Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device is authorized for wear on the medal; when the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces. Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with "V" Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a badly wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang, in 1965.
Another civilian recipient was writer Ernest Hemingway. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944; the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight— while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star; the acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph. Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater; the Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Banks & Biddle. The medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved; the star hangs from its ribbon by a rectangular metal loop with rounded corners. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch white 67101; the Bronze Star Medal with the "V" device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor. Although a service member may be cited for heroism in combat and be awarded more than one Bronze Star authorizing the "V" device, only one "V" may be worn on each suspension and service ribbon of the medal; the following ribbon devices must be authorized in the award citation in order to be worn on the Bronze Star Medal, the criteria for and wear of the devices vary between the services: Oak leaf cluster – In the Army and Air Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards.
5/16 inch star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. "V" device – In the Army, the "V" is worn to denote "participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy.". Combat "V" – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the "V" is worn to denote combat heroism or to recognize individuals who are "exposed to personal hazard during direct participation in combat operations". Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943. Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, suggested calling the proposed new award the "Ground Medal"; the idea rose through the military bureaucracy and gained supporters. General George C. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated 3
Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, is the day Soviet and American troops met at the Elbe River, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of World War II in Europe. This contact between the Soviets, advancing from the East, the Americans, advancing from the West, meant that the two powers had cut Germany in two. Elbe Day has never been an official holiday in any country, but in the years after 1945 the memory of this friendly encounter gained new significance in the context of the Cold War between the U. S. and the Soviet Union. The first contact between American and Soviet patrols occurred near Strehla, after First Lieutenant Albert Kotzebue, an American soldier, crossed the River Elbe in a boat with three men of an intelligence and reconnaissance platoon. On the east bank they met forward elements of a Soviet Guards rifle regiment of the First Ukrainian Front, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Gardiev; the same day, another patrol under Second Lieutenant William Robertson with Frank Huff, James McDonnell and Paul Staub met a Soviet patrol commanded by Lieutenant Alexander Silvashko on the destroyed Elbe bridge of Torgau.
On April 26, the commanders of the 69th Infantry Division of the First Army and the 58th Guards Rifle Division of the 5th Guards Army met at Torgau, southwest of Berlin. Arrangements were made for the formal "Handshake of Torgau" between Robertson and Silvashko in front of photographers the following day, April 27; the Soviet and British governments released simultaneous statements that evening in London and Washington, reaffirming the determination of the three Allied powers to complete the destruction of the Third Reich. Monuments at Torgau and Bad Liebenwerda commemorate the first encounters between U. S. and Soviet troops on Elbe Day. In the United States, a "Spirit of the Elbe" plaque at Arlington National Cemetery commemorates the day. In 1949 the Soviet film studio Mosfilm commemorated Elbe Day in the black-and-white film Encounter at the Elbe. During the Cold War the meeting of the two armies was recalled as a symbol of peace and friendship between the people of the two antagonistic superpowers.
For example, in 1961 the popular Russian song "Do the Russians Want War?" Evoked the memory of American and Soviet soldiers embracing at the Elbe River. Joseph Polowsky, an American soldier who met Soviet troops on Elbe Day, was affected by the experience and devoted much of his life to opposing war, he commemorated Elbe Day each year in his hometown of Chicago and unsuccessfully petitioned the United Nations to make April 25 a "World Day of Peace." His remains are buried in a cemetery in Torgau. American singer-songwriter Fred Small commemorated Joseph Polowsky and Elbe Day in his song "At The Elbe". In 1988 a plaque titled "Der Geist der Elbe" was mounted on a stone near Torgau at the site of the encounter between troops of the U. S. 69th Infantry and the Soviet Guards. In 1995 the Russian Federation issued a three-ruble coin commemorating the 50th anniversary of Elbe Day. By 2010, the 65th anniversary of the event, Elbe Day events in Torgau were held annually on the weekend closest to April 25, attracting tourists to the city.
