The Countess (play)
The Countess is a play written by American author Gregory Murphy. Based on one of the most notorious scandals of the Victorian era in Britain, written in 1995, Murphys two-act drama premiered in New York in 1999, being performed at several Off-Broadway venues. It had a run in London, and has since been performed around the world. John Ruskin Effie Ruskin Elizabeth, Lady Eastlake John Everett Millais Mrs Ruskin Mr, in 1853, preeminent art critic John Ruskin, his wife, Effie Gray, and his friend and protégé, the Pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais, departed in high spirits for the Scottish Highlands. When they returned to London four months later, Millais hatred for Ruskin was exceeded only by his passion for the beautiful, what John Everett Millais did not know, could not have known, was the terrible truth at the core of the Ruskin marriage. The play was first performed at the Greenwich Street Theatre, New York City in a directed by Ludovica Villar-Hauser. It was soon transferred to the Samuel Beckett Theatre and the Lambs Theatre, the production ran for 634 performances.
The original production of the play starred Jennifer Woodward as Effie and James Riordan as John Ruskin, in 2005 Villar-Hauser again directed a production in London, starting at Guildfords Yvonne Arnaud Theatre, transferring to the Criterion Theatre. Nick Moran starred as Ruskin, Alison Pargeter as Effie, Linda Thorson as Lady Eastlake, the Countess was published by Dramatists Play Service. It has subsequently been performed around the world, the Countess received critical acclaim when it premiered in the spring of 1999 with the New York Times calling the play …serious…wonderfully witty…erotically charged. Splendidly directed and the entire cast is excellent, the New York Post wrote that The Countess has sex scandal appeal, is nicely acted and a Damned good tale. Some critics of the London production were less impressed, michael Billington called it curiously stolid and objected to what he called the forelock-tugging framing device, set in Windsor Castle in which Effie meets Queen Victoria.
Ian Shuttleworth objected to the clunky framing scenes, writing that the play is a triangular story with several cumbersome attempts to spice it up. Murphy argued that Thompsons screenplay drew on his own play, or possibly his cinematic treatment of it, Murphy recounted his meeting with Thompson in a first person article written in Londons Daily Mail entitled The day I sat in Emma Thompsons kitchen and accused her of stealing my movie. Thompson eventually won the battle and the film Effie Gray, starring Dakota Fanning, was released in 2014
Thomas Carlyle was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, a respected historian, his 1837 book The French Revolution, A History was the inspiration for Charles Dickens 1859 novel A Tale of Two Cities, and remains popular today. Carlyles 1836 Sartor Resartus is a philosophical novel. A great polemicist, Carlyle coined the term the dismal science for economics and he wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and his Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question remains controversial. Once a Christian, Carlyle lost his faith while attending the University of Edinburgh, in mathematics, he is known for the Carlyle circle, a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons. Carlyle was born in Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire and his parents determinedly afforded him an education at Annan Academy, where he was bullied and tormented so much that he left after three years.
His father was a member of the Burgher secession church, in early life, his familys strong Calvinist beliefs powerfully influenced the young man. After attending the University of Edinburgh, Carlyle became a teacher, first in Annan and in Kirkcaldy. His prose style, famously cranky and occasionally savage, helped cement an air of irascibility, Carlyles thinking became heavily influenced by German idealism, in particular the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. He established himself as an expert on German literature in a series of essays for Frasers Magazine and he wrote a Life of Schiller. In 1826, Thomas Carlyle married fellow intellectual Jane Baillie Welsh, in 1827, he applied for the Chair of Moral Philosophy at St Andrews University but was not appointed. A residence provided by Janes estate was a house on Craigenputtock and he often wrote about his life at Craigenputtock – in particular, It is certain that for living and thinking in I have never since found in the world a place so favourable.
