click links in text for more info


Fornax is a constellation in the southern sky ringed by the celestial river Eridanus. Its name is Latin for furnace, it was named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756. Fornax is one of the 88 modern constellations; the three brightest stars—Alpha, Beta and Nu Fornacis—form a flattened triangle facing south. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, Alpha Fornacis is the brightest star in Fornax. Six star systems have been found to have exoplanets; the Fornax Dwarf galaxy is a small faint satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. NGC 1316 is a close radio galaxy; the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille first described the constellation in French as le Fourneau Chymique with an alembic and receiver in his early catalogue, before abbreviating it to le Fourneau on his planisphere in 1752, after he had observed and catalogued 10,000 southern stars during a two-year stay at the Cape of Good Hope. He devised fourteen new constellations in uncharted regions of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere not visible from Europe.

All but one honoured instruments that symbolised the Age of Enlightenment. Lacaille Latinised the name to Fornax Chimiae on his 1763 chart; the constellation Eridanus borders Fornax to the east and south, while Cetus and Phoenix gird it to the north and south respectively. Covering 397.5 square degrees and 0.964% of the night sky, it ranks 41st of the 88 constellations in size, The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is "For". The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 8 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 01h 45m 24.18s and 03h 50m 21.34s, while the declination coordinates are between −23.76° and −39.58°. The whole constellation is visible to observers south of latitude 50°N. Lacaille gave Bayer designations to 27 stars now named Alpha to Omega Fornacis, labelling two stars 3.5 degrees apart as Gamma, three stars Eta, two stars Iota, two Lambda and three Chi.

Phi Fornacis was added by Gould, Theta and Omicron were dropped by Gould and Baily respectively. Upsilon, was found to be two stars and designated as such. Overall, there are 59 stars within the constellation's borders brighter than or equal to apparent magnitude 6.5. However, there are no stars brighter than the fourth magnitude; the three brightest stars form a flattish triangle, with Alpha and Nu Fornacis marking its eastern and western points and Beta Fornacis marking the shallow southern apex. Designated 12 Eridani by John Flamsteed, Alpha Fornacis was named by Lacaille as the brightest star in the new constellation, it is a binary star. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, the primary is a yellow-white subgiant 1.21 times as massive as the Sun that has begun to cool and expand after exhausting its core hydrogen, having swollen to 1.9 times the Sun's radius. Of magnitude 6.5, the secondary star is 0.78 times as massive as the Sun. It has been identified as a blue straggler, has either accumulated material from, or merged with, a third star in the past.

It is a strong source of X-rays. The pair is 46.4 ± 0.3 light-years distant from Earth. Beta Fornacis is a yellow-hued giant star of spectral type G8IIIb of magnitude 4.5 that has cooled and swelled to 11 times the Sun's diameter, 178 ± 2 light-years from Earth. It is a red clump giant, which means it has undergone helium flash and is generating energy through the fusion of helium at its core. Nu Fornacis is 370 ± 10 light-years distant from Earth, it is a blue giant star of spectral type B9.5IIIspSi, 3.65 ± 0.18 times as massive and around 245 times as luminous as the Sun, with 3.2 ± 0.4 times its diameter. It varies in luminosity over a period of 1.89 days—the same as its rotational period. This is because of differences in abundances of metals in its atmosphere. Shining with an apparent magnitude of 5.89, Epsilon Fornacis is a binary star system located 104.4 ± 0.3 light-years distant from Earth. Its component stars orbit each other every 37 years; the primary star is around 12 billion years old and has cooled and expanded to 2.53 times the diameter of the Sun, while having only 91% of its mass.

Omega Fornacis is a binary star system composed of a blue main-sequence star of spectral type B9.5V and magnitude 4.96, a white main sequence star of spectral type A7V and magnitude 7.88. The system is 470 ± 10 light-years distant from Earth. Kappa Fornacis is a triple star system composed of a pair of red dwarfs. R Fornacis is a long-period carbon star. LP 944-20 is a brown dwarf of spectral type M9. 21 light-years distant from Earth, it is a faint object with an apparent magnitude of 18.69. Observations published in 2007 showed that the atmosphere of LP 944-20 contains much lithium and that it has dusty clouds. Smaller and less luminous still is 2MASS 0243-2453, a T-type brown dwarf of spectral type T6. With a surface temperature of 1040–1100 K, it has 2.4–4.1% the mass of the Sun, a diameter 9.2 to 10.6% of that of the Sun, an age of 0.4–1.7 billion years. Six star systems in Fornax have been found to have planets: Lambda2 Fornacis is a star about 1.2 times as massive as the Sun with a planet about as massive as Neptune, discovered by doppler spectroscopy in 2009.

