Coolidge State Park
Coolidge State Park is a Vermont State Park located in Plymouth, United States. The park is named after Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President of the United States, born and raised in Plymouth and is buried there as well, it is the primary recreational center for Calvin Coolidge State Forest, the largest state forest in Vermont. The park's facilities, built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Activities in the park include camping, picnicking, mountain biking, stream fishing, wildlife watching and winter sports. Coolidge State Park is located in Windsor County, Vermont, in central Vermont, consists of two land areas, one on each side of Vermont Route 100A, about 2 miles north of Plymouth Notch, the birthplace of Calvin Coolidge; the park's total area is 1,300 acres, it is flanked in part by eastern sections of the 21,000-acre Calvin Coolidge State Forest. The western section, or Pinney Hollow block, is 800 acres in size, houses the park maintenance facilities, located at the site of the CCC camp where workers who built the park lived.
The eastern section, or Bradley Hill block, is a large wooded parcel on the western slope of Slack Hill. The park contact station and picnic areas are located in this section; the terrain is steep, but there is a level area where the contact station and main parking area are located. Near the park access road on VT 100A is a small picnic area; the main access road climbs steeply to the contact station, from which a camping loop composed of leantos branches off. This loop road follows the contours of the hill, the leantos are placed to provide views of the surrounding countryside. Continuing down the main access road, there is a second wooded camping loop for the use of tent campers and recreational vehicles. Beyond the tent loop is a larger picnic area with CCC-built pavilions. Prior to the establishment of the state forest and state park, land that makes up the park saw a variety of agricultural and light industrial uses. In the 1920s, the state began purchasing land for the state forest, considered the area north of Plymouth Notch a good candidate for a campground and other recreational amenities.
With federal funding made available for CCC works in 1933, work on the park facilities began. The main access road was cut, the leanto camping loop was built, as were the picnic and maintenance facilities, the contact station. Areas, in agricultural use were planted with trees, the CCC crews cut some of the area's hiking trails, they built a small swimming hole just west of VT 100A by damming Pinney Hollow Brook. National Register of Historic Places listings in Windsor County, Vermont
Camel's Hump is Vermont's third-highest mountain and highest undeveloped peak. Because of its distinctive profile, it is the state's most recognized mountain, featured on the state quarter, it is part of the Green Mountain range. With its neighbor to the north, Mount Mansfield, it borders the notch that the Winooski River has carved through the ridgeline of the Green Mountains over eons; the hiking trails on Camel's Hump were among the first cut in the Long Trail system, Camel's Hump remains a popular summit for through- and day-hiking. The mountain is part of Camel's Hump State Park. Since Europeans first saw the mountain on Samuel de Champlain's 1609 trip down Lake Champlain to the west, the mountain has had a number of names related to its distinctive shape. De Champlain named the mountain "Le Lion Couchant", a heraldic image which translates as "The Resting Lion". Ira Allen referred to the mountain as "Camel's Rump" on a map from 1798, it was not until 1830. The Geographic Names Information System lists twelve variant names including Tah-wak-be-dee-ee-so wadso and Catamountain.
While place names are determined by local usage the U. S. Board on Geographic Names serves as a central authority in the United States concerning place names. Since its inception in 1890 the BGN has discouraged the use of the genitive apostrophe. Local usage is at odds with this policy and so the name of this mountain is alternatively spelled with and without an apostrophe. Camel's Hump is more notable for its shape than its height. Isolated from neighboring peaks by the Winooski Valley and glacial action, the mountain's conical silhouette is distinctive, if misleading, it has two "humps", with the southernmost being the higher, a steep drop to the south as a result of a quarrying action of the ice passing over it. While it looks somewhat volcanic from the east and west, the movement of glacial ice shaped it into what is referred to as a roche moutonnée and the National Park Service names the peak as "an exceptional illustration of the complex anticlinal deformation which formed the Green Mountains".
