Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
Battle of Fort Dearborn
The battle, which occurred during the War of 1812, followed the evacuation of the fort as ordered by William Hull, commander of the United States Army of the Northwest. The battle lasted about 15 minutes and resulted in a victory for the Native Americans. Fort Dearborn was burned down and those soldiers and settlers who survived were taken captive, Fort Dearborn was constructed by United States troops under the command of Captain John Whistler in 1803. It was located on the bank of the main stem of the Chicago River in what is now the Loop community area of downtown Chicago. At the time, the area was seen as wilderness, in the view of commander, the fort was named in honor of Henry Dearborn, United States Secretary of War. It had been commissioned following the Northwest Indian War of 1785–1795, the British Empire had ceded the Northwest Territory—comprising the modern states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin—to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in 1783. However the area had been the subject of dispute between the Native American nations and the United States since the passage of the Northwest Ordinance in 1787, the Indian Nations followed Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee prophet and the brother of Tecumseh.
Tenskwatawa had a vision of purifying his society by expelling the children of the Evil Spirit and Tecumseh formed a confederation of numerous tribes to block American expansion. The British saw the Native American nations as valuable allies and a buffer to its Canadian colonies, attacks on American settlers in the Northwest further aggravated tensions between Britain and the United States. The Confederations raids hindered American access to potentially valuable farmlands, mineral deposits, in 1810, as a result of a long running feud, Captain Whistler and other senior officers at Fort Dearborn were removed. Whistler was replaced by Captain Nathan Heald, who had stationed at Fort Wayne. Heald was dissatisfied with his new posting and immediately applied for a leave of absence to spend the winter in Massachusetts. On his return journey to Chicago, he visited Kentucky, where he married Rebekah Wells, the daughter of Samuel Wells, as the United States and Britain moved towards war, antipathy between the settlers and Native Americans in the Chicago area increased.
In the summer of 1811, British emissaries tried to enlist the support of Native Americans in the region, on April 6,1812, a band of Winnebago Indians murdered Liberty White, an American, and John B. Cardin, a French Canadian, at a farm called Hardscrabble that was located on the branch of the Chicago River. News of the murder was carried to Fort Dearborn by a soldier of the garrison named John Kelso, following the murder, some residents of Chicago moved into the fort while the rest fortified themselves in a house that had belonged to Charles Jouett, a Native American agent. Fifteen men from the population were organized into a militia by Captain Heald. On June 18,1812, the United States declared war on the British Empire, Hull sent a copy of these orders to Fort Wayne with additional instructions to provide Heald with all the information and assistance within their power
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions. It usually refers to a fort in the form of a single building, serving as a defensive strong point against any enemy that does not possess siege equipment or, in modern times. A fortification intended to resist these weapons is more likely to qualify as a fortress or a redoubt, or in modern times, however, a blockhouse may refer to a room within a larger fortification, usually a battery or redoubt. The term blockhouse is of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Middle Dutch blokhus, early blockhouses were designed solely to protect a particular area by the use of artillery, and they had accommodation only for the short-term use of the garrison. The first known example is the Cow Tower, built in 1398, the major period of construction was in the maritime defence programmes of Henry VIII between 1539 and 1545. They were built to protect important maritime approaches such as the Thames Estuary, the Solent, the last blockhouse of this type was Cromwells Castle, built in Scilly in 1651.
Blockhouses were a feature in Maltas coastal fortifications built in the 18th century by the Order of St. John. Between 1714 and 1716, dozens of batteries and redoubts were built around the coasts of the Maltese Islands, almost every battery and redoubt had a blockhouse, which served as gun crew accommodation and a place to store munitions. Many of the batteries consisted of a semi-circular or polygonal gun platform, the blockhouses usually had musketry loopholes, and in some cases were linked together by redans. Surviving batteries include Mistra Battery and Ferretti Battery, which both have two blockhouses, and Saint Marys Battery and Saint Anthonys Battery, which have a single blockhouse. Many of the redoubts consisted of a platform with a rectangular blockhouse at the rear. Surviving redoubts with blockhouses include Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq Redoubt and Briconet Redoubt, a few of the redoubts consisted of a single tower-like blockhouse without a platform, and were known as tour-reduits. Of the four tour-reduits that were built, only the Vendôme Tower survives today, originally blockhouses were often constructed as part of a large plan, to block access to vital points in the scheme.