Here Carlyle wrote some of his most distinguished essays, and began a friendship with the American essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson. In 1831, the Carlyles moved to London, settling initially in lodgings at 4 Ampton Street, in 1834, they moved to 5 Cheyne Row, which has since been preserved as a museum to Carlyles memory. He became known as the Sage of Chelsea, and a member of a circle which included the essayists Leigh Hunt. Here Carlyle wrote The French Revolution, A History, a study concentrating both on the oppression of the poor of France and on the horrors of the mob unleashed. By 1821, Carlyle abandoned the clergy as a career and focused on making a life as a writer and his first fiction was Cruthers and Jonson, one of several abortive attempts at writing a novel. Following his work on a translation of Goethes Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship, he came to distrust the form of the realistic novel and so worked on developing a new form of fiction
Rose La Touche
Rose La Touche was the pupil, cherished student and ideal from which John Ruskin based Sesame and Lilies. Ruskin met La Touche when she was nine years old as an art tutor. Roses mother, Mrs. Maria La Touche, was a friend of Louisa, Lady Waterford, Ruskin recalls the correspondence in Praeterita, Soon after I returned home, in the eventful year 1858, a lady wrote to me from—somewhere near Green Street, W. Rather he sent William Ward to see her, being too busy to call himself, when Ruskin did call on the La Touches for the first time, he was taken with them and felt there was something exceptional about Rose. Upon first meeting Rose, Ruskin wrote in the pages of Praeterita that. Nine years old, on 3 January 1858, thus now rising towards ten, neither tall nor short for her age, the eyes rather deep blue at that time, and fuller and softer than afterwards. She was a high-spirited, but very childlike adolescent, tim Hilton writes that The Irish girl was a puzzle, for she was precocious in some ways and not in others.
Sometimes she had an understanding of adult attitudes, at the next moment she was once more completely a child. She had a pretty way of making herself engaging, even coquettish, I dont know what to make of her, Ruskin confessed. She wears her round hat in the sauciest way possible—and is a firm—fiery little thing. Ruskins interest in Rose grew into fascination and adoration for his pupil, in fact, Ruskins first letter from Rose impressed him so much that he reprinted it in its entirety in Praeterita. Writing Some wise, and prettily mannered, people have told me I shouldnt say anything about Rosie at all. But I am too old now to take advice, and I wont have this following letter—the first she ever wrote me—moulder away, the letter Rose writes is addressed Dearest St. Crumpet—her pet name for him was St. Thank you so much both of us. --Mama is very glad you went to Dr. Ferguson She says you must not give him up. How very kind of you to see & talk to our old man Certainly the name is not beautiful We have all read your letter & we all care for it That was indeed a dear Irish labourer.
Will you give them our love please & take for yourself as much as ever you please and it will be a great deal if you deign to take all we send you. I like Nice, but I dont much like being transplanted except going home, although much speculation exists over when Ruskin fell in love with Rose, most critics maintain that she was between the ages of 14–18. The author George MacDonald was entrusted by her parents to oversee Roses welfare during their absence, Ruskin repeated his marriage proposal after Rose became legally free to decide for herself, but she still refused. Rose died in 1875 at the age of 27, in a Dublin nursing home, various authors describe the death as arising from either madness, anorexia, a broken heart, religious mania or hysteria, or a combination of these
The Stones of Venice (book)
The Stones of Venice examines Venetian architecture in detail, describing for example over eighty churches. He discusses architecture of Venices Byzantine and Renaissance periods, as well as being an art historian, Ruskin was a social reformer. In the chapter The Nature of Gothic, Ruskin gives his views on how society should be organised. As it is, we make both ungentle, the one envying, the other despising, his brother, and the mass of society is made up of morbid thinkers and miserable workers. Now it is only by labour that thought can be healthy, and only by thought that labour can be made happy. Ruskin set out to prove how Venetian architecture exemplified the principles he discussed in his earlier work, Ruskin had visited Venice before, but he made two visits to Venice with his wife Effie specially to research the book. The first visit was in the winter of 1849-50, the first volume of The Stones of Venice appeared in 1851 and Ruskin spent another winter in Venice researching the next two volumes.
