A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g. in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been explained as mantle plumes; these so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
Volcanoes are not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere. Volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines; the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology. The study of volcanoes is sometimes spelled vulcanology. At the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock; because the crust is thin at these ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates, the release of pressure leads to adiabatic expansion and the partial melting of the mantle, causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust.
Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans. Black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed. Subduction zones are places where two plates an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the oceanic plate subducts, or submerges, under the continental plate, forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma; this magma tends to be viscous because of its high silica content, so it does not attain the surface but cools and solidifies at depth. When it does reach the surface, however, a volcano is formed. Typical examples are the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Hotspots are volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.
Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume. The Hawaiian Islands are said to have been formed in such a manner; this theory, has been doubted. The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; the features of volcanoes are much more complicated and their structure and behavior depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material and gases can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea. Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes on some moons of Jupiter and Neptune. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes except when the mud volcano is a vent of an igneous volcano.
Volcanic fissure vents are linear fractures through which lava emerges. Shield volcanoes, so named for their broad, shield-like profiles, are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity lava that can flow a great distance from a vent, they do not explode catastrophically. Since low-viscosity magma is low in silica, shield volcanoes are more common in oceanic than continental settings; the Hawaiian volcanic chain is a series of shield cones, they are common in Iceland, as well. Lava domes are built by slow eruptions of viscous lava, they are sometimes formed within the crater of a previous volcanic eruption, as in the case of Mount Saint Helen
Dégrad des Cannes
Dégrad des Cannes is the main seaport for the French Overseas department of French Guiana, situated in the northern edge of South America and opening into the Caribbean. The seaport is located on the estuary of the Mahury River. Nearly all of French Guiana's imports and exports pass through this port. Built in 1969, it replaced the old harbor of Cayenne, congested and couldn't cope with modern traffic, it serves as the main base for the French Navy in the Caribbean and one of five French naval bases not located within Metropolitan France. The naval base is located to the east of the main commercial port along Route des Plages. A small pier for naval vessels to dock connects to the main barracks; the base has a small helipad. The naval base is home to 160 personnel, some from the French Navy and the rest from the Maritime Gendarmerie and headed by a Commandant. There are two P400-class patrol vessel stationed at the base: P684 La Capricieuse P687 La GracieuseThe vessels are used for sovereignty patrols, assisting the Maritime Gendarmerie in fisheries patrol vessels and protecting the Guiana Space Centre further west along the coast.
Both naval patrol vessels are to be replaced by newer light patrol vessels in 2016-2017. Alban Mathieu 2014-present Serge Permal-Toulcanon?-2014
St. Louis Cathedral, Fort-de-France
St. Louis Cathedral is a Catholic cathedral located in Martinique, an overseas department of France, it was built in the late 19th-century in the Romanesque Revival style and serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fort-de-France. The church is situated in the downtown area of the capital Fort-de-France, at the intersection of rue Victor Schoelcher and rue Blénac; the construction of the cathedral began in the mid-17th century and it opened in 1657. Due to the natural disasters that have plagued Fort-de-France over the years, the current structure dates back to 1895 and was built with an iron frame in order to withstand these calamities, it is the seventh church to be erected on the site. Before the present cathedral was completed in 1895, a total of six churches had been constructed on the site, the first of, built in 1657; these were all destroyed by earthquakes or hurricanes. The loss of significant buildings was not uncommon in Fort-de-France, as devastating natural disasters plagued the region.
The cathedral that preceded the present one was destroyed by fire in July 1890, a disaster that obliterated three-quarters of the town. Pierre-Henri Picq was hired to be the architect and his design for the new cathedral was inspired by Gustave Eiffel, Picq's contemporary. In the mid-1970s, the cathedral underwent an extensive program of restoration and refurbishment which remained faithful to Eiffel's design. Part of this entailed repainting the exterior to brown colour; the renovation was completed in 1978. The cathedral is one of the most famous landmarks in the capital and has been labelled "the religious centrepiece" of Martinique. St. Louis Cathedral was built in a Gothic Revival style with rounded arches in the Neo-Romanesque style; the cathedral's façade features a steeple that rises 187 feet above the city, while its exterior walls are supported by flying buttresses. Located in front of the cathedral is a small square that contains two royal palms which appear to flank the structure; the building is located directly across the square from the consulate of the United States and is one block northwest from the park La Savane.