Blockhouses may be made of masonry where available, but were made from very heavy timbers. They were usually two or even three floors, with all storeys being provided with embrasures or loopholes, and the uppermost storey would be roofed, blockhouses were normally entered via a sturdy, barred door at ground level. Most blockhouses were roughly square in plan, but some of the more elaborate ones were hexagonal or octagonal, to provide better all-around fire. In some cases, blockhouses became the basis for complete forts, by building a palisade with the blockhouse at one corner, many historical stone blockhouses have survived, and a few timber ones have been restored at historical sites. In New Zealand, the Cameron Blockhouse, near Whanganui, is one of the few blockhouses to survive from the New Zealand land wars, during the Second Boer War the British forces built a large number of fortifications in South Africa
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary. The term came from French in the 15th century, with the meaning borderland—the region of a country that fronts on another country, a frontier can be referred to as a front. A difference has established in academic scholarship between Frontier and Border, the latter denoting a fixed and clear-cut form of state boundary. In the European Union, the frontier is the region beyond the borders of the European Union itself. EU has designated the countries surrounding it as part of the European Neighbourhood and this is a region of primarily less-developed countries, many of which aspire to become part of the union. Current applicants include Turkey and many countries in the Balkans. Romania and Bulgaria joined EU in 2007, if all or most East European states become members, the frontier may be the boundaries with Russia and Turkey. The expansion of Russia to the north and east exploited ever-changing frontier regions over several centuries, the outside was another term frequently used in colonial Australia, this term seemingly covered not only the frontier but the districts beyond.
Settlers at the frontier thus frequently referred to themselves as the outsiders or outside residents, the word frontier has often meant a region at the edge of a settled area, especially in North American development. It was a zone where explorers and settlers were arriving. Frederick Jackson Turner said that the significance of the frontier was that as pioneers moved into the frontier zone, for example, Turner argues that in the United States in 1893, unlimited free land in this zone was available, and thus offered the psychological sense of unlimited opportunity. This, in turn, had many such as optimism, future orientation, shedding the restraints of land scarcity. Lawrence, Hudson, Susquehanna River and James, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada, although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes and Mississippi River watersheds, as far as the Rocky Mountains, they did not usually settle down.
French settlement in these areas was limited to a few small villages on the lower Mississippi. The Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by grants of land to patroons. The typical English settlements were quite compact and small—under 3 square kilometres, conflict with the Native Americans arose out of political issues, i. e. who would rule. Early frontier areas east of the Appalachian Mountains included the Connecticut River valley, the French and Indian Wars of the 1760s resulted in a complete victory for the British, who took over the French colonial territory west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi River
The Chicago River is a system of rivers and canals with a combined length of 156 miles that runs through the city of Chicago, including its center. The River is noteworthy for its natural and man-made history, in 1999, this system was named a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The river is memorialized, in part, by two blue stripes on the Municipal Flag of Chicago. The source of the North Branch is in the suburbs of Chicago where its three principal tributaries converge. The Skokie River—or East Fork—rises from an area, historically a wetland, near Park City. It flows southward, paralleling the edge of Lake Michigan, through wetlands, the Greenbelt Forest Preserve, South of Highland Park the river passes the Chicago Botanic Gardens and through an area of former marshlands known as the Skokie Lagoons. The Middle Fork arises near Rondout and flows southwards through Lake Forest and these two tributaries merge at Watersmeet Woods west of Wilmette.
From there the North Branch flows south towards Morton Grove, the West Fork rises near Mettawa and flows south through Bannockburn and Northbrook, meeting the North Branch at Morton Grove. South of Belmont the North Branch is lined with a mixture of residential developments, retail parks, the North Branch Canal—or Ogdens Canal—was completed in 1857, and was originally 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep allowing craft navigating the river to avoid the bend. The 1902 Cherry Avenue Bridge, just south of North Avenue, was constructed to carry the Chicago, Milwaukee and it is a rare example of an asymmetric bob-tail swing bridge and was designated a Chicago Landmark in 2007. From Goose Island the North Branch continues to south east to Wolf Point where it joins the Main Stem. The source of the Main Stem of the Chicago River is Lake Michigan, acoustic velocity meters at the Columbus Drive Bridge and the T. J. On the south bank of the river is the site of Fort Dearborn, notable buildings surrounding this area include the NBC Tower, the Tribune Tower, and the Wrigley Building.