In 2010, the U. S. and Russian presidents for the first time issued a joint statement on April 25 commemorating Elbe Day and the "spirit of the Elbe". The meeting at the Elbe is represented in the war strategy game R. U. S. E. Released in 2010 and 2011 and based loosely on World War II events. Joseph Polowsky Line of contact First contact of Robertson and Silvashko on the destroyed Elbe bridge of Torgau; the War is Over - American and Russian troops meet at the Elbe, A People At War, U. S. National Archives and Records Administration Nora FitzGerald, Elbe Day commemorated 26 April 2010, Russia Beyond the Headlines, article with photos slideshow. East Germany Elbe Meeting - Time Magazine, May 6, 1985 "Remembering War" simulcast between US and USSR / SATELLITE LINKUP TO REUNITE SOVIET AND AMERICAN WW II VETS - UCSD press release April 29, 1985Nora FitzGerald, Elbe Day commemorated 26 April 2010, Russia Beyond the Headlines, article with photos slideshow. East Germany Elbe Meeting - Time Magazine, May 6, 1985 "Remembering War" simulcast between US and USSR / SATELLITE LINKUP TO REUNITE SOVIET AND AMERICAN WW II VETS - UCSD press release April 29, 1985
Virginia Military Institute
Founded 11 November 1839 in Lexington, the Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state-supported military college and the first public Senior Military College in the United States. In keeping with its founding principles and unlike any other Senior Military College in the United States, VMI enrolls cadets only and awards baccalaureate degrees exclusively. VMI offers its students, all of whom are cadets, strict military discipline combined with a physically and academically demanding environment; the Institute grants degrees in 14 disciplines in engineering, the sciences and liberal arts, all VMI students are required to participate in one of the four ROTC programs. While VMI has been called "The West Point of the South", it differs from the federal military service academies; as of 2019, VMI had a total enrollment of 1,722 cadets. All cadets must participate in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps of the United States Armed Forces programs, but are afforded the flexibility of pursuing civilian endeavors or accepting an officer's commission in any of the active or reserve components of any of the U.
S. military branches upon graduation. VMI's alumni include a Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, 7 Medal of Honor recipients, 13 Rhodes Scholars, Pulitzer Prize winners, an Academy Award winner, an Emmy Award and Golden Globe winner, a martyr recognized by the Episcopal Church and Representatives, including the current Governor of Virginia, Lieutenant Governors, a Supreme Court Justice, numerous college and university presidents, many business leaders and over 285 general and flag officers across all US service branches and several other countries; the Board of Visitors is the supervisory board of the Virginia Military Institute. Although the Governor is ex officio the commander-in-chief of the Institute, no one may be declared a graduate without his signature, he delegates to the Board the responsibility for developing the Institute's policy; the Board appoints the Superintendent and approves appointment of members of the faculty and staff on the recommendation of the Superintendent.
The Board may make bylaws and regulations for their own government and the management of the affairs of the Institute, while the Institute is exempt from the Administrative Process Act in accordance with Va. Code § 2.2-4002, some of its regulations are codified at 8VAC 100. The Executive Committee conducts the business of the Board during recesses; the Board has 17 members, including ex officio the Adjutant General of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Regular members may be reappointed once. Of the sixteen appointed members, twelve must be alumni of the Institute, eight of whom must be residents of Virginia and four must be non-residents; the Executive Committee consists of the Board's President, three Vice Presidents, one non-alumnus at large, is appointed by the Board at each annual meeting. Under the militia bill officers of the Institute were recognized as part of the military establishment of the state, the Governor had authority to issue commissions to them in accordance with Institute regulations.
Current law makes provision for officers of the Virginia Militia to be subject to orders of the Governor. The cadets are a military corps under the command of the Superintendent and under the administration of the Commandant of Cadets, constitute the guard of the Institute. In the years after the War of 1812, the Commonwealth of Virginia built and maintained several arsenals to store weapons intended for use by the state militia in the event of invasion or slave revolt. In the 1830s Lexington attorney John Thomas Lewis Preston belonged to a debate club known as the Franklin Society. In 1836 he made the case to the society that the arsenal in Lexington could be put to better use as a normal school for providing education on practical subjects, as well as military training to individuals who could be expected to serve as officers in the militia if needed. After debate and revision of the original proposal, the Franklin Society voted in favor of Preston's concept. After a public relations campaign that included Preston meeting in person with influential business and political figures, letters to editors of prominent news sources from Preston writing under a pen name, many other open letters from prominent supporters, in 1836 the Virginia legislature passed a bill authorizing creation of a school at the Lexington arsenal, the Governor signed the measure into law.
