National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Governors Island is a 172-acre island in New York Harbor 800 yards from the southern tip of Manhattan Island and separated from Brooklyn by Buttermilk Channel 400 yards. It is part of the borough of Manhattan in New York City; the National Park Service administers a small portion of the north of the island as the Governors Island National Monument, while the Trust for Governors Island operates the remaining 150 acres, including 52 historic buildings. Today, Governors Island is a popular seasonal destination open to the public between May and September with a 43-acre public park completed between 2012 and 2016, free arts and cultural events, recreational activities; the island is accessed by ferries from Manhattan. The Lenape of the Manhattan region referred to the island as Paggank after the island's plentiful hickory and chestnut trees; the island's current name, made official in 1784, stems from the British colonial era, when the colonial assembly reserved the island for the exclusive use of New York's royal governors.
In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, Continental Army troops raised defensive works on the island, which they used to fire upon British ships before they were taken. From 1783 to 1966, the island was a United States Army post, from 1966 to 1996, the island served as a major United States Coast Guard installation. About 103 acres of fill was added to the island by 1912. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano saw the called Paggank island, becoming the first European in record to do so. By the Native Americans. In May 1624, Noten Eylandt was the landing place of the first settlers in New Netherland, they had arrived from the Dutch Republic with the ship New Netherland under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen May, who disembarked on the island with thirty families in order to take possession of the New Netherland territory. As such, the New York State Senate and Assembly recognize Governors Island as the birthplace of the state of New York, certify the island as the place on which the planting of the "legal-political guaranty of tolerance onto the North American continent" took place.
In 1633, the fifth director of New Netherland, Wouter van Twiller, arrived with a 104-man regiment on Governors Island—its first use as a military base. He operated a farm on the island, he secured his farm by drawing up a deed on June 16, 1637, signed by two Lenape and Pewihas, on behalf of their community at Keshaechquereren, situated in what today is New Jersey. New Netherland was conditionally ceded to the English in 1664, the English renamed the settlement New York in June 1665. By 1674, the British had total control of the island. After the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, in one night, April 9, 1776, Continental Army General Israel Putnam fortified the island with earthworks and 40 cannons in anticipation of the return of the British Army and navy who had quit New York City the year before; the harbor defenses on the island continued to be improved over the summer, on July 12, 1776, engaged HMS Phoenix and HMS Rose as they made a run up the Hudson River to the Tappan Zee. The colonists' cannon inflicted enough damage to make the British commanders cautious of entering the East River, which contributed to the success of General George Washington's retreat across it from Brooklyn into Manhattan after the Battle of Long Island, the British Army effort to take Brooklyn Heights overlooking Manhattan and the largest battle of the entire war.
The Continental Army forces collapsed after being flanked and withdrew from Brooklyn and from Governors Island as well, the British occupied it in late August. From September 2 to 14, the new British garrison would engage volleys with Washington's guns on the battery in front of Fort George in Manhattan; the fort, along with the rest of New York City, was held by the British for the rest of the war until Evacuation Day at the end of the war in 1783. At the end of the Revolution, the island, as a former holding of the Crown, came into ownership by the state of New York and saw no military usage. Prompted by the unsettled international situation between the warring powers of France and Great Britain and the need for more substantial harbor fortifications, the Revolutionary War-era earthworks were rehabilitated into harbor defenses by the city and state of New York. Noten Island was renamed Governors Island in 1784 as the island, in earlier times, had been reserved by the British colonial assembly for the exclusive use of New York's royal governors.
The Governor's House survives as the oldest structure on the island. By the late 1790s, the Quasi-War with France prompted a national program of harbor fortifications and the state of New York began improvements as a credit for its Revolutionary War debt. In February 1800, the island was conveyed to the federal government, which undertook the reconstruction of Fort Jay and new construction of two waterfront batteries, Castle Williams and South or Half Moon Battery. Two forts were built; the first, Fort Jay, was built in 1794 by the state of New York on the site of the earlier Revolutionary War earthworks, was a square four-bastioned fort of earthworks and timber. A sandstone and brick gate house topped with a sculpture of an eagle dates to that time and is the oldest structure on the island. From 1806 to 1809, Fort Jay renamed Fort Columbus was reconstructed in
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, the American financial services industry, or New York–based financial interests. Anchored by Wall Street, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Wall Street area, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, the New York Board of Trade, the former American Stock Exchange. There are varying accounts about. A accepted version is that the name of the street was derived from a wall on the northern boundary of the New Amsterdam settlement, built to protect against Native Americans and the British.