The river turns slightly to the south west between Michigan Avenue and State Street, passing the Trump International Hotel and Tower,35 East Wacker, turning west again the river passes Marina City, the Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building, and Merchandise Mart, and 333 Wacker Drive, since the early 2000s, the south shore of the Main Stem has been developed as the Chicago Riverwalk. It provides a linear, lushly landscaped park intended to offer an escape from the busy Loop. Different sections are named Market, Civic and Confluence, the sections between State Street and Lake Street are currently under construction and scheduled to be completed by the end of 2016. The plans reflect ideas first proposed by the Burnham Plan as early as 1909, the source of the South Branch of the Chicago River is the confluence of the North Branch and Main stem at Wolf Point
Father Jacques Marquette S. J. sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigans first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and founded St. Ignace, Michigan, in 1673 Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River. Jacques Marquette was born at Laon, France, on June 1,1637, after he worked and taught in France for several years, the Jesuits assigned him to New France in 1666 as a missionary to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. He showed great proficiency in learning the languages, especially Huron. In 1668 Father Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the St. Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region and he helped found missions at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan in 1668, St. Ignace in 1671, at La Pointe he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important trading route of the Mississippi River.
They invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were mostly farther south, leave was granted, and in 1673, Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer. They departed from St. Ignace on May 17, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry and they followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. Many years later, at point the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built. From the portage, they ventured forth, and on June 17, they entered the Mississippi near present-day Prairie du Chien, the Joliet-Marquette expedition traveled to within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point they had encountered natives carrying European trinkets. They followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River and they reached Lake Michigan near the site of modern-day Chicago, by way of the Chicago Portage.
In September Marquette stopped at the mission of St. Francis Xavier, located in present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin and his party returned to the Illinois Territory in late 1674, becoming the first Europeans to winter in what would become the city of Chicago. As welcomed guests of the Illinois Confederation, the explorers were feasted en route, in the spring of 1675, Marquette traveled westward and celebrated a public mass at the Grand Village of the Illinois near Starved Rock. A bout of dysentery which he had contracted during the Mississippi expedition sapped his health, on the return trip to St. Ignace, he died at age 37 near the modern town of Ludington, Michigan. Marquette Transportation Company, a company using a silhouette of the Pere in his canoe as their emblem. Other types of memorials were erected, including those at his birthplace in Laon, the Legler Branch of the Chicago Public Library displays Wilderness, Winter River Scene, a restored mural by Midwestern artist R. Fayerweather Babcock
Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier.
The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonial
Louis Jolliet was a French Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America. Jolliet and Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette, a Catholic priest and missionary, were the first non-Natives to explore, Jolliet was born in 1645 in a French settlement near Quebec City. When he was seven years old, his father died but his mother remarried a successful merchant, Jolliets stepfather owned land on the Ile dOrleans, an island in the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec that was home to First Nations. Jolliet spent much time on Ile dOrleans, so it was likely that he began speaking Aboriginal languages at a young age, during his childhood, Quebec was the center of the French fur trade. The Natives were part of life in Quebec, and Joliet grew up knowing a lot about them. He entered a Jesuit school as a child and focused on philosophical and religious studies and he studied music, becoming a skilled harpsichordist and church organist. Yet he decided to leave the seminary as an adult and pursued fur trading instead, Jolliet attended a Jesuit school in Quebec and received minor orders in 1662, but abandoned his plans to become a priest in 1667.
He spoke French and Spanish, de Soto had named the river Rio del Espiritu Santo, but tribes along its length called it variations of Mississippi. On May 17,1673, Jolliet and Marquette departed from St. Ignace Michigan with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry. The group followed Lake Michigan to the end of Green Bay and they paddled upstream on the Fox River to the site now known as Portage, Wisconsin. There, they portaged a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak forest to the Wisconsin River. Europeans eventually built a trading post at that shortest convenient portage between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins, on June 17, the canoeists ventured onto the Mississippi River near present-day Prairie du Chien. The Jolliet-Marquette expedition traveled down the Mississippi to within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico and they turned back north at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point, they had encountered natives carrying European goods, the voyageurs followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River, which friendly natives told them was a shorter route back to the Great Lakes.
Following the Illinois river upstream, they turned up its tributary the Des Plaines River near modern-day Joliet. They continued up the Des Plaines river, and portaged their canoes and they followed the Chicago River downstream until they reached Lake Michigan near the location of modern-day Chicago. Father Marquette stayed at the mission of St. Francis Xavier at the end of Green Bay. Joliet returned to Quebec to relate the news of their discoveries, Marquette returned to what became the Illinois Country in late 1674
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President