The organizers of the planned school formed a board of visitors, which included Preston, the board selected Claudius Crozet, a prominent officer and engineer under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte, to serve as their President. Crozet was the Chief Engineer of Virginia and someone whom Thomas Jefferson referred to as, "the smartest mathematician in the United States." The board delegated to Preston the task of deciding what to call the new school, he created the name Virginia Military Institute. Preston was tasked with hiring VMI's first Superintendent, he was persuaded that West Point graduate and Army officer Francis Henney Smith on the faculty at Hampden–Sydney College, was the most suitable candidate. Preston recruited Smith, convinced him to become the first Superintendent and Professor of Tactics. In an endeavor unique to the United States, Preston and Smith founded VMI intending to create a hybrid of the best characteristics
United States Army Center of Military History
The United States Army Center of Military History is a directorate within TRADOC. The Institute of Heraldry remains within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army; the center is responsible for the appropriate use of history and military records throughout the United States Army. Traditionally, this mission has meant recording the official history of the army in both peace and war, while advising the army staff on historical matters. CMH is the flagship organization leading the Army Historical Program. CMH is behind the National Museum of the U. S. Army, under construction at Fort Belvoir and projected to open in 2020; the center traces its lineage back to historians under the Secretary of War who compiled the Official Records of the Rebellion, an extensive history of the American Civil War begun in 1874. A similar work on World War I was prepared by the Historical Section of the Army War College; the modern organization of the army's historical efforts dates from the creation of the General Staff historical branch in July 1943 and the subsequent gathering of a team of historians, translators and cartographers to record the official history of World War II.
They began publication of the United States Army in World War II series, which numbers 78 volumes, in 1946. Since the Center has produced detailed series on the Army's role in the Korean and Vietnam Wars and has begun a series on the U. S. Army in the Cold War; these works are supplemented by other publications on a mix of topics. Since its formation, the center has provided historical support to the Army Secretariat and Staff, contributing background information for decision making, staff actions, command information programs, public statements by army officials, it has expanded its role in the areas of military history education, the management of the army's museum system, the introduction of automated data-retrieval systems. The center's work with army schools ensures that the study of history is a part of the training of officers and noncommissioned officers. Much of this educational work is performed in army museums. Under the direction of the chief of military history and his principal adviser, the army's chief historian, CMH's staff is involved in some 50 major writing projects.
Many of these efforts involve new research that ranges from traditional studies in operational and administrative history to the examination of such areas as procurement and the global war on terror. Those works under way and projected are described in the Army Historical Program, an annual report to the Chief of Staff on the Army's historical activities. All center publications are listed in the catalog Publications of the United States Army Center of Military History, which explains how to access them. In addition, army historians maintain the organizational history of army units, allowing the center to provide units of the Regular Army, the Army National Guard, the Army Reserve with certificates of their lineage and honors and other historical material concerning their organizations; the center determines the official designations for army units and works with the army staff during force reorganizations to preserve units with significant histories, as well as unit properties and related historical artifacts.
CMH serves as a clearinghouse for the oral history programs in the army at all levels of command. It conducts and preserves its own oral history collections, including those from the Vietnam War, Desert Storm, the many recent contingency operations. In addition, the center's end-of-tour interviews within the Army Secretariat and Staff provide a basis for its annual histories of the Department of the Army; as tangible representations of the service's mission, military artifacts and art enhance the soldier's understanding of the profession of arms. CMH manages a system of more than 120 army museums and their holdings, encompassing some 450,000 artifacts and 15,000 works of military art; the Center provides professional museum training, staff assistance visits, teams of combat artists such as those deployed under the Vietnam Combat Artists Program, general museum support throughout the army. Current projects include the establishment of a National Museum of the United States Army at Fort Belvoir, a complementary Army Heritage and Educational Center at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.