His research methods included sketching and photography, various shortened editions of the book have been published, including one edited by J. G. Links published in the USA in 1960, the Foundations,1851, Elder & Co. The Sea-stories,1853, Elder & Co, the Fall,1853, Elder & Co. London It aroused considerable interest in Victorian Britain and beyond, the chapter The Nature of Gothic was admired by William Morris, who published it separately in an edition which is in itself an example of Gothic revival. The book inspired Marcel Proust and in 2010 Roger Scruton wrote that the book was, the greatest description in English of a place made sacred by buildings
Desperate Romantics is a six-part television drama serial about the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, first broadcast on BBC Two between 21 July and 25 August 2009. The series somewhat fictionalized the lives and events depicted, though heavily trailed, the series received mixed reviews and dwindling audiences. The series was inspired by and takes its title from Franny Moyles factual book about the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Desperate Romantics, The Private Lives Of The Pre-Raphaelites. Moyle, a commissioning editor for the arts at the BBC, approached writer Peter Bowker with the book. Discussing the series billing as Entourage with easels, Moyle said, I pitched it as a big emotional saga, a bit like The Forsyte Saga. Having said that, I think it was a useful snapshot – a way of getting a handle on the drama, the series has been billed by the BBC as marrying the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood to the values of Desperate Housewives. Desperate Romantics was not the first time the lives of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood had been dramatised for television, in 1967 Ken Russell had directed Dantes Inferno, and in 1975 there was The Love School – a six-part serial first broadcast in 1975.
Whereas Bowkers drama about the PRB was an adaptation of Franny Moyles book, the new dramatisation was heavily influenced by the earlier series. The final stanza, which Rossetti reads aloud to Lizzie before they first make love, featured are Newborn Death and The Kiss. The verses read at Lizzies funeral by her sister are from Lizzies own poem Dead Love, each episode begins with the disclaimer, In the mid-19th century, a group of young men challenged the art establishment of the day. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood were inspired by the world about them. This story, based on their lives and loves, follows in that inventive spirit, fred Walters is a composite character based on Frederic George Stephens, William Michael Rossetti and Walter Deverell, and functions as both narrator and audience surrogate. It was Deverell who discovered Lizzie, and Stephens, in his capacity as an art critic, who acted as the Brotherhoods publicist. Dickens criticism of Christ in the House of His Parents is an extract from his review, titled Old Lamps for New Ones.
Lizzie Siddals father did indeed claim to be descended from aristocracy and she had three sisters and a younger brother. Her father in fact died in 1859, before her marriage to Rossetti, Annie Miller was not working as a prostitute when Hunt first asked her to pose for him, but as a barmaid in Charing Cross Road at the public house frequented by the Brotherhood. Annie was not the model for The Hireling Shepherd, a farm worker, when Effie discovers a collection of erotic drawings by J. M. W. Turner amongst Ruskins papers he claims that he is compelled to destroy them to protect Turners posthumous reputation. Biographies of both Turner and Ruskin claimed that Ruskin had burned them in 1858, but this was disproved in 2005 when the sketches were discovered in a neglected archive, according to his son, Millais settled for a lower sum
Odysseus, known by the Latin name Ulysses, was a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homers epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus plays a key role in Homers Iliad and other works in that same epic cycle. Husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus, and son of Laërtes and Anticlea, Odysseus is renowned for his brilliance and versatility and he is most famous for the Odyssey, ten eventful years he took to return home after the decade-long Trojan War. The name has several variants, in Greek the character was called Olysseus, Oulixes, there may originally have been two separate figures, one called something like Odysseus, the other something like Ulixes, who were combined into one complex personality. The etymology of the name is unknown, ancient authors linked the name to the Greek verbs odussomai to be wroth against, to hate, or to oduromai to lament, bewail. Homer in references and puns, relates it to various forms of this verb and it has been suggested that the name is of non-Greek origin, probably not even Indo-European, with an unknown etymology, R. S. P.
Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin. In Book 19 of the Odyssey, where Odysseuss early childhood is recounted, Euryclea tries to guide him to naming the boy Polyaretos, for he has much been prayed for. Autolycus apparently in a sardonic mood, decided to give the child a name that would commemorate his own experience in life. Because I got odium upon myself before coming here, let the childs name be Odysseus to signify this. The pun was prophetic as well as commemorative, Odysseus often receives the patronymic epithet Laertiades, son of Laërtes. In the Iliad and Odyssey there are several epithets used to describe Odysseus and his name and stories were adopted into Etruscan religion under the name Uthuze. Hence, Odysseus was the great-grandson of the Olympian god Hermes, according to the Iliad and Odyssey, his father is Laertes and his mother Anticlea, although there was a non-Homeric tradition that Sisyphus was his true father. The rumor went that Laertes bought Odysseus from the conniving king, Odysseus is said to have a younger sister, who went to Same to be married and is mentioned by the swineherd Eumaeus, whom she grew up alongside, in Book 15 of the Odyssey.