The bedrock consists of phyllite and schist. In 1968, Camel's Hump was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service; the summit of Camel's Hump is home to 10 acres of alpine tundra vegetation. Plants found in this region include: Bigelow's sedge, alpine bilberry, mountain sandwort, mountain cranberry, Labrador tea, Trillium undulatum. A direct result of glacial formation, these alpine species were once widespread but as the lower elevations warmed, only the peak of Camel's Hump remained hospitable to the fragile plants. Camel's Hump supports a significant population of red spruce trees which have been under decline; the Forest Decline Project at the University of Vermont published a study in 1991 citing acid rain as a culprit of the reduced seed production and germination. The Abnaki name for the mountain was "ta wak be dee esso wadso," or "tahwahbodeay wadso", variously translated as "resting place", "sit-down place", "prudently, we make a campfire in a circle near water at this mountain."In 1905, publisher and philanthropist Joseph Battell donated 1,200 acres of virgin forest, including the summit of Camel's Hump, to the State of Vermont.
The bequest was intended to form a state park to be kept in a "primitive state" and in 1911 the state forester was given charge of the area who managed the land in accordance with Battell's wishes. Since Vermont has adopted new legislation to preserve its natural areas and in 1969 created a Forest Reserve enclosing the mountain. Camel's Hump State Park has grown since the original bequest and in 1991 totalled 20,000 acres. In October 1944, during World War II, a B-24J bomber on a training mission crashed into the side of the mountain near the summit. While most of the plane was salvaged and removed, portions of the wreckage still remain; the Alpine Trail passes by the site. Though protected, the Camel's Hump area is a favorite recreational venue for hikers. Trail work began on Camel's Hump at the formation of the Green Mountain Club and by 1912, a trail had been constructed between the mountain and Sterling Pond; this initial trail would become a high point in the "footpath in the wilderness" known as the Long Trail.
In the 1950s, the GMC constructed shelters at the summit. The GMC now trains and pays a caretaker to reside near the summit during the summer and educate hikers to respect the fragile alpine ecosystem that exists on the mountain. In 1999, an image of Camel's Hump was chosen as a prominent feature for the Vermont state quarter. While many other options were considered, including covered bridges and the snowflake photographs of Wilson Bentley, the seven-person panel decided on Camel's Hump stating that it was "perfect for the quarter." The panels findings explained the choice: "It's natural, like the Vermont countryside. It's unique and asymmetrical, like the independent and quirky reputation Vermonters have." Many notable Vermont institutions have adopted its memorable name, including the children's radio show "Camel's Hump Radio" hosted by Bill Harley on Vermont Public Radio. The profile of Camel's Hump appears in the Vermont coat of arms on the Vermont flag. "With the only undeveloped alpine area in the Green Mountain State and a skyline that sets it apart from everything else, Camel's Hump may be Vermont's finest peak," says Michael Lanza in his guidebook for New England hiking enthusiasts.
The views from the summit are panoramic, on a clear day one can see the highest peaks of the following s
Crystal Lake State Park
Crystal Lake State Park is a day-use state park and historic site in Barton, United States. It is located at 96 Bellwater Avenue, off Willoughby Lake Road just east of the village, at the northwestern end of 763-acre Crystal Lake, it features a sandy beach with swimming area, a bathouse built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. A cottage is available for rental; the park was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places on August 30, 2005, for its association with the CCC. Crystal Lake State Park is located at the northern end of Crystal Lake, a more than 750-acre body of water in southeastern Barton; the park is located just southeast of the village center, is accessed via Bellwater Avenue off Vermont Route 16. The park has a wider area at its western end, where the entrance parking area are located. In this area are a ranger's house and a small waterfront cottage, available for rental when the park is open; the parking lot is separated from the beach area to the south by a low stone wall built out of locally quarried granite.
This wall tapers off to the east. The eastern section of the park is narrow, with a strip of beach rising to a narrow grassy area. At the back of the grassy area near the parking lot is the bathhouse; the bathhouse has restrooms, changing areas, a concession stand. Other features are about 40 grills 80 picnic tables, play areas, boat rentals. Activities include swimming, fishing, wildlife watching and winter sports. There is hiking in nearby Willoughby State Forest. Crystal Lake Cottage accommodates up to 6 people; the park was developed in the 1930s through the efforts of crews of the Civilian Conservation Corps. They laid out the park, built its parking lot, retaining wall, most of the bathhouse; the bathhouse was designed in David Fried, an architect based in New Hampshire who created designs for other CCC-built facilities in Vermont. It, like the retaining wall, was built out of locally quarried stone, is unusual among the state's CCC-built facilities for its Modern design, tempered by the use of rusticated stone.
