are marked dotted or as dashed lines, this signifies that the slope is not groomed; the ratings are: Beginner slopes. These are not marked trails, but tend to be large, open sloping areas at the base of the ski area or traverse paths between the main trails. Can sometimes be marked as a Green circle. Blue An easy trail, similar to the North American Green Circle, are always groomed, or on so shallow a slope as not to need it. The slope gradient shall not exceed 25% except for short wide sections with a higher gradient. Sometimes described as a blue square. Red An intermediate slope, similar to the North American Blue Square. Steeper, or narrower than a blue slope, these are groomed, unless the narrowness of the trail prohibits it; the slope gradient shall not exceed 40% except for short wide sections with a higher gradient. Sometimes marked as a red rectangle. Black An expert slope, equivalent to the North American Black Diamond or Double Black Diamond.
Steep, may not be groomed, or may be groomed for mogul skiing. In Austria and Switzerland black pistes are nearly always groomed, as non-groomed pistes are marked as skiroutes or itineraires. Black can be a wide classification, ranging from a slope marginally more difficult than a Red to steep avalanche chutes like the infamous Couloirs of Courchevel. France tends to have a higher limit between black. Sometimes marked as a black diamond. Double or triple black diamond Very or difficult piste. Orange Extremely difficult. Yellow, orange square, red diamond In recent years, many resorts reclassified some black slopes to yellow slopes; this signifies a skiroute or itineraire, an ungroomed and unpatrolled slope, off-piste skiing in a marked area. Famous examples are the Tortin slopes in Verbier. In Austria, skiroutes are marked with orange squares instead, it is common to mark those pistes with a red diamond or a red diamond with black edges. Alpine slope classification in Europe is less rigidly tied to slope angle than in North America.
A lower angle slope may be classified as more difficult than a steeper slope if, for instance, it is narrower and/or requires better skiing ability to carry speed through flatter sections while controlling speed through sharp hairpin turns, off-camber slope angles or exposed rock. Japan uses a color-coded system, but shapes do not accompany them; some resorts those catering to foreigners, use the North American or European color-coding system, adding to the confusion. When in doubt, check the map legend; the usual ratings are: Green Beginner slopes. These are near the base of the mountain, although some follow switchback routes down from the top. Red Intermediate slopes. At most ski areas in Japan, these constitute the majori
Masella, belonging to Alp's municipality, is a ski resort in La Cerdanya in Girona, Catalunya in the Spanish Pyrenees. It is situated on Tosa d'Alp mountain; this ski resort is part of the Alp 2500 resort. The resort's website
Alto Campoo is a ski resort in the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain. The resort is located in the Cantabrian comarca of Campoo; the source of the river Ebro is near the resort in the town of Fontibre. With 28 kilometres of marked pistes, it is one of the biggest resorts of the Cantabrian Mountains; the highest point is Cuchillón peak, at 2,250 metres above sea level, with a vertical drop of 600 metres. The base of the resort is a purpose-built town called Brañavieja which includes several apartments and is situated at 1,650 metres above sea level. From there a four-seat chair lift provides the main access for the resort; the resort itself occupies a high mountain valley. The valley is accessible by car, with a parking and service area at its base from where the lifts depart. Many of the resort's lifts are modern and of high capacity; the resort has: 5 chair lifts. 8 ski tows. The resort offers 23 pistes of different difficulties: 4 beginners. 9 easy. 10 intermediate. 2 restaurants. 1 skiing school.
1 snow gardens for children. 1 kindergarten 1 ski hiring stores. The Alto Campoo climb has been used in three stages of the Vuelta a España and the Colombian rider Antonio Agudelo was the first man to climb the mountain in the Vuelta. Http://www.altocampoo.com - Official resort site. Natura 2000
Cerler called Aramón Cerler, is a ski resort situated above the village of Cerler in the high Benasque Valley, near the town of Benasque in the central Pyrenees. Near Cerler are the highest peaks of the Pyrenees, Monte Perdido, Posets. Cerler is one of the highest resorts of the Pyrenees; the highest point is'Gallinero' peak, at 2650 m AMSL, giving a vertical drop of 1150 m. Cerler village, situated at 1500 m AMSL, forms the base of the resort and comprises a traditional nucleus and a purpose-built extension that includes several hotels and apartment complexes. From there a 4-seat chair lift provides the main access for the resort; the resort itself occupies two different high mountain valleys, defining two sectors: Cerler and Ampriu. Each sector is accessible by road and has a parking area, both sectors are linked by chair lifts. All of the resort's lifts are modern and of high capacity, the resort has: 9 chair lifts. 5 ski tows. 5 magic carpet lifts. total skiers: 24,800/hour The resort offers 65 pistes of different difficulties: 7 beginners.