Homers Iliad and Odyssey portray Odysseus as a hero, but the Romans. In Virgils Aeneid, written between 29 and 19 BC, he is referred to as cruel Odysseus or deceitful Odysseus. Turnus, in Aeneid ix, reproaches the Trojan Ascanius with images of rugged, forthright Latin virtues, You shall not find the sons of Atreus here, nor need the frauds of sly Ulysses fear. While the Greeks admired his cunning and deceit, these qualities did not recommend themselves to the Romans, who possessed a rigid sense of honour. His attempts to avoid his sacred oath to defend Menelaus and Helen offended Roman notions of duty, the majority of sources for Odysseus pre-war exploits—principally the mythographers Pseudo-Apollodorus and Hyginus—postdate Homer by many centuries
The name Lycomedes /ˌlaɪkəˈmiːdiːz/ may refer to several characters in Greek mythology, of whom the most prominent was the king of Scyros during the Trojan War. Lycomedes was a king of the Dolopians in the island of Scyros near Euboea, father of a number of daughters including Deidameia, at the request of Thetis, Lycomedes concealed Achilles in female disguise among his own daughters. At Lycomedes court Achilles had an affair with Deidamia, which resulted in the birth of Neoptolemus, as Odysseus drew Achilles out of his disguise and took him to Troy, Neoptolemus stayed with his grandfather until he too was summoned during the stages of the war. Some related that the cause of violence was that Lycomedes would not give up the estates which Theseus had in Scyros. The asteroid 9694 Lycomedes is named for him - being a Jupiter Trojan, a group of asteroids which are by convention named for characters associated with the Trojan War. Lycomedes, a son of Creon, one of the Greek warriors at Troy, he was represented by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi as wounded in the wrist, in the arm, son of Apollo and Parthenope.
Lycomedes, a Cretan suitor of Helen
Hercules is the Roman adaptation of the Greek divine hero Heracles, who was the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures, the Romans adapted the Greek heros iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In Western art and literature and in culture, Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled artists and writers to pick. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the tradition, Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the Twelve Labours, one traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows, Slay the Nemean Lion. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis, clean the Augean stables in a single day. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon.
Steal the apples of the Hesperides, Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art, and appears often on bronze mirrors. The Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope, a mild oath invoking Hercules was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Hercules had a number of myths that were distinctly Roman, one of these is Hercules defeat of Cacus, who was terrorizing the countryside of Rome. The hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus, Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god, as did the emperor Commodus. Roman brides wore a belt tied with the knot of Hercules. The comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon, during the Roman Imperial era, Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules, in chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states. They say that Hercules, once visited them, and they have those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict.
For, as their line shouts, they inspire or feel alarm, some have taken this as Tacitus equating the Germanic Þunraz with Hercules by way of interpretatio romana. In the Roman era Hercules Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire, mostly made of gold, a specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription DEO HER, confirming the association with Hercules
The Seven Lamps of Architecture
The Seven Lamps of Architecture is an extended essay, first published in May 1849 and written by the English art critic and theorist John Ruskin. The lamps of the title are Ruskins principles of architecture, which he enlarged upon in the three-volume The Stones of Venice. To an extent, they codified some of the thinking behind the Gothic Revival. At the time of its publication A. W. N. Pugin and others had advanced the ideas of the Revival. Ruskin offered little new to the debate, but the book helped to capture and he argued that no new style was needed to redress this problem, as the appropriate styles already existed. The truest architecture was therefore, the older Gothic of medieval cathedrals, the essay sketched out the principles which Ruskin expounded upon in the three-volume The Stones of Venice published between 1851 and 1853. Practically, he suggested an honest architecture with no veneers, hidden support nor machined mouldings, the Seven Lamps was reduced to the status of a moral gloss on Alison by George L.