A conflicting explanation is that Wall Street was named after Walloons—the Dutch name for a Walloon is Waal. Among the first settlers that embarked on the ship "Nieu Nederlandt" in 1624 were 30 Walloon families. While the Dutch word "wal" can be translated as "rampart", it only appeared as "de Walstraat" on English maps of New Amsterdam; however some English maps show the name as Waal Straat, not as Wal Straat. According to one version of the story: The red people from Manhattan Island crossed to the mainland, where a treaty was made with the Dutch, the place was therefore called the Pipe of Peace, in their language, Hoboken, but soon after that, the Dutch governor, sent his men out there one night and massacred the entire population. Few of them escaped, but they spread the story of what had been done, this did much to antagonize all the remaining tribes against all the white settlers. Shortly after, Nieuw Amsterdam erected a double palisade for defense against its now enraged red neighbors, this remained for some time the northern limit of the Dutch city.
The space between the former walls is now called Wall Street, its spirit is still that of a bulwark against the people. In the 1640s basic picket and plank fences denoted residences in the colony. On behalf of the Dutch West India Company, Peter Stuyvesant, using both African slaves and white colonists, collaborated with the city government in the construction of a more substantial fortification, a strengthened 12-foot wall. In 1685, surveyors laid out Wall Street along the lines of the original stockade; the wall started at Pearl Street, the shoreline at that time, crossing the Indian path Broadway and ending at the other shoreline, where it took a turn south and ran along the shore until it ended at the old fort. In these early days, local merchants and traders would gather at disparate spots to buy and sell shares and bonds, over time divided themselves into two classes—auctioneers and dealers. Wall Street was the marketplace where owners could hire out their slaves by the day or week; the rampart was removed in 1699 and a new City Hall built at Wall and Nassau in 1700.
Slavery was introduced to Manhattan in 1626, but it was not until December 13, 1711, that the New York City Common Council made Wall Street the city's first official slave market for the sale and rental of enslaved Africans and Indians. The slave market operated from 1711 to 1762 at the corner of Pearl Streets, it was a wooden structure with a roof and open sides, although walls may have been added over the years and could hold 50 men. The city directly benefited from the sale of slaves by implementing taxes on every person, bought and sold there. In the late 18th century there was a buttonwood tree at the foot of Wall Street under which traders and speculators would gather to trade securities; the benefit was being in proximity to each other. In 1792, traders formalized their association with the Buttonwood Agreement, the origin of the New York Stock Exchange; the idea of the agreement was to make the market more "structured" and "without the manipulative auctions", with a commission structure.
Persons signing the agreement agreed to charge each other a standard commission rate. In 1789 Wall Street was the scene of the United States' first presidential inauguration when George Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on April 30, 1789; this was the location of the passing of the Bill Of Rights. Alexander Hamilton, the first Treasury secretary and "architect of the early United States financial system," is buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, as is Robert Fulton famed for his steamboats. In the first few decades, both residences and businesses occupied the area, but business predominated. "There are old stories of people's houses being surrounded by the clamor of business and trade and the owners complaining that they can't get anything done," according to a historian named Burrows. The opening of the Erie Canal in the early 19th century meant a huge boom in business for New York City, since it was the only major eastern seaport which had direct access by inland waterways to ports on the Great Lakes.
Wall Street became the "money capital of America". Historian Charles R. Geisst suggested that there has been a "tug-of-war" between business interests on Wall Street and authorities in Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States by then. During the 19th c
New Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The factorij became a settlement outside Fort Amsterdam; the fort was situated on the strategic southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was meant to defend the fur trade operations of the Dutch West India Company in the North River. In 1624, it became a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic and was designated as the capital of the province in 1625. By 1655, the population of New Netherland had grown to 2,000 people, with 1,500 living in New Amsterdam. By 1664, the population had exploded to 9,000 people in New Netherland, 2,500 of whom lived in New Amsterdam, 1,000 lived near Fort Orange, the remainder in other towns and villages. In 1664 the English renamed it New York after the Duke of York. After the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–1667, England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands agreed to the status quo in the Treaty of Breda.
