California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships. In recent naval usage, a'barbette' is a protective circular armour support for a heavy gun turret; this evolved from earlier forms of gun protection that led to the pre-dreadnought. The name comes from fortification meaning a raised platform or mound, seen in the French phrase en barbette, which refers to the practice of firing a cannon over a parapet rather than through an embrasure in a fortification's casemate; the former less protection than the latter. The disappearing gun was a variation on the barbette gun, they were used in coastal defences, but saw some use in a handful of warships, some inland fortifications. The term is used for certain aircraft gun mounts. Shipboard barbettes were used in armoured warships starting in the 1860s during a period of intense experimentation with other mounting systems for heavy guns at sea. In these, gun barrels protruded over the barbette edge, so these provided only partial protection for the ammunition supply.
Alternatives included the armored gun turret and an armored, fixed central gun battery. By the late 1880s, all three systems were replaced with a hybrid barbette-turret system that combined the benefits of both types; the armored vertical tube that supported the new gun mount was referred to as a barbette. Guns with restricted arcs of fire mounted in heavy bombers during World War II—such those in the tail of the aircraft, as opposed to revolving turrets—were sometimes referred to as having barbette mounts, though usage of the term is restricted to British publications. American authors refer to such mounts as tail guns or tail gun turrets; the use of barbette mountings originated in ground fortifications. The term referred to a raised platform on a rampart for one or more guns, enabling them to be fired over a parapet; this gave rise to the phrase en barbette, which referred to a gun placed to fire over a parapet, rather than through an embrasure, an opening in a fortification wall. While an en barbette emplacement offered wider arcs of fire, it exposed the gun's crew to greater danger from hostile fire.
In addition, since the barbette position would be higher than a casemate position—that is, a gun firing through an embrasure—it would have a greater field of fire. The American military theorist Dennis Hart Mahan suggested that light guns howitzers, were best suited for barbette emplacements since they could fire explosive shells and could be withdrawn when they came under enemy fire. Fortifications in the 19th century employed both casemate and barbette emplacements. For example, the Russian Fort Constantine outside Sevastopol was equipped with 43 heavy guns in its seaward side during the Crimean War in the mid-1850s. A modified version of the barbette type was the disappearing gun, which placed a heavy gun on a carriage that retracted behind a parapet for reloading; the type was used for coastal defence guns. As naval gun turrets improved to allow greater elevation and range, many disappearing guns, most of which were limited in elevation, were seen as obsolescent. However, they remained in use through the early Second World War, at least by the United States, due to limited funding for replacement weapons between the wars.
Heavy coastal guns were protected in hybrid installations, in wide casemates with cantilevered overhead cover covering a barbette or gunhouse mount. Following the introduction of ironclad warships in the early 1860s, naval designers grappled with the problem of mounting heavy guns in the most efficient way possible; the first generation of ironclads employed the same broadside arrangement as the old ship of the line, but it was not effective for ahead or stern fire. This was important to designers, since the tactic of ramming was revived following its successful employment at the decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Lissa in 1866. Ramming required a ship to steam directly at its opponent, which increased the importance of end-on fire. Designers such as Cowper Phipps Coles and John Ericsson designed the first gun turrets in the 1860s, which gave the guns a wide field of fire; these turrets were exceedingly heavy, which required them to be placed low in the ship to reduce top-weight—and produced a dangerous tendency to capsize in heavy seas, amply demonstrated by the loss of HMS Captain and Coles himself with the ship in a gale in 1870.