16 easy. 25 intermediate. 14 expert. 4 restaurants. 3 skiing school. 1 snow gardens for children. 1 kindergarten 2 ski hiring stores. Http://www.aramon.com - Official resort site. Http://www.cerler.es - Cerler Benasque Guide
Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," known as a "snow cannon." Snowmaking is used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. This allows ski resorts to improve the reliability of their snow cover and to extend their ski seasons from late autumn to early spring. Indoor ski slopes use snowmaking, they can do so year-round as they have a climate-controlled environment. The use of snowmaking machines is becoming common as changing weather patterns and the rising popularity of indoor ski resorts create a demand for snow beyond that, provided by nature. Snowmaking machines have addressed the shortage in the supply of snow, there are significant environmental and cultural costs associated with the artificial production of snow. According to the European Environment Agency, the length of snow seasons in the northern hemisphere has decreased by five days each decade since the 1970s, thus increasing the demand for the production of artificial snow.
Some ski resorts use artificial snow to extend their ski seasons and augment natural snowfall, however there are some resorts that rely entirely upon artificial snow production. Furthermore, artificial snow was used extensively at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang to supplement natural snowfall, provide the best possible conditions for competition; the production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. Wet bulb temperature is used as a metric since it takes air temperature and relative humidity into account. Snowmaking is a expensive process in its energy use, thereby limiting its use. Art Hunt, Dave Richey, Wayne Pierce invented the snow cannon in 1950, but secured a patent sometime later. In 1952, Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel became the first in the world to use artificial snow. Snowmaking began to be used extensively in the early 1970s. Many ski resorts depend upon snowmaking. Snowmaking has achieved greater efficiency with increasing complexity.
Traditionally, snowmaking quality depended upon the skill of the equipment operator. Computer control supplements that skill with greater precision, such that a snow gun operates only when snowmaking is optimal. All-weather snowmakers have been developed by IDE; the key considerations in snow production are increasing water and energy efficiency and increasing the environmental window in which snow can be made. Snowmaking plants require water pumps and sometimes air compressors when using lances, that are both large and expensive; the energy required to make artificial snow is about 0.6 - 0.7 kW h/m³ for lances and 1 - 2 kW h/m³ for fan guns. The density of artificial snow is between 400 and 500 kg/m³ and the water consumption for producing snow is equal to that number. Snowmaking begins with a water supply such as reservoir. Water is pushed up a pipeline on the mountain using large electric pumps in a pump house; this water is distributed through an intricate series of valves and pipes to any trails that require snowmaking.
Many resorts add a nucleating agent to ensure that as much water as possible freezes and turns into snow. These products are organic or inorganic materials that facilitate the water molecules to form the proper shape to freeze into ice crystals; the products are biodegradable. The next step in the snowmaking process is to add air using an air plant; this plant is a building which contains electric or diesel industrial air compressors the size of a van or truck. However, in some instances air compression is provided using diesel-powered, portable trailer-mounted compressors which can be added to the system. Many fan-type snow guns have on-board electric air compressors, which allows for cheaper, more compact operation. A ski area may have the required high-output water pumps, but not an air pump. Onboard compressors are easier than having a dedicated pumping house; the air is cooled and excess moisture is removed before it is sent out of the plant. Some systems cool the water before it enters the system.