The planet has an orbit of around 17.24 days. HD 20868 is an orange dwarf with a mass around 78% that of the Sun, 151 ± 10 light-years away from Earth, it was found to have an orbiting planet double the mass of J

Eudemus (general)

Eudemus was one of Alexander the Great's generals. In 326 BC he was appointed by the king as the commander of Alexander's troops in India. After Alexander's death, Eudemus controlled Alexander's northern Indian territories until he became involved in the Selucid-Mauryan war during which he was killed by the son of King Porus, Malayketu. In 326 BC Eudemus was appointed by Alexander the Great to the command of the troops left in India, after the murder of the Alexander-appointed satrap Philip by his own mercenary troops in 326 BC. Alexander dispatched letters to India to Eudamus and to Taxilas telling them to take charge of the district under Philip, until Alexander could send a satrap to govern the district. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Eudemus made himself master of the territories of the Indian king Porus and, according to Diodorus Siculus, treacherously put the great monarch to death by cheating and back stabbing; as a result, Eudemus became powerful and in 317 BC he was able to support Eumenes of Cardia in his war against Antigonus by providing a force of 500 horsemen, 300 footmen, 120 elephants.

Eudemus and his troops saw active service in the first Battle of Gabiene, although his troops suffered from an attack by Antigonus: "On his left wing Eumenes stationed Eudamus, who had brought the elephants from India" Diodorus Siculus, XIX-27 "Antigonus, now that a break was thus caused in the line of the enemy, charged through with a detachment of cavalry, striking on the flank the troops, stationed with Eudemus on the left wing. Because the attack was unexpected, he put to flight those who faced him, destroying many of them". Diodorus Siculus XIX-30Ceteus, the general of Eudemus' Indian troops, died in the action, it seems that Eudemus was jealous of Eumenes and joined in the conspiracy of Antigenes and Teutamus against him. As a result, Eumenes was betrayed to Antigonus by these officers under his command. Eumenes lost control of his army's baggage camp which included all the loot of the most decorated Macedonian veterans; this treasure had been accumulated over 30 years of successful warfare.

Antigonus responded to a request for the return of the baggage train sent by Teutamus, one of their commanders, by demanding they give him Eumenes. The Silver Shields agreed to this. Following the surrender of Eumenes, Eudemus was put to death by order of Antigonus, to whom Eudemus had always shown a marked hostility: "Now that Antigonus had unexpectedly mastered Eumenes and all the army, opposing him, he seized Antigenes, the commander of the Silver Shields, put him into a pit, burned him alive, he slew Eudamus, who had brought the elephants from India." Diodorus Siculus, XIX-44 Smith, William. "Eudemus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology

List of Paramount Pictures executives

The following is a list of Paramount Pictures executives. W. W. Hodkinson Hiram Abrams Jesse L. Lasky Samuel Goldwyn Emanuel Cohen Ernst Lubitsch B. P. Schulberg George Weltner William LeBaron Walter Wanger Y. Frank Freeman Jacob Karp Charles Bluhdorn Robert Evans David Picker Michael D. Eisner Martin S. Davis Ned Tanen Barry London John Goldwyn Sumner Redstone 1916–1936: Adolph Zukor 1936–1964: Barney Balaban 1964-1967: George Weltner 1967–1969: Charles Bluhdorn 1971–1975: Frank Yablans 1976–1984: Michael Eisner 1988–1990: Sid Ganis 2005-2007: Gail Berman 1965-1967: Martin S. Davis 1970–1977: Stanley R. Jaffe 1992-after 2001: William Bernstein 2000–present: Mark Badagaliacca 1993–2000: Mark Badagaliacca 1974–1984: Barry Diller 1984–1991: Frank Mancuso, Sr. 1992–2004: Sherry Lansing 2005–2017: Brad Grey 2017–present: Jim Gianopulos 1970–1977: Stanley R. Jaffe 2006–2016: Frederick Huntsberry 2016–present: Andrew Gumpert 1997–present: Mark Badagaliacca 2011–2014: Josh Greenstein 1936-1964: Adolph Zukor 1964-1966: Barney Balaban 1966-1974: Charles Bluhdorn 1974–1984: Barry Diller 1984–1991: Frank Mancuso, Sr. 1991–1992: Brandon Tartikoff 1992–2005: Jonathan Dolgen 2005–2017: Brad Grey 2017–present: Jim Gianopulos 1964-1976: Adolph Zukor 2008–2016: Rob Moore 1984-1988: Ned Tanen 1988-1990 Sid Ganis and Barry London 1990–1993: David Kirkpatrick and Barry London2008-2009: John Lesher 2009–2015: Adam Goodman 2015–2017: Marc Evans 2018–present: Wyck Godfrey 1960–1964: Martin Rackin 1964–1966: Howard W. Koch 1981—1982: Don Simpson 1982—1984: Jeffrey Katzenberg 1985—1987: Dawn Steel 1987—1991: Gary Lucchesi 1991—1997: John Goldwyn 1997—2005: Michelle Manning 2005—2007: Brad Weston & Allison Shearmur 2007—2008: Brad Weston 2008—2009: Adam Goodman 2010—2015: Marc Evans 2017—present: Elizabeth Raposo 1980–1983: Dawn Steel 2003–2006: Marc Evans 2017–present: Jon Gonda 1983—1985: Dawn Steel 1991—1994: Michelle Manning 2006—2008: Marc Evans 1994—1997: Michelle Manning 2008—2010: Marc Evans 2018-2019: David Sameth 2014–2017: Megan Colligan 2019-present: Marc Weinstock 2005–2008: Josh Greenstein 2006–present: Hal Richardson 2011–present: Dennis Maguire


Thoise or Thoise Airbase is a military airfield and small village in Nubra Valley, India, occupying the only large piece of flat land in the area. The airstrip is a critical facility enabling a quick inflow of men and material from the Indian interior to Siachen, a glacier and battleground near the Actual Ground Position Line between India and Pakistan. THOISE is not a real name but an acronym: Transit Halt Of Indian Soldiers Enroute. Thoise is about 20 minutes' flight from Delhi. Air India has limited flight operations from "Thoise" to Delhi; the place is 16 km away from the village of Hundar and 25 km from Diskit. It is about 160 km from the capital of Ladakh. Thoise is reached via the Khardung La mountain pass, one of the world's highest roads used by motor vehicles. Thoise is out of bounds for civilians; the last checkpost is at a bridge where photography is not permitted. Indian Oil Corporation Limited is building an oil depot to serve the Indian Army; the construction project is monitored from Chandigarh.

Pilots' reports and pictures Travellers' report

Martin O'Reilly (Gaelic footballer)

Martin'Marty' O'Reilly is an Irish Gaelic footballer and hurler who plays for Seán MacCumhaills of Ballybofey and formerly, for the Donegal county football team. O'Reilly attended college in Marino Institute of Education and is now a primary school teacher in Castleknock, Dublin, he is related to Billy Joe Padden. His father Terry, a former garda from Gleann Lára, a townland near Belmullet, County Mayo, in the West of Ireland, is club chairman of Seán MacCumhaill's. O'Reilly plays both hurling for his club. Jim McGuinness first called O'Reilly into the Donegal county football team in late 2011. A member of the Donegal panel that won the 2012 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final against Mayo, he was an unused substitute in the final, he was held scoreless in the 2012 Corn Na Mac Leinn final by a somewhat tenacious defender. He played in the under-21 team, he played in the under-21 team. O'Reilly withdrew from senior inter-county football ahead of the 2019 championship after experiencing limited match time during the 2019 National Football League.