The Chief of Military History is responsible for ensuring the appropriate use of military history in the teaching of strategy, tactics and administration. This mission includes a requirement that military leaders at all levels be aware of the value of history in advancing military professionalism. To that end, the center holds workshop. In this effort, the chief of military history is assisted by a historical advisory committee that includes leading academic historians and representatives of the army school system. Staff rides enable military leaders to retrace the course of a battle on the ground, deepening their understanding of the recurring fundamentals of military operations; as one of the army's major teaching devices, staff rides are dependent on a careful knowledge of military history. Center historians lead rides directed by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff and attended by senior members of the army Staff, it administers the army's Command History Program, to provide historical support to army organizations worldwide.
In addition, since the first Persia
Lexington is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 7,042, it is the county seat of Rockbridge County. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Lexington with Rockbridge County for statistical purposes. Lexington is about 57 miles east of the West Virginia border and is about 50 miles north of Roanoke, Virginia, it was first settled in 1777. Lexington is the location of the Virginia Military Institute and of Lee University. Lexington was named in 1778, it was the first of what would be many American places named after Lexington, known for being the place at which the first shot was fired in the American Revolution. The Union General David Hunter led a raid on Virginia Military Institute during the American Civil War. Robert E. Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson are buried here, it is the site of the only house Jackson owned, now open to the public as a museum. Cyrus McCormick invented the horse-drawn mechanical reaper at his family's farm in Rockbridge County, a statue of McCormick is located on the Washington and Lee University campus.
McCormick Farm is a satellite agricultural research center. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles all of, land. The Maury River, a tributary of the James River, forms the city's northeastern boundary; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Lexington has a humid subtropical climate, similar to Northern Italy, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,867 people, 2,232 households, 1,080 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,753.8 per square mile. The racial makeup was 86.01% White, 10.38% African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.92% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander and 0.48% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 2,232 households of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.9% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 51.6% were non-families.
41.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was spread out with 11.0% under the age of 18, 41.4% from 18 to 24, 14.5% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 123.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 127.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,982, the median income for a family was $58,529. Males had a median income of $35,288 versus $26,094 for females; the per capita income was $16,497. About 8.4% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.9% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. Today, Lexington's primary economic activities stem from tourism. Located at the intersection of historic U. S. Route 11 and U. S. Route 60 and more modern highways, Interstate 64 and Interstate 81.
With its various connections to the Civil War, Lexington attracts visitors from around the country. Places of interest in Lexington include the Stonewall Jackson House, Lee Chapel, the George C. Marshall Museum, Virginia Military Institute Museum, Museum of Military Memorabilia, the downtown historic district. Hull's Drive In theater attracts visitors to the area and was the first community-owned, non-profit drive-in in the U. S. Lexington contains a host of small retail businesses and breakfast inns, restaurants catering to a unique mixture of local and collegiate clientele; the historic R. E. Lee Hotel, built in the 1920s, underwent extensive renovation and re-opened its doors late 2014. Lexington has been the site for several movies. Parts of at least eight motion pictures have been filmed in the area; the first was Brother Rat, which starred Ronald Reagan. After the movie's release he was made an honorary VMI cadet; the second was the 1958 Mardi Gras, which starred Pat Boone as a VMI cadet and the actress Christine Carère.
The third was Sommersby, starring Bill Pullman, James Earl Jones and Jodie Foster. The Foreign Student, based on a novel of college life by former W&L student Phillipe Labro had scenes made in town. Filming for parts of several Civil War films took place in Lexington, including the documentary Lee Beyond the Battles and Gods and Generals. In Fall 2004, the director Steven Spielberg and Tom Cruise filmed scenes for War of the Worlds here, with Dakota Fanning and Tim Robbins. In June 2013, filming took place for a movie titled Field of Lost Shoes about the Battle of New Market starring Luke Benward and Lauren Holly; the city has a number of independent newspapers. The News-Gazette is a weekly community paper; the now-defunct The Rockbridge Weekly, noted for printing police and other local crime reports, was bought by The News-Gazette in June 2012. The Rockbridge Advocate is a monthly news magazine with the motto "Independent as a hog on ice". In 2011, the city erupted in controversy after the City Council passed an ordinance to ban the flying of flags other than the United States flag, the Virginia Flag, an as-yet-undesigned city flag on city light poles.