The English kept the island of Manhattan, the Dutch giving up their claim to the town and the rest of the colony, while the English formally abandoned Surinam in South America, the island of Run in the East Indies to the Dutch, confirming their control of the valuable Spice Islands. Today much of is in New York City. In 1524, nearly a century before the arrival of the Dutch, the site that became New Amsterdam was named New Angoulême by the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, to commemorate his patron King Francis I of France, former Count of Angoulême; the first recorded exploration by the Dutch of the area around what is now called New York Bay was in 1609 with the voyage of the ship Halve Maen, captained by Henry Hudson in the service of the Dutch Republic, as the emissary of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Holland's stadholder. Hudson named the river the Mauritius River, he was covertly attempting to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch East India Company. Instead, he brought back news about the possibility of exploitation of beaver by the Dutch who sent commercial, private missions to the area the following years.
At the time, beaver pelts were prized in Europe, because the fur could be felted to make waterproof hats. A by-product of the trade in beaver pelts was castoreum—the secretion of the animals' anal glands—which was used for its medicinal properties and for perfumes; the expeditions by Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiaensen in 1611, 1612, 1613 and 1614, resulted in the surveying and charting of the region from the 38th parallel to the 45th parallel. On their 1614 map, which gave them a four-year trade monopoly under a patent of the States General, they named the newly discovered and mapped territory New Netherland for the first time, it showed the first year-round trading presence in New Netherland, Fort Nassau, which would be replaced in 1624 by Fort Orange, which grew into the town of Beverwijck, now Albany. Dominican trader Juan Rodriguez, born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, arrived on Manhattan Island during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch.
He was the first recorded non-Native American inhabitant of what would become New York City. The territory of New Netherland was a private, profit-making commercial enterprise focused on cementing alliances and conducting trade with the diverse Native American ethnic groups. Surveying and exploration of the region was conducted as a prelude to an anticipated official settlement by the Dutch Republic, which occurred in 1624. In 1620 the Pilgrims attempted to sail to the Hudson River from England. However, the Mayflower reached Cape Cod on November 1620, after a voyage of 64 days. For a variety of reasons a shortage of supplies, the Mayflower could not proceed to the Hudson River, the colonists decided to settle near Cape Cod, establishing the Plymouth Colony; the mouth of the Hudson River was selected as the ideal place for initial settlement as it had easy access to the ocean while securing an ice-free lifeline to the beaver trading post near present-day Albany. Here, Native American hunters supplied them with pelts in exchange for European-made trade goods and wampum, soon being made by the Dutch on Long Island.
In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was founded. Between 1621 and 1623, orders were given to the private, commercial traders to vacate the territory, thus opening up the territory to Dutch settlers and company traders, it allowed the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland to apply. During the private, commercial period, only the law of the ship had applied. In May 1624, the first settlers in New Netherland arrived on Noten Eylandt aboard the ship New Netherland under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen May, who disembarked on the island with thirty families in order to take legal possession of the New Netherland territory; the families were dispersed to Fort Wilhelmus on Verhulsten Island in the South River, to Kievitshoek at the mouth of the Verse River and further north at Fort Nassau on the Mauritius or North River, near what is now Albany. A fort and sawmill were soon erected at Nut Island; the latter was constructed by Franchoys Fezard and was taken apart for iron in 1648. The threat of attack from other European colonial powers prompted the directors of
Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171, it is the 10th largest municipality in Connecticut, the largest that functions as a town. The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as in the six-state region of New England, it is 40 to 50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich 12th on its list of the "100 Best Places to Live in the United States" in 2005; the town is named after a Royal borough of London in the United Kingdom. The town of Greenwich was settled in 1640. One of the founders was Elizabeth Fones Winthrop, daughter-in-law of John Winthrop and Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. What is now called Greenwich Point was known for much of the area's early history as "Elizabeth's Neck" in recognition of Elizabeth Fones and their 1640 purchase of the Point and much of the area now known as Old Greenwich.