Hersey, in High Victorian Gothic. This contrasts with the thread of modernism that holds that people must be taught to appreciate good design, put it in the drawing-room, not into the workshop, put it on domestic furniture, not upon tools of handicraft. For Ruskin, Beauty was not an inherent characteristic but a thing that could be applied to an object or withheld from it, by 1849, A. W. N. Pugin and others had already advanced the ideas of the Gothic Revival and its popularity was secured. He went on to disclaim the essay as a wretched rant, the first effect of the book was almost immediate in the influence it had upon William Butterfields All Saints, Margaret Street Church. All Saints is considered the first Ruskinian building due to its use of brick honestly employed as a system rather than for surface decoration. Ruskins writings became a significant influence on William Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement in the half of the 19th century. In 1899 Marcel Proust read a translation of Ruskins chapter The Lamp of Memory in a Belgian magazine and he projected the transforming experience onto the narrator of Du côté de chez Swann, who describes himself as a boy reading the piece in the garden at Combray.
Later Proust, who translated works of Ruskin, claimed to know The Seven Lamps of Architecture by heart. Seven Lamps of Architecture and other of Ruskins writings on architecture are summarized and extensively quoted in John Unrau, writing in the preface to the first edition Ruskin remarks, Every apology is, due to the reader for the hasty and imperfect execution of the plates. I shall be if the reader will in such cases refer the expressions of praise to the Architecture. The following illustrations are from the third edition where the situation had been much improved, the Stones of Venice Writings of A. W. N. Pugin Notes Bibliography Online version at archive. org The Seven Lamps of Architecture public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Farthing (British coin)
The British farthing coin, from fourthing, was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or one nine hundred and sixtieth of a pound sterling. It was minted in bronze, and replaced the earlier copper farthings and it was used during the reign of six monarchs, Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, George VI and Elizabeth II, ceasing to be legal tender in 1960. It featured two different designs on its reverse during its one hundred years in circulation, from 1860 until 1936, the image of Britannia, and from 1937 onwards, like all British coinage, it bore the portrait of the monarch on the obverse. Before Decimal Day in 1971, there were two hundred and forty pence in one pound sterling, there were four farthings in a penny, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in terms of shillings and pence, values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e. g. 8d, pronounced eightpence. A price with a farthing in it would be written like this, pronounced nineteen, as of 2014, the purchasing power of a farthing in 1960 ranged between 2p and 7p.
The original reverse of the coin, designed by Leonard Charles Wyon, is a seated Britannia, holding a trident, issues before 1895 feature a lighthouse to Britannias left and a ship to her right. Various minor adjustments to the level of the sea depicted around Britannia, some issues feature toothed edges, while others feature beading. Over the years, seven different obverses were used, Edward VII, George V, George VI and Elizabeth II each had a single obverse for farthings produced during their respective reigns. Over the long reign of Queen Victoria two different obverses were used, and the reign of Edward VIII meant that no farthings bearing his likeness were ever issued. The farthing was first issued with the so-called bun head, or draped bust of Queen Victoria on the obverse, the inscription around the bust read VICTORIA D G BRITT REG F D. This was replaced in 1895 by the old head, or veiled bust, the inscription on these coins read VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Coins issued during the reign of Edward VII feature his likeness, those issued during the reign of George V feature his likeness and bear the inscription GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP.
The obverse shows a portrait of the king, the inscription on the obverse is EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP. The pattern coin of Edward VIII and regular-issue farthings of George VI and Elizabeth II feature a redesigned reverse displaying the wren, one of Britains smallest birds. George VI issue coins feature the inscription GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP before 1949, and GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF thereafter
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
James Abbott McNeill Whistler was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom. He was averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, and was a proponent of the credo art for arts sake. His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail, the symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative. Finding a parallel between painting and music, Whistler entitled many of his paintings arrangements and nocturnes and his most famous painting is Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1, commonly known as Whistlers Mother, the revered and oft-parodied portrait of motherhood, Whistler influenced the art world and the broader culture of his time with his artistic theories and his friendships with leading artists and writers. James Abbott Whistler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, on July 10,1834 and his father was a railroad engineer, and Anna was his second wife.