He transferred to Philadelphia for the summer. He won the Philadelphia Championship there in August 2019, the Saturday before he returned to Ireland to play for his club Seán MacCumhaill's in the 2019 Donegal Senior Football Championship. DonegalAll-Ireland Senior Football Championship: 2012 Ulster Senior Football Championship: 2012, 2014 National Football League Division 2: 2019? Philadelphia Championship: 2019

The FuentidueƱa Apse

The Fuentidueña Apse is a Romanesque apse dated 1175–1200, built as part of the San Martín Church at Fuentidueña, province of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain. Little is known about the church's design or early history, it is believed to have been built when the town was of strategic importance to the Christian kings of Castile in their defence against Moorish invaders. By the 19th century the church was long abandoned and in disrepair. In the late 1940s, the apse reconstructed in The Cloisters of New York City; this transfer involved the shipping of 3,300 blocks of stone from Spain to New York. The acquisition followed three decades of complex negotiation and diplomacy between the Spanish church and both countries' art historical hierarchies and governments; the apse was exchanged in a complex deal that involved the gifting by New York of six frescoes from the San Baudelio de Berlanga to the Prado Museum, on an long term loan. Today the apse is situated in the the museum's largest room; the apse measures 919.5 × 749.3 × 843.3 cm.

It consists of a broad arch culminating in a half dome. The exterior wall holds three small windows and stilted, but designed to let in as much light as possible; the windows were set within imposing fortress walls. The supporting piers show three large figures. Saint Martin of Tours, patron saint of the church is on the left. On the right is the angel Gabriel, in the act of Annunciation to the Virgin; the capital above the Annunciation shows a scene from the Nativity. Below the triumphal arch are two columns whose capitals depict scenes from the Adoration of the Magi on the left, Daniel in the lions' den to the right; the capitals of the blind arcades contain a variety of fantastical creatures. The moldings are carved in floral patterns; the walls are lined by a number of niches, "oddly shaped" according to Young, but placed to rest liturgical implements for mass. The apse was built from over 3,300 individual stone blocks sandstone and limestone, which were shipped to New York in 839 individual crates.

It was such a major and large installation into the Cloisters that it necessitated a complete refurbishment of the former "Special Exhibition Room". It was opening to the public in 1961, seven years after the transfer, its re-installation was a major and groundbreaking innovative undertaking; the new space seeks to emulate a single aisle nave. The capitals supporting the arch portray Daniel in the lions' den, its piers contain the figures of Saint Martin of Tours on the left and the angel Gabriel announcing to The Virgin on the right. The Fuentidueña room includes a number of other contemporary medieval art works set within the Fuentidueña Apse, they include, in its dome, a large fresco c. 1130–50, from the Spanish Church of Sant Joan de Tredòs, in its colorisation resembling a Byzantine mosaic and is dedicated to the ideal of Mary as the mother of God. Hanging within the apse is a c. 1150–1200 crucifix from the convent of St. Clara at Astudillo; the Fuentidueña apse contains a c 1150–1200 white oak, red paint and gilding and monumental Crucifix hanging before it.

The cross is 178 cm high and 260 cm wide, believed to originate from the convent of St Clara at Astudillo, near Palencia, in north-western Spain, though records are unclear and, contested. The cross seems designed to hang above an altarpiece, its reverse contains a depiction of the Agnus Dei, decorated with red and blue foliage at its frames. In the early 1930s, the philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. who had commissioned The Cloisters, financed the Metropolitan Museum of Art to acquire a number of Medieval architectural elements from Europe for incorporation into the building. Representatives were sent to Europe to France, to find an apse that might be suitable, with the current one from the San Martín Church, Fuentidueña identified in 1931, shortly after it had been declared a Spanish National Monument. However, both the Catholic church and the Spanish State claimed ownership of the building and site, no agreement could be made for acquisition. There are no surviving records of its original construction.

It was built in the mid 12th century, when the town was of strategic importance to the Kingdom of Castile defending against the Moors. The church was long abandoned and in ruin at the time, with only the apse remaining in good condition, it was roofless, as a result had suffering deterioration over the centuries. Its interior was at the time being used as a modern cemetery. No illustrations of its interior existed until 1928, when the American art historian and medievalist Arthur Kingsley Porter reproduced two photographs of some of the sculptured figures in his "Spanish Romanesque Sculpture"; the exchange was looked upon more favorably by the Spanish 12 years when again approached by the Metropolitan, who argued that the apse would be better conserved in a roofed building. During the negotiations, the Spanish were represented by Francisco Javier Sánchez Cantón, the archaeologist and historian Manuel Gómez-Moreno Martínez; the Metropolitan assured the citizens of Fuentidueña by promising to pay for the reinforcement of the local parish church of San Miguel, to rebuild its tower, also in disrepair