In the 1870s, designers began to experiment with an en barbette type of mounting. The barbette was a fixed armoured enclosure protecting the gun; the barbette could take the form of a circular or elongated ring of armour around the rotating gun mount over which the guns fired. The barbette system reduced weight since the machinery for the rotating gun mount, along with the mount itself, was much lighter than that required for the gun house of a turret; the savings in weight could be passed on to increase armour protection for the hull, improve coal storage capacity, or to install larger, more powerful engines. In addition, because barbettes were lighter, they could be placed higher in the ship without jeopardizing stability, which improved their ability to be worked in heavy seas
United States Army Coast Artillery Corps
The U. S. Army Coast Artillery Corps was an administrative corps responsible for coastal and anti-aircraft defense of the United States between 1901 and 1950; the CAC operated heavy and railway artillery during World War I. As early as 1882 the need for heavy fixed artillery for seacoast defense was noted in Chester A. Arthur's Second Annual Message to Congress where he noted: "I call your attention to the recommendation of the Secretary and the board that authority be given to construct two more cruisers of smaller dimensions and one fleet dispatch vessel, that appropriations be made for high-power rifled cannon for the torpedo service and for other harbor defenses." In 1885 the Endicott Board was convened under the subsequent Grover Cleveland administration, chaired by Secretary of War William Crowninshield Endicott. This board recommended a large-scale program of harbor defenses at 29 ports, including guns and mine fields. Most of their recommendations were implemented and new defenses were constructed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers 1895-1905.
As the defenses were constructed, each harbor or river's installations were controlled by Artillery Districts, renamed Coast Defense Commands in 1913 and Harbor Defense Commands in 1925. With the 1913 renaming, Artillery Districts became regional commands, each including several coast defense commands. An extensive fire control system was developed and provided for the forts of each Artillery District. Army leaders realized that heavy fixed artillery required different training programs and tactics than mobile field artillery. Prior to 1901 each of the seven artillery regiments contained both heavy and light artillery batteries. In February 1901 the Artillery Corps was divided into two types: field artillery and coast artillery; the previous seven artillery regiments were dissolved, 30 numbered companies of field artillery and 126 numbered companies of coast artillery were authorized. 82 existing heavy artillery batteries were designated as coast artillery companies, 44 new CA companies were created by splitting existing units and filling their ranks with recruits.
The company-based organization was for flexibility, as each harbor defense command was differently equipped and a task-based organization was needed. The Coast Artillery would alternate between small unit and regimental organization several times over its history; the head of the Artillery Corps became the Chief of Artillery in the rank of brigadier general with jurisdiction over both types of artillery. Circa 1901 the Coast Artillery took responsibility for the installation and operation of the controlled mine fields from the Corps of Engineers. With that responsibility the Coast Artillery began to acquire the vessels required to plant and maintain the mine fields and cables connecting the mines to the mine casemate ashore organized as a "Submarine Mine Battery" within the installation command, "submarine" meaning "underwater" in this case; the larger vessels, mine planters, were civilian crewed until the creation of the U. S. Army Mine Planter Service and Warrant Officer Corps in 1918 to provide officers and engineers for the ships designated as mine planters.
The mine component was considered to be among the principal armament of coastal defense works. In 1905, after the experiences of the Spanish–American War, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a new board on fortifications, under Secretary of War William Howard Taft, they reviewed the progress of the Endicott board's program. Most of the changes recommended by this board were technical; the board recommended fortifications in territories acquired from Spain: Cuba and the Philippines, as well as Hawaii and a few other sites. Defenses in Panama were authorized by the Spooner Act of 1902. Due to rapid development of the dreadnought battleship type, a new 14-inch gun was introduced in a few locations Los Angeles, the Philippines and Panama; the Taft program fortifications differed in battery construction and had fewer numbers of guns at a given location than those of the Endicott program. By the beginning of World War I, the United States had a coastal defense system, equal to any other nation; the rapidity of technological advances and changing techniques separated coastal defenses from field artillery.
Officers were qualified to command both, requiring specialization. As a result, in 1907, Congress split the Field Artillery and Coast Artillery into separate branches, creating a separate Coast Artillery Corps, authorizing an increase in the Coast Artillery Corps to 170 numbered companies. National Guard coast artillery units were formed by the states to attempt to bring the CAC up to strength in wartime. Confusingly, many of these units were designated Coast Artillery Corps of their respective state National Guards. In 1907 the United States Army Field Artillery School at Fort Monroe became the Coast Artillery School, which operated until 1946, in 1908, the Chief of Artillery became the Chief of Coast Artillery in the rank of major general; as with the rest of the US Armed Forces, the Coast Artillery was undermanned and poorly equipped except for coastal artillery weapons when war broke out in Europe in 1914. The War Department formed a Board of Review that recommended an increase in strength, which resulted in 105 new CA companies in 1916-17, although these were undermanned.