James lived the first three years of his life in a modest house at 243 Worthen Street in Lowell, the house is a museum dedicated to Whistler. During the Ruskin trial, Whistler claimed St. Petersburg, Russia, as his birthplace, declaring, I shall be born when and where I want, in 1837, the Whistlers moved from Lowell to Stonington, where George Whistler worked for the Stonington Railroad. Sadly, during this period, three of George and Anna Whistlers children died in infancy, in 1839, the Whistlers fortunes improved considerably when George Whistler received the appointment that would make his fortune and fame - that of chief engineer for the Boston & Albany Railroad. Thus, the moved to Springfield, one of the United States most prosperous cities. The Whistlers lived in Springfield until they left the United States in late 1842, Nicholas I of Russia learned of George Whistlers ingenuity in engineering the Boston & Albany Railroad, and offered Whistler a position in 1842 engineering a railroad from St.
Petersburg to Moscow. In the winter of 1842, the Whistlers moved from Springfield to St. Petersburg, in years, James Whistler played up his mothers connection to the American South and its roots, and presented himself as an impoverished Southern aristocrat. After her death, he adopted her name, using it as an additional middle name. Young Whistler was a moody child prone to fits of temper and insolence and his parents discovered in his early youth that drawing often settled him down and helped focus his attention. Beginning in 1842, his father was employed to work on a railroad in Russia, after moving to St. Petersburg to join his father a year later, the young Whistler took private art lessons, enrolled in the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts at age eleven. In 1844, he met the noted artist Sir William Allan, Whistlers mother noted in her diary, the great artist remarked to me Your little boy has uncommon genius, but do not urge him beyond his inclination. In 1847-48, his family spent some time in London with relatives, Whistlers brother-in-law Francis Haden, a physician who was an artist, spurred his interest in art and photography.
Haden took Whistler to visit collectors and to lectures, and gave him a set with instruction
The King of the Golden River
The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers, A Legend of Stiria by John Ruskin was originally written in 1841 for the twelve-year-old Effie Gray, whom Ruskin married. It was published in form in 1851, and became an early Victorian classic which sold out three editions. It was illustrated with 22 illustrations by Richard Doyle and this personified wind has the power to keep things this way through his influence with other winds that had caused the valleys unique fertility. Forced into an other than farming Hans and Schwartz become goldsmiths. They cruelly melt their younger brother Glucks prize heirloom, a golden mug and this action releases the King of the Golden River for Gluck to pour out of the crucible as a finely dressed little golden dwarf. The Golden River is one of the high mountain cataracts, that surround the Treasure Valley, Gluck fancies that it would be good if that high majestic river would actually be what it appears in the setting sun, a river of gold. That person must do it on his first and only attempt or be overwhelmed by the river to become a black stone and Schwartz desire to take the challenge, duel each other with the result that Schwartz is thrown into jail for disturbing the peace.
Hans, who had the sense to hide from the constable, steals holy water from the church. He has a time of it on a glacier and gets away without his provisions. Overcome with thirst Hans is forced to drink from this flask, along the path, Hans comes across three prostrate individuals dying of thirst, a puppy, a fair child, and an old man. Hans satisfies his own thirst while denying the three needy individuals, the demeanor of the surroundings of his journey turns bleak and inauspicious, climaxing in Hans being transformed into a black stone once he has hurled the holy water flask into the Golden River. The Golden River acquires another black stone around which to rush, Gluck takes a turn at climbing the mountain. He encounters first an old man walking down the trail who begs water from the flask. Gluck allows him to drink, leaving only a third of the holy water and he encounters a fair child, lying by the road, whom he allows to drink all but a few drops. Following these unselfish acts, Glucks path is bright and pleasant making him feel better than he had in his whole life—no doubt.
He comes across the prostrate puppy, whom he gives the final drops of the holy water. The puppy turns into the King of the Golden River, who tells Gluck the fate of his two brothers and, shakes three drops of dew from a lily into Glucks flask to throw into the river. Gluck does this, and the Golden River forms a whirlpool where it travels underground and emerges in the Treasure Valley, Gluck the new owner is a wealthy man, who never turns away the needy from his door