The building was completed in 1942 with local workers, because the CCC crews had been disbanded for service related to World War II. The ranger's house and rental cottage were both purchased as additions to the park in the 1990s, the gate house was built in 2003. National Register of Historic Places listings in Orleans County, Vermont Crystal Lake State Park
William Dummer was a politician in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. He served as its lieutenant governor for fourteen years, including an extended period from 1723 to 1728 when he acted as governor, he is remembered for his role in leading the colony during what is sometimes called Dummer's War, fought between the British colonies of northeastern North America and a loose coalition of native tribes in what is now New Hampshire, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. Dummer was born into a wealthy Massachusetts merchant family, traveling to England as a young man to participate in the business. Upon his return to Massachusetts in 1712 he entered provincial politics, gaining a royal commission as lieutenant governor through the efforts of his brother Jeremiah, he served during the turbulent tenure of Governor Samuel Shute, in which Shute quarreled with the assembly over many matters. Shute left the province quite abruptly at the end of 1722, while it was in the middle of a war with the natives of northern New England.
The war was brought to a successful conclusion by Dummer. He negotiated a treaty with the Abenakis which formed the basis for a succession of treaties. In 1728 Shute was replaced by William Burnet, whose 1 1/2 years in office were consumed by a vitriolic fight over his salary. Burnet died in office, was replaced in 1730 by Jonathan Belcher, who selected William Tailer to be his lieutenant. Dummer retired, dividing time between his farm in Byfield and his home in Boston. A proponent of education, he bequeathed funds for the establishment of a preparatory school in Massachusetts, donated his Byfield estate for its use. For many years it was known as either the Dummer Academy or the Governor Dummer Academy, but is now called The Governor's Academy. William Dummer was born in Boston, the capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, to Jeremiah Dummer, the first American born silversmith, Anna Dummer, his grandfather was Richard Dummer, an early Massachusetts settler and one of the colony's wealthiest men, he was related to the magistrate Samuel Sewall.
Dummer was the oldest of nine children. He was baptized at Boston's Old South Church on September 29, 1677. Little is known of Dummer's early years. Given the family's wealth, he attended the Boston Latin School, but he did not attend Harvard, his younger brother Jeremiah did go to Harvard, after which he went to Europe, studying at Leiden and Utrecht. In 1702 Dummer was elected to the membership of Boston's Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, he went to England, most in the early 1700s, where he joined his extended family's merchant business. He returned to Massachusetts in 1712. While in England he is reported to have married a cousin in the Dummer family, whose death may have prompted his return to Massachusetts; this marriage produced no children. He married Katherine Dudley, daughter of Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley, on April 26, 1714. In a gift that may have been made in anticipation of his wedding, his father in November 1712 gave him a substantial tract of land in the Byfield section of Newbury.
The property became the couple's country home. Dummer divided his time between the family home in Boston. Upon the death of Queen Anne in 1714, commissions issued during her reign were set to expire; this resulted in a political scramble for appointments to the leadership of Massachusetts between Dudley's supporters and proponents of a land bank proposal designed to deal with inflationary issuance of colonial currency. Dummer's brother Jeremiah was in London representing the Dudley faction. Although he was unable to secure Dudley's reappointment, he and Jonathan Belcher were able to bribe the successor chosen by the land bank faction, Elizeus Burges, to give up his commission; the commission for governor was issued in June 1716 to Samuel Shute, a land bank opponent, with William Dummer as lieutenant governor. Shute arrived in the colony the following October, at which time both assumed their offices. Dummer's role during Governor Shute's turbulent administration is not well documented. Shute had a difficult relationship with the provincial assembly, which refused to pay crown officials a regular salary, objected to other policies Shute was instructed to implement.