Greenwich was declared a township by the General Assembly in Hartford on May 11, 1665. During the American Revolution, General Israel Putnam made a daring escape from the British on February 26, 1779. Although British forces pillaged the town, Putnam was able to warn Stamford. In 1974, Gulliver's Restaurant and Bar, on the border of Greenwich and Port Chester, killing 24 young people. In 1983, the Mianus River Bridge, which carries traffic on Interstate 95 over an estuary, resulting in the death of three people. For many years, Greenwich Point, was open only to their guests. However, a lawyer sued, saying his rights to freedom of assembly were threatened because he was not allowed to go there; the lower courts disagreed, but the Supreme Court of Connecticut agreed, Greenwich was forced to amend its beach access policy to all four beaches in 2001. These beaches include Greenwich Point Park, Island Beach, Great Captain Island, Byram Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 67.2 square miles, of which 47.8 square miles is land and 19.4 square miles, or 28.88%, is water.
In terms of area, Greenwich is twice the size of Manhattan. The town is bordered to the west and north by Westchester County, New York, to the east by the city of Stamford, faces the Village of Bayville to the south across the Long Island Sound. If you travel far enough east from Greenwich, you hit Long Island at its extremity. Therefore, Greenwich is in a geographically exceptional position, being in a sense surrounded by New York; the Census Bureau recognizes seven CDPs within the town: Byram, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside, a "Greenwich" CDP covering a portion of town. The USPS lists separate zip codes for Greenwich, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside. Additionally, Greenwich is further divided into several smaller, unofficial neighborhoods. Longtime residents have a fierce loyalty and superior opinion of their particular neighborhood; the Hispanic population is concentrated in the southwestern corner of the town. In 2011, numerous neighborhoods were voted by the Business Insider as being the richest neighborhoods in America.
Byram, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside each have their own ZIP Codes and with the exception of Byram, each has a Metro North station. American Lane is separated by Interstate 684 from the entire rest of Connecticut and can be reached only from New York State. Round Hill, with an elevation of more than 550 feet, was a lookout point for the Continental Army during the American Revolution; the Manhattan skyline is visible from the top of the hill. Bush-Holley House Putnam Cottage Calf Island, a 29-acre island about 3,000 feet from the Byram shore in Greenwich, is open for visitors, although as of the summer of 2006 it was getting few of them. More than half of the island is a bird sanctuary off-limits to members of the public without permission to visit; the island is available for overnight stays for those with permits, otherwise the east side is open from dawn till dusk. Great Captain Island is off the coast of Greenwich, is the southernmost point in Connecticut. There is a Coast Guard lighthouse on this island, as well as a designated area as a bird sanctuary.
The lighthouse is a Skeletal Tower. Island Beach or "Little Captain Island" once was the venue for the town's annual Island Beach Day. Ventriloquist Paul Winchell and his dummy, Jerry Mahoney, once came for a show, on another occasion the National Guard let adults and children fire machine guns into the water, according to an article in the Greenwich Time. Island Beach has changed over the decades; the bathhouse once on the island's eastern shore is gone, erosion is eating away at the beaches themselves. Greenwich experiences a humid continental climate. During winter storms, it is common for the area north of the Merritt Parkway to receive heavier snowfall than the area closer to the coast, due to the moderating influence of Long Island Sound; as of the census of 2000, there were 61,101 people, 23,230 households, 16,237 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,277.6 people per square mile. There were 24,511 housing units at an average density of 512.5 per square mile. As of the census of 2013, the racial makeup of the town was 80.90%
Bushwick is a working-class neighborhood in the northern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded by the neighborhood of Queens, to the northeast; the town was first founded by Europeans during the Dutch colonization of the Americas in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the neighborhood became a community of Germanic immigrants and their descendants. Brooklyn's 18th Ward, the neighborhood was once an independent town and has undergone various territorial changes throughout its history. Bushwick is part of Brooklyn Community District 4 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11206, 11207, 11221, 11237, it is patrolled by the 83rd Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 34th and 37th Districts. Bushwick's borders overlap those of Brooklyn Community Board 4, delineated by Flushing Avenue on the north, Broadway on the southwest, the border with Queens to the northeast, the Cemetery of the Evergreens on the southeast.