The entire structure has a frame of iron beams which support the walls and steeple making the church a fine example of architecture from the time of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the cathedral is referred to in the Caribbean as the "Iron Cathedral" and has been compared to a "Catholic railway station"; the interior of the church is noted for its "grand organ", ornate walls, beautiful stained glass windows and balustrade made of iron. Located underneath the choir loft is a crypt containing the tombs of several previous governors of Martinique
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Charles de Courbon de Blénac
Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac was governor general of the French Antilles three times in the 17th century. He was an experienced soldier and fought for the king during the Fronde before becoming a naval captain. Towards the end of the Franco-Dutch War he led the land forces that took Tobago from the Dutch before taking command of the French Antilles. During the Nine Years' War he was active in the struggle with the English and Dutch in the Windward Islands, he captured Sint Eustatius and Saint Kitts, defended Martinique against a large English expedition in 1693. Charles de Blénac, Marquis de la Roche-Courbon, was born to a noble family in 1622 in Romegoux, Saintonge, his parents were dame de La Sauzaie. His sister Marie married André de Talleyrand-Périgord. Charles de Blénac married Angélique de La Rochefoucauld, daughter of Louis de la Rochefoucauld, seigneur de Bayères, she was the widow of his cousin. They would have eleven children. During the Fronde rebellion Blénac supported the infant King Louis XIV of France, in recognition of his services was made count of Blénac in 1659.
For a long time he served in the land armies. In 1669 he transferred to the navy, in the process of being formed, he advanced through the ranks and became capitaine de vaisseau. He commanded the Infante in the expedition of Jean II d'Estrées against the Barbary pirates, he commanded the Fort in the Battle of Solebay in 1672. Blénac was quick to take offense, early in 1673 was imprisoned for insulting a superior officer. After his release, in August 1673 he was captain of Fortuné in the Battle of Texel; the Franco-Dutch War began in 1672 and lasted until the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678. In the Action of March 1677 a French force under Admiral Jean II d'Estrées attempted to take the Dutch fortress of Sterrshans on Tobago but was repulsed. D'Estrees entered Klip Bay at dawn on 3 March 1677 in his flagship, the 72-gun Glorieux, accompanied by the 58-gun Précieux, 46-gun Émerillon and 38-gun Laurier, his second in command Louis Gabaret in the 56-gun Intrépide led a squadron nearer to the shore that included the 62-gun Fendant commanded by Blénac and four smaller ships.
The French engaged an arc of anchored Dutch warships, under-manned since the Dutch had transferred many men to the land defenses. French land forces attempted to storm fort Sterreschans but were repulsed on three separate attempts; the struggling ships in the harbour began to burn, with fire spreading from one ship to another. The French had to break off after three ships had been burned to the waterline, two run ashore and other badly damaged, with over 1,000 casualties. D'Estree was back in France by early July. During the retreat to Grenada the French heard of the death of Jean-Charles de Baas, Blénac was appointed to replace him as lieutenant general of the Antilles, he returned to France with D'Estrées to have his appointment confirmed. Louis XIV decided to mount another expedition against Tobago in 1677. Blénac and returned with d'Estrees in the autumn of 1677. On 3 October 1677 d'Estrées left Brest for the West Indies with a squadron of seven ships of the line, four smaller ships, five en flûte ships and four fireships.
It was the strongest naval force that France had sent to the Americas. D'Estrées had the 68-gun Terrible as his flagship, his second in command was François-Bénédict de Rouxel, marquis de Grancey in the 64-gun Tonnant, Blénac commanded the 60-gun Belliqueux. Blénac had instructions to coordinate his action as governor general with d'Estrées, to recruit soldiers and colonists as reinforcements; the squadron sailed to the Cape Verde Islands, took the slaving island of Gorée from the Dutch sailed fast to the Antilles. D'Estrées stopped at Barbados to find out what he could about the strength of the Dutch reached Tobago on 6 December 1677. Blénac led the land force of 950 men, with an artillery train to besiege the Dutch fort; the mortars and cannon had to be dragged about 4 miles to the top of a hill that overlooked the fort, which took three days. The third shell fired by the French hit the powder magazine, the explosion destroyed the fort. 250 men died, including 16 officers. The French attacked at once and within an hour had seized what remained of the fort as well as four sinking ships.
They took 600 prisoners. The French destroyed all the houses and plantation buildings on the island, deported the people and abandoned the island; this victory destroyed Dutch military power in the Antilles. D'Estrées next sailed to Martinique to prepare an attack on Curaçao. Blénac raised a large contingent of buccaneers to support this expedition. During Blénac's time in office as governor general of the Antilles he devoted much of his energy to developing the city of Fort Royal, which de Baas had established as the seat of the lieutenant general of the Antilles, he chose to live at Fort-Royal instead of Saint-Pierre to encourage growth of the town and the fortress. Before this the town had been an unplanned cluster of buildings along the Carénage River. Blénac ordered the bogs around the site to be drained or filled in, making room for a grid of streets centered on a main square known as the Savane, he strengthened the defenses of the citadel. He reported to the king in 1686, I do not believe that you have in the islands of America a colonist better established than I am in Cul-de-Sac at Fort-Royal.
There were not more than three sugar-refineries. There was not a single hen.