In 1720, during these ongoing disputes, the assembly reduced the grant it made to the lieutenant governor from £50 to £35. Dummer returned the funds, observing that his out-of-pocket expenses for his office exceeded the £50 amount; the assembly complicated Shute's negotiations with the restive Abenaki, who occupied lands on the province's eastern borders and objected to the encroachment of settlers on their lands. Though there was some desire on the part of the French and the Abenaki for a peaceful resolution to the dispute, the Massachusetts assembly, over Shute's objections, took a hard line, cutting off trade with the Abenaki, authorizing a militia expedition against Norridgewock, one of the main Abenaki towns. Relations deteriorated into open warfare in 1722, Shute declared war on the Abenaki that July; because of the ongoing disputes with the assembly, Shute abruptly left the province for London on January 1, 1723, leaving Dummer to act as governor and commander-in-chief. Prosecution of the conflict was left to Dummer, it has since become known as Dummer's War.
Dummer's tenure as acting governor has been described by historian John Ragle as "unspectacular but able". In the first half of 1723 Dummer made concerted efforts to recruit the Iroquois (of what is now upst
Grand Isle State Park (Vermont)
Grand Isle State Park is a 226-acre state park in Grand Isle, Vermont on the shore of Lake Champlain. Activities includes boating, camping, hiking, bicycling, wildlife watching, water sports and winter sports. Facilities include a boat launching ramp, sand-court volleyball, horseshoes, a play area, 117 tent/RV sites, 36 lean-to sites, 4 cabin sites, restrooms with running water and hot showers, a trailer sanitary station; the park features a nature center and park rangers offer interpretive programs including night hikes, campfire programs, amphibian explorations, nature crafts and games. Official website
Green Mountain National Forest
Green Mountain National Forest is a national forest located in Vermont, a forest area typical of the New England/Acadian forests ecoregion. The forest supports a variety of wildlife, including beaver, coyote, black bear, white tailed deer, it supports an abundant variety of bird species, such as wild turkey and ruffed grouse. The forest, being situated in Vermont's Green Mountains, has been referred to as the'granite backbone' of the state; the forest was established in 1932, as a result of uncontrolled overlogging and flooding. It consists of 399,151 acres. If Finger Lakes National Forest, managed as a unit of the Green Mountain National Forest, is included within it, GMNF is one of only two national forest northeast of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey border. Split into the southwest and central areas, GMNF has a total of eight wilderness areas; these were designated by Congress beginning with the Wilderness Act of 1964 to be areas off limits to mechanized gear down to and including bicycles. In descending order of land area it is located in parts of Bennington, Rutland, Windham and Washington counties.
The forest headquarters are in Rutland, alongside those of Finger Lakes National Forest in New York. The forest contains three nationally designated trails, including parts of the Appalachian Trail and the Long Trail, as well as the Robert Frost National Recreation Trail. In addition, the forest includes three alpine ski areas, seven Nordic ski areas, 900 miles of multiple-use trails for hiking, cross country skiing, horseback riding, bicycling; the forest benefitted from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2008. More typical forest revenue might come from Recreation fees and timber sales; some 429 acres were set for forest regeneration in 2009. The bulk of expenditures might go towards road construction, recreation/wilderness & heritage, wildlife/fish management. Projects in the latter category might include: land/water modification in support of ruffed grouse, wild turkeys, bear and salmon; the emerald ash borer represent a vexing side result of the global economy and a close threat to Vermont's trees.
There are eight designated wilderness areas lying within Green Mountain National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Big Branch Wilderness Breadloaf Wilderness Bristol Cliffs Wilderness George D. Aiken Wilderness Glastenbury Wilderness Joseph Battell Wilderness Lye Brook Wilderness Peru Peak Wilderness Mount Snow New England/Acadian forests Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest Official website
Branbury State Park
Branbury State Park is a 69-acre state park in the towns of Salisbury and Leicester, Vermont. The park is located on the eastern shore of Lake Dunmore at the base of Mt. Moosalamoo, it is divided by Vermont Route 53. Activities includes boating, camping, hiking, wildlife watching and winter sports. Facilities include a sandy beach, boat rentals, a snack concession, 37 tent sites and 7 lean-to sites, flush toilets, hot showers, a dump station. There is a nature center and park rangers offer interpretive programs including night hikes, campfire programs, amphibian explorations, nature crafts and games. Green Mountain National Forest is adjacent to the park's east side. Official website