The industrial area north of Flushing Avenue, east of Bushwick Avenue, south of Grand Street is considered part of East Williamsburg. However, it is commonly included in Bushwick with the modifier "Industrial Bushwick"; the town of Bushwick—which, along with Breukelen and Bedford, became incorporated as the city of Brooklyn on January 1, 1854—included present-day Williamsburg and Greenpoint. Prior to the merger, in the early 19th century, residential development in the area had begun when the new district of Williamsburg was laid out in western Bushwick. Williamsburg was incorporated in 1827 and severed from Bushwick in 1839. Present-day East Williamsburg, not part of the city of Williamsburg, was organized as Brooklyn's 18th Ward from the annexation of Bushwick. Now part of Brooklyn Community District 1, the area of East Williamsburg is considered by some to be part of Bushwick; the centroid, or geographic center, of New York City is in Bushwick "on Stockholm Street between Wyckoff Avenue and St. Nicholas Avenue".
In 1638, the Dutch West India Company secured a deed from the local Lenape people for the Bushwick area, Peter Stuyvesant chartered the area in 1661, naming it Boswijck, meaning "neighbourhood in the woods" in 17th-century Dutch. Its area included the modern-day communities of Bushwick and Greenpoint. Bushwick was the last of the original six Dutch towns of Brooklyn to be established within New Netherland; the community was settled, though unchartered, on February 16, 1660, on a plot of land between the Bushwick and Newtown Creeks by fourteen French and Huguenot settlers, a Dutch translator named Peter Jan De Witt, one of the original eleven slaves brought to New Netherland, Franciscus the Negro, who had worked his way to freedom. The group centered their settlement on a church located near today's Bushwick and Metropolitan Avenues; the major thoroughfare was Woodpoint Road, which allowed farmers to bring their goods to the town dock. This original settlement came to be known as Het Dorp by the Dutch, Bushwick Green by the British.
The English would take over the six towns three years and unite them under Kings County in 1683. Many of Bushwick's Dutch records were lost after its annexation by Brooklyn in 1854. Contemporary reports differ on the reason: T. W. Field writes that "a nice functionary of the City Hall... contemptuously thrust them into his waste-paper sacks", while Eugene Armbruster claims that the movable bookcase containing the records "was coveted by some municipal officer, who turned its contents upon the floor". At the turn of the 19th century, Bushwick consisted of four villages: Green Point, Bushwick Shore, Bushwick Green, Bushwick Crossroads. Bushwick's first major expansion occurred after it annexed the New Lots of Bushwick, a hilly upland claimed by Native Americans in the first treaties they signed with European colonists granting the settlers rights to the lowland on the water. After the second war between the natives and the settlers broke out, the natives fled, leaving the area to be divided among the six towns in Kings County.
Bushwick had the prime location to absorb its new tract of land in a contiguous fashion. New Bushwick Lane, a former Native American trail, was a key thoroughfare for accessing this new tract, suitable for potato and cabbage agriculture; this area is bounded by Flushing Avenue to the north and Evergreen Cemetery to the south. In the 1850s, the New Lots of Bushwick area began to develop. References to the town of Bowronville, a new neighborhood contained within the area south of Lafayette Avenue and Stanhope Street, began to appear in the 1850s; the area known as Bushwick Shore was so called for about 140 years. Bushwick residents called Bushwick Shore "the Strand", another term for "beach". Bushwick Creek, in the north, Cripplebush, a region of thick, boggy shrubland extending from Wallabout Creek to Newtown Creek, in the south and east, cut Bushwick Shore off from the other villages in Bushwick. Farmers and gardeners from the other Bushwick villages sent their goods to Bushwick Shore to be ferried to New York City for sale at a market located at the present-day Grand Street.