This improves the snowmaking process as the less heat in the air and water, the less heat must be dissipated to the atmosphere to freeze the water. From this plant the air travels up a separate pipeline following the same path as the water pipeline; the water is sometimes mixed with ina proteins from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. These proteins serve as effective nuclei to initiate the formation of ice crystals at high temperatures, so that the droplets will turn into ice before falling to the ground; the bacterium itself uses these ina proteins. The pipes following the trails are equipped with shelters containing hydrants, electrical power and, communication lines mounted. Whereas shelters for fan guns require only water and maybe communication, lance-shelters need air hydrants as well. Hybrid shelters allow maximum flexibility to connect each snow machine type as they have all supplies available; the typical distance for lance shelters is 100–150 feet, for fan guns 250–300 feet. From these hydrants 1 1⁄2"–2" pressure resistant hoses are connected similar to fire hoses with camlocks to the snow machine.
The infrastructure to support snowmaking may have a negative environmental impact, altering water tables near reservoirs and mineral and nutrient content of the soil under the snow itself. There are many forms of snowmaking guns. For most guns the type or "quality" of snow can be changed by regulating the amount of water in the mixture. For
Zaragoza is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin. On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza was 701,090, within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres, ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union; the population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population; the city lies at an elevation of 199 metres above sea level. Zaragoza hosted Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on water and sustainable development, it was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2012. The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain. The city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta; the Iberian town that preceded the Roman city was called Salduie. The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated. On, Augustus founded a city called Caesaraugusta at the same location to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars; the foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC and 11 BC. The city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the fifth century AD. From 1018 to 1118, Zaragoza was one of the taifa kingdoms, independent Muslim states which emerged in the eleventh century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba. During the first three decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the Banu Tujibi. In 1038 they were replaced by the Banu Hud, who had to deal with a complicated alliance with El Cid of Valencia and his Castilian masters against the Almoravids, who managed to bring the Taifas Emirates under their control.
After the death of El Cid his kingdom was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the Ebro into Barbastro, which brought Aragon into direct contact with them. The Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the Almoravids and ruled until they were defeated by them in May 1110. On 18 December 1118, the Aragonese led by Alfonso I conquered the city from the Almoravids, made it the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon. After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza was swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León and Castile; the city control was held by García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was given to Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer Count of Barcelona; the marriage union was the origin of the Crown of Aragón, union with Castile would not happen for another 333 years, when King Ferdinand II of Aragon and his wife, Queen Isabella I of Castile, each took their respective thrones.
13th century Zaragoza was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms related with the Spanish Inquisition: those of Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, Pedro de Arbués, head official of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Saint Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of "jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish population of Zaragoza. Zaragoza suffered two famous sieges during the Peninsular War against the Napoleonic army: a first from June to August 1808. Despite a decline in the outlying rural economy, Zaragoza has continued to grow; the General Military Academy, a higher training center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940, by Minister of the Army José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the second half of the 20th century, Zaragoza's population boomed as a number of factories opened in the region. In 1979, the Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80; the armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization ETA has been blamed, but the fire is still regarded as accidental.
ETA carried out the 1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing in the city which killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to 250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city. Since 1982, the city has been home to a large factory, built by General Motors for the production of Opel cars, some of which are exported to the United Kingdom and sold under the Vauxhall brand. Population, in thousands, can be seen here: Population data: National Statistics Institute of Spain In 2017 there were 64,003 foreign citizens in Zaragoza, which represent 9.6% of the total population. From 2010 to 2017 immigration dropped from a 27 % drop. Romanians represent 29.8% of foreigners living in Zaragoza, or 2,9% of the total city population, followed by Moroccans and Chinese. Zaragoza has a cool semi-arid climate, as it lies in a wide basin surrounded by mountains which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean; the average annual precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres with abundant sunny days, the most rainy seasons are spring and autumn, with a relative
International Ski Federation
The Fédération Internationale de Ski is the world's highest governing body for international winter sports. Founded in Chamonix on 2 February 1924, it is responsible for the Olympic disciplines of Alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined, freestyle skiing and snowboarding; the FIS is responsible for setting the international competition rules. The organization now has a membership of 118 national ski associations and is based in Oberhofen am Thunersee, Switzerland. More than 45 World Cup wins in all disciplines run by International Ski Federation for men and ladies: The federation organises the following ski sport disciplines, for which it oversees World Cup competitions and World Championships: Note: The discipline of Biathlon, which combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting, has its own organisation, the International Biathlon Union. List of all hosts: Alpine Skiing Europa Cup FIS Alpine Ski World Cup FIS official website FIS Google Plus FIS Official YouTube