After the American entry into World War I, the Coast Artillery as a
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
15th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 15th United States Infantry Regiment is a parent regiment in the United States Army. It has a lineage tracing back to the American Civil War; the official Army history and lineage does not credit the current 15th Infantry with the honors or lineage of these earlier regiments. The first 15th Infantry in the U. S. Army was organized on 16 July 1798 for the "Quasi-War" with France; the regiment saw no war service and was inactivated in 1800. A second 15th Infantry was activated in 1812 in New Jersey for service in Canada during the War of 1812; the 15th fought in the capture of Toronto and Fort George in April and May 1813, covered the retreat of militia troops from Fort George in December 1813. In this retreat, no member of the 15th was captured, despite taking heavy casualties; the 15th fought in the Champlain Valley campaign in autumn 1814 at Plattsburgh, participated in General Dearborn's offensive in Ontario in October, took part in many smaller battles that same year. The regiment was eliminated in the Army reorganization of 1815.
On 11 February 1847, a new 15th Infantry was activated for service in Mexico. As companies of the 15th arrived at Vera Cruz, they moved inland to join General Winfield Scott's army advancing on Mexico City; the regiment fought in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, as well as smaller engagements before storming the walls of Chapultepec in Mexico City. Following garrison duty in Mexico City and Cuernavaca, the regiment returned to the United States for inactivation in August 1848; the current 15th Infantry was activated during the Civil War on 3 May 1861 by General Order No. 33 with its headquarters first in Wheeling, West Virginia Cleveland, Ohio on to Newport Barracks and ending up in Fort Adams, Rhode Island. At the Battle of Shiloh on 7 April 1862, the 15th Infantry was the first new infantry regiment to engage in battle in the Civil War. In April–May 1862, the regiment marched toward and fought in the First Battle of Corinth, Mississippi. By the end of the Civil War, the regiment had fought in 22 major engagements, including Chattanooga, Chickamauga and Atlanta as a part of BG King's Brigade of Johnson's Division, XIV Army Corps of the Army of the Cumberland.
The regiment was a key element of the only regular brigade in Sherman's Army. The regiment's crest includes the acorn, the symbol of the Major General George Thomas's XIV Corps, the mountains of stone to symbolize the corps' firm stand as the "Rock of Chickamauga"; the four acorns represent the four major engagements. Following the Civil War, the 15th Infantry served on occupation duty in Alabama until 1869; the regiment redeployed to the West, serving in Missouri, New Mexico, the Dakotas, Colorado. The regiment remained in New Mexico for a little over 12 years. At the end of that time, the headquarters and six companies were sent to Colorado. In 1879 and 1880 the regiment was involved in operations against the Mimbres Apaches under the warrior Victorio in New Mexico and received a campaign streamer for those operations. In October and November 1882, the regiment was transferred to the Department of Dakota: Headquarters, A, C, D, H Companies took station at Fort Randall, South Dakota; the 15th participated in campaigns against the Ute Tribe of Colorado and against the Mescalero Apaches.
In May 1890, four companies proceeded to new posts in the Department of the East: A and G Companies moved to Mount Vernon Barracks, Alabama. In July 1890 Companies I and K were skeletonized. In July, the headquarters and the five companies remaining in the Department of Dakota were assigned to Fort Sheridan, Illinois. In August, Companies E and H proceeded to Fort Sheridan; the regimental headquarters moved to Fort Sheridan in January 1891. The remaining companies from Dakota and the companies serving in the South completed their moves in May 1891; the final reconsolidation of all 15th Infantry companies after 12 years of being scattered throughout the West and South was concluded on 29 May 1891. While at Fort Sheridan the regiment played a vital role in containing the Chicago Railway Riots in July 1894; the regiment remained as part of the Department of the Missouri until 15 October 1896 served in the Department of Colorado from 19 October 1896 to 6 October 1898. With the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898, the regiment moved to Huntsville, Alabama, on 12 October for intensive training.