Bushwick Shore's favorable location close to New York City led to the creation of several farming developments. A 13-acre development with
Jamaica is a middle-class neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 12, which includes Hollis, St. Albans, Springfield Gardens, Baisley Pond Park, Rochdale Village, South Jamaica. Jamaica is patrolled by the 113th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Jamaica was settled under Dutch rule in 1656 in New Netherland as Rustdorp. Under British rule, Jamaica became the center of the "Town of Jamaica". Jamaica was the first county seat of Queens County, holding that title from 1683 to 1788, was the first incorporated village on Long Island; when Queens was incorporated into the City of Greater New York in 1898, both the Town of Jamaica and the Village of Jamaica were dissolved, but the neighborhood of Jamaica regained its role as county seat. Today, some locals group Jamaica's surrounding neighborhoods into an unofficial Greater Jamaica corresponding to the former Town of Jamaica. Jamaica is the location of several government buildings including Queens Civil Court, the civil branch of the Queens County Supreme Court, the Queens County Family Court and the Joseph P. Addabbo Federal Building, home to the Social Security Administration's Northeastern Program Service Center.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration's Northeast Regional Laboratory as well as the New York District Office are located in Jamaica. Jamaica Center, the area around Jamaica Avenue, is a major commercial center; the New York Racing Association, based at Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, lists its official address as Jamaica. John F. Kennedy International Airport and the hotels nearby use Jamaica as their address. Although many current residents of the Jamaica neighborhood are immigrants from the Caribbean country of the same name, the origins and meanings of the two names differ entirely; the neighborhood was named Yameco, a corruption of a word for "beaver" in the Lenape language spoken by the Native Americans who lived in the area at the time of first European contact. The liquid "y" sound of English is spelled with a "j" in Dutch, the language of the first people to write about the area. Jamaica Avenue was an ancient trail for tribes from as far away as the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, coming to trade skins and furs for wampum.
It was in 1655 that the first settlers paid the Native Americans with two guns, a coat, some powder and lead, for the land lying between the old trail and "Beaver Pond". Dutch Director-General Peter Stuyvesant dubbed the area Rustdorp in granting the 1656 land patent; the English made it part of the county of Yorkshire. In 1683, when the British divided the Province of New York into counties, Jamaica became the county seat of Queens County, one of the original counties of New York. Colonial Jamaica had a band of 56 minutemen who played an active part in the Battle of Long Island, the outcome of which led to the occupation of the New York City area by British troops during most of the American Revolutionary War. Rufus King, a signer of the United States Constitution, relocated here in 1805, he added to a modest 18th-century farmhouse. King Manor was restored at the turn of the 21st century to its former glory, houses King Manor Museum. By 1776, Jamaica had become a trading post for their produce.
For more than a century, their horse-drawn carts plodded along Jamaica Avenue called King's Highway. The Jamaica Post Office opened September 25, 1794, was the only post office in the present-day Boroughs of Queens or Brooklyn before 1803. Union Hall Academy for boys, Union Hall Seminary for girls, were chartered in 1787; the Academy attracted students from all over the United States and the West Indies. The public school system was started in 1813 with funds of $125. Jamaica Village, the first village on Long Island, was incorporated in 1814 with its boundaries being from the present-day Van Wyck Expressway and Jamaica Avenue to Farmers Boulevard and Linden Boulevard in what is now St. Albans. By 1834, the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad company had completed a line to Jamaica. In 1850, the former Kings Highway became the Brooklyn and Jamaica Plank Road, complete with toll gate. In 1866, tracks were laid for a horsecar line, 20 years it was electrified, the first in the state. On January 1, 1898, Queens became part of the City of New York, Jamaica became the county seat.
The present Jamaica station of the Long Island Rail Road was completed in 1913, the BMT Jamaica Line arrived in 1918, followed by the IND Queens Boulevard Line in 1936 and the IND/BMT Archer Avenue Lines in 1988, the latter of which replaced the eastern portion of the Jamaica Line, torn down in 1977–85. The 1920s and 1930s saw the building of the Valencia Theatre, the "futuristic" Kurtz furniture store and the Roxanne Building. In the 1970s, it became the headquarters for the Islamic Society of North America; the many foreclosures and the high le