Various flags of the Confederacy had previous
George C. Marshall Foundation
The George C. Marshall Foundation in Lexington, honors the legacy of George Catlett Marshall, Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense following World War II and the only person to hold all three high offices; the Foundation is located in Lexington and contains a library, archive, a museum and administrative offices dedicated to celebrating the legacy of George Catlett Marshall. The Foundation opened in 1964 in its own building on the post of and separate from the Virginia Military Institute, Marshall's alma mater; the Foundation offers educational programs and facilities for use by members, the general public, amateur historians and students of all ages. The non-profit, independent Marshall Foundation is where the values that shaped and motivated Marshall are kept alive; as a unique resource, the Foundation perpetuates Marshall's legacy as the person who "won the war and won the peace," his leadership qualities and exemplary character through educational programs and facilities such as a world-class archives and research library and a museum that offer a wide range of resources and materials for use by members, the general public, amateur historians and students of all ages.
The Marshall Museum is open to the public and displays exhibits of Marshall's life and work in the entry hall and two adjacent galleries, one focused on his military career and the other on his achievements following World War II. Visitors will see the certificate of his 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. An admission fee is charged; the Museum is closed on Mondays. Check website for hours; the Marshall Foundation Library and Archives cover United States military & diplomatic history between the years of George Marshall's career as a military officer and public servant 1900-1960. Along with sorted paper collections, the library contains more than 23,000 manuscripts, two million documents including many from the National Archives and Records Administration, hundreds of era maps, thousands of photographs, 700 posters from all countries involved in both World Wars and over 200 oral histories; the George C. Marshall Legacy Series interprets General Marshall's legacy through a multi-year series of events and information centered on key themes, events or episodes in General Marshall's career.
Because his career touched nearly every major event of the first half of the 20th Century, the landscape for the Series is rich and vast. The Foundation has accessed its own resources and collections to create unique activities and events to share with the public; the Legacy Series provides an exposition of the key moments in General Marshall's life through selected documents and artifacts from the archives, audiovisual presentations, unique museum exhibitions and speaker events and in doing so fleshes out who he was, what he did, how he did it and why he is still so relevant today. The goal is to make Marshall's career and achievements popularly accessible and emphasize the Foundation's unique position as the principal organization and internationally, that commemorates Marshall and defines his legacy. Marshall Legacy Series Sequences: • Codebreaking, April—June 2015 • Weapons of War, July—September 2015 • Taking Care of the Troops, October—December 2015 • All Who Want to Serve, January-April 2016 • Speed and Fury, May-August 2016 • Let's Get A Move On, September-December 2016 • The World Wars, January-December 2017 • Europe's Unlikely Recovery, January-June 2018 • "Friends" in High Places, July–November 2018 • Winter's Coming, TBD • The Man for All Seasons, TBD In 1997, the George C. Marshall Foundation Award was established in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan.
The award is given to an individual or organization that "has made a significant contribution internationally to ameliorating hunger, poverty and chaos, as described by Secretary of State Marshall in his speech at Harvard University, June 1947." Recipients include Henry Kissinger, Hillary Clinton, Robert Gates, Colin Powell, George H. W. Bush, David Rockefeller, Helmut Kohl, among others. General Andrew Goodpaster served as a trustee and a chairman of the George C. Marshall Foundation, which established the Andrew J. Goodpaster Award to honor "American business leaders, military leaders and others who have served our nation in exemplary ways, like General Goodpaster, have exhibited great courage, selfless service and leadership in their lives and careers." Recipients include Mark A. Milley, Richard Cody, John P. Jumper, Raymond T. Odierno, Gordon R. Sullivan, Brent Scowcroft; the George C. Marshall Foundation Humanitarian Award is presented to an individual or an organization to recognize their significant humanitarian service, create public awareness of the accomplishments of the recipient individual or organization and to encourage others to emulate their good works The George C. Marshall Foundation Humanitarian Award Recipients include Michael R. Bloomberg The George C. Marshall Foundation The George C. Marshall Foundation gallery, Google Cultural Institute Gates Receives George C. Marshall Award, Department of Defense Photo Essay