On 27 November 1898, it sailed from Savannah, Georgia for Nuevitas, for occupation duty. On 5 January 1900, the regiment sailed home to be posted throughout upper New York State and Vermont; the regimental headquarters and First Battalion arrived in San Francisco on 16 July 1900. They boarded the Transport Sumner and sailed for Nagasaki, Japan on 17 July. In July, Companies I, K, L left their stations for San Francisco and went into camp at the Presidio. M Company came from Fort McPherson at the same time; the First Battalion arrived at Nagasaki on 10 August. There they transferred to the Transport Indiana, sailed for Tientsin via Taku on 13 August; the battalion arrived off of the Taku forts on 16 August. During the latter part of the month, the Battalion reconnoitered and skirmished continuously over the same terrain where the 9th Infantry had lost 100 men killed in action. Despite the fact that the Boxers had been dispersed several mon
6-inch gun M1897
The 6-inch gun M1897 and its variants the M1900, M1903, M1905, M1908, M1 were coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1897 and 1945. For most of their history they were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, they were installed on disappearing carriages or pedestal mountings, during World War II many were remounted on shielded barbette carriages. Most of the weapons not in the Philippines were scrapped within a few years after World War II. In 1885, William C. Endicott, President Grover Cleveland's Secretary of War, was tasked with creating the Board of Fortifications to review seacoast defenses; the findings of the board illustrated a grim picture of existing defenses in its 1886 report and recommended a massive $127 million construction program of breech-loading cannons, floating batteries, submarine mines for some 29 locations on the US coastline. Most of the Board's recommendations were implemented. United States Army Coast Artillery Corps fortifications built between 1885 and 1905 are referred to as Endicott Period fortifications.
The 6-inch caliber was chosen, as in many applications, for combining a heavy shell with rapid hand loading. In the overall system, it was an intermediate caliber between the heavy 8-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch weapons and the small 3-inch guns intended to defend minefields against minesweepers; the Watervliet Arsenal built the barrels. Most of the guns were mounted on disappearing carriages. Within a few years, it was realized that operating the disappearing carriage negatively impacted the rate of fire, the M1900 low-profile pedestal mount was designed. On the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898 most of the Endicott fortifications were still under construction. To arm some works a few weapons were purchased from the United Kingdom including nine 6-inch Armstrong guns, two of which survive at Fort DeSoto near St. Petersburg, Florida; these appear to have been withdrawn from service by 1925. Between the Endicott program and the 1905–15 Taft Board fortifications 200 6-inch guns were emplaced in the United States and its possessions, around 150 of which were on disappearing carriages.
After the American entry into World War I, the Army recognized the need for large-caliber guns for use on the Western Front. The Coast Artillery operated all US Army heavy artillery in that war, due to their experience and training with these weapons. A total of 92 6-inch coast defense guns were removed from fixed emplacements or drawn from spares and mounted on M1917 wheeled carriages as field guns, they were nicknamed "6-inch Terrors". However, due to the Armistice, none of these regiments completed training in time to see action. By this time, pedestal mounts for 6-inch guns were known to be superior to disappearing mounts, being able to more track targets with a faster rate of fire. Thus, most disappearing guns were dismounted for use as field guns, while most of the few pedestal guns dismounted were returned to the forts soon after the war; the removed 6-inch disappearing guns were stored and many were returned to service in World War II. The Army weapons removed included up to 18 M1900 guns and 74 M1903 and M1905 guns based on carriages ordered.
One source states that 68 M1903/M1905 guns arrived in France. An additional 46 6-inch guns of other types were provided by the Navy and 30 ex-Navy guns from arms dealer Francis Bannerman; these included Navy guns Marks 2 through 6, of 30, 40, 45, 50 calibers length. All of the Bannerman guns were 30 calibers long. Sources state that all Navy guns were cut down to 30 calibers barrel length in an attempt to standardize ballistics, as, the length of the shortest Navy guns. Thirty-seven M1917B carriages were ordered for the Navy guns, with a view to having a spare tube for each carriage; some of the Army weapons were returned to coast defenses after the war, but most were stored until World War II. One survives on a field carriage in the collection of the U. S. Army Ordnance Training and Heritage Center, Fort Lee, Virginia. In June 1919, after the Treaty of Versailles was signed, the field carriages for the 6-inch guns were declared obsolete and entirely scrapped. Along with other coast artillery weapons, some of the 6-inch guns in the Philippines saw action in the Japanese invasion in World War II.
Since they were positioned against a naval attack, they were poorly sited to engage the Japanese, the open mountings were vulnerable to air and high-angle artillery attack. In 1940–44, 16-inch gun batteries were constructed at most harbor defenses to replace the aging Endicott- and Taft-era weapons. Many 6-inch weapons were remounted on M1 through M4 shielded barbette carriages at new locations in two-gun batteries to complement the 16-inch guns; these allowed higher-angle fire than previous mountings, extended the 6-inch guns' range from 17,000 yards to 27,000 yards. M1903 and M1905 weapo
Inverness is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located in western Marin County, California. Inverness is located on the southwest shore of Tomales Bay 3.5 miles northwest of Point Reyes Station, at an elevation of 43 feet. In the 2010 census, the population was 1,304; the community is named after Inverness and was named by a Scottish landowner. Inverness is north of San Francisco, on a bay of the Pacific Ocean. Inverness is located on the west shore of Tomales Bay, which runs southeast along the line of the San Andreas Fault. Surrounded by Point Reyes National Seashore, it is a residential community, with little industry other than tourism, it has a small downtown area with a general store, post office, two restaurants, one gift shop and a coffee shop. A third restaurant is located a short way north of downtown. There are a number of hotels and inns spread throughout the town. One aspect of the town is a concentration of recreational boating. There is a small public marina, a few private piers, the Inverness Yacht Club.
Portions of the John Carpenter film The Fog as well as most of his film Village of the Damned were shot in and around Inverness. The town is 15 miles or so from Drake's Bay on the Pacific Ocean, named after Sir Francis Drake, who explored the coast in the 16th Century. Although Drake's official log was lost, the ship's doctor's log described landing in an area that reminded him of the White Cliffs of Dover. Drake's Bay is backed by similar-looking cliffs, leading many to believe this is where the ship landed; the region became the property of James Shafter. It became a summer resort where people from San Francisco and Oakland came to camp and swim in Tomales Bay. Many built small summer cabins. Small steamboats took day trippers down the bay to secluded beaches, they left from Brock Schreiber's boathouse, preserved and is a prominent local landmark with its prominent sign "Launch for Hire". The first post office opened in 1897. In 1995, Inverness Ridge was the site of the Mt. Vision Fire, which burned a large area of Point Reyes National Seashore and a number of homes built on the ridge.
The town itself was threatened but was saved by helicopters dipping water from Tomales Bay to drop on the Bishop pine forest between the town and the burning ridgetop. Inverness is located at 38°06′04″N 122°51′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.8 square miles, of which, 6.4 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. The town is adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. Inverness is spread out along 2 miles of the western shore and valleys of Tomales Bay on the Point Reyes Peninsula, it provides services to visitors to the Point Reyes National Seashore and Tomales Bay State Park. Other nearby towns include Point Reyes Station, Inverness Park and Marshall; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Inverness has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; however the site experiences an narrow range of temperatures, with July being only 4 °F warmer than January.
The warmest month is October, a pattern common in the San Francisco bay area due to the annual rollover in ocean currents. However note that the nearest NOAA-reporting weather station to Inverness is about 10 miles from downtown, at the Point Reyes Lighthouse, in an area with much more sea breeze exposure; the 2010 United States Census reported that Inverness had a population of 1,304. The population density was 190.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Inverness was 1,212 White, 15 African American, 8 Native American, 16 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 19 from other races, 32 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 79 persons; the Census reported. There were 697 households, out of which 90 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 300 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 33 had a female householder with no husband present, 14 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 48 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 9 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
278 households were made up of individuals and 109 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.87. There were 347 families; the population was spread out with 139 people under the age of 18, 35 people aged 18 to 24, 226 people aged 25 to 44, 553 people aged 45 to 64, 351 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 57.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. There were 1,130 housing units at an average density of 165.3 per square mile, of which 451 were owner-occupied, 246 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. 65.7% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 34.3% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,421 people, 707 households, 364 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 237.9 people per square mile 100.1/km²). There were 999 housing units at an average density of 167.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of th