Guernésiais known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known on the island as "patois"; as one of the langues d'oïl, it has its roots in Latin, but has had strong influence from both Old Norse and English at different points in its history. There is mutual intelligibility with Jèrriais speakers from Jersey and Continental Norman speakers from Normandy. Guernésiais most resembles the Norman dialect of Cotentinais spoken at la Hague in the Cotentin Peninsula. Guernésiais has been influenced less by Standard French than Jèrriais, but conversely has been influenced to a greater extent by English. New words have been imported for modern phenomena: e.g. "le bike" or "le gas-cooker". There is a rich tradition of poetry in the Guernsey language. Guernsey songs were inspired by the sea, by colourful figures of speech, by traditional folk-lore, as well as by the natural environment of the island; the island's greatest poet was George Métivier, a contemporary of Victor Hugo, who influenced and inspired local poets to print and publish their traditional poetry.
Métivier blended local place-names and animal names, traditional sayings and orally transmitted fragments of medieval poetry to create his Rimes Guernesiaises. Denys Corbet was considered the "Last Poet" of Guernsey French and published many poems in his day in his native tongue in the island newspaper and privately. Wrote Métivier, Que l'lingo seit bouan ou mauvais / J'pâlron coum'nou pâlait autefais; the most recent dictionary of Guernésiais, Dictiounnaire Angllais-guernesiais. Société guernesiaise. 1967. was written by Marie de Garis. In 1999, de Garis was appointed to the Order of the British Empire for her work; the 2001 census showed that 1327 or 2% of the population speak the language fluently while 3% understand the language. However most of these, 70% or 934 of the 1327 fluent speakers, are over 64 years old. Among the young only 0.1% or one in a thousand are fluent speakers. However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. L'Assembllaïe d'Guernesiais, an association for speakers of the language founded in 1957, has published a periodical.
Les Ravigoteurs, another association, has published a cassette for children. Forest School hosts an annual speaking contest of the island's primary school children; the annual Eisteddfod provides an opportunity for performances in the language, radio and newspaper outlets furnish regular media output. There is some teaching of the language in voluntary classes in schools in Guernsey. Evening classes are available, as of 2013. Lunchtime classes are offered at the Guernsey Museum, as of 2013. Along with Jèrriais, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh and Scots, Guernésiais is recognised as a regional language by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British–Irish Council. BBC Radio Guernsey and the Guernsey Press both feature occasional lessons, the latter with sometimes misleading phonetics. A Guernésiais language development officer was appointed. There is little broadcasting in the language, with ITV Channel Television more or less ignoring the language, only the occasional short feature on BBC Radio Guernsey for learners.
The creation of a Guernsey Language Commission was announced on 7 February 2013 as an initiative by government to preserve the linguistic culture. The Commission has operated since Liberation Day, 9 May 2013. Guernsey poet George Métivier – nicknamed the Guernsey Burns, was the first to produce a dictionary of the Norman language in the Channel Islands, the Dictionnaire Franco-Normand; this established the first standard orthography – modified and modernised. Among his poetical works are Rimes Guernesiaises published in 1831. Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte published the Gospel of Matthew by George Métivier in Dgèrnésiais in London in 1863 as part of his philological research. Like Métivier, Tam Lenfestey published poetry in book form. Denys Corbet described himself as the Draïn Rimeux. Corbet is best known for his poems the epic L'Touar de Guernesy, a picaresque tour of the parishes of Guernsey; as editor of the French-language newspaper Le Bailliage, he wrote feuilletons in Dgèrnésiais under the pen name Badlagoule.
In 2009 the island held a special exhibition in the Forest Parish on Corbet and his work acknowledging the centenary of his death and unveiling a contemporary portrait painting of the artist by Christian Corbet a cousin to Denys Corbet. Thomas Martin translated into Guernésiais the Bible, the plays of William Shakespeare, twelve plays by Pierre Corneille, three plays by Thomas Corneille, twenty seven plays by Molière, twenty plays by Voltaire and The Spanish Student by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Thomas Henry Mahy wrote Dires et Pensées du Courtil Poussin, a regular column in La Gazette Officielle de Guernesey, from 1916. A collection was published in booklet form in 1922, he was still publishing occasional pieces of prose by the start of the 1930s. Thomas Alfred Grut published Des lures guernesiaises in 1927, once again a collection of newspaper columns, he translated some of the Jèrriais stories of Philippe Le Sueur Mourant into Dgèrnésiais. Marjorie Ozanne wrote stories, published in the Guernsey Evening Press between 1949 and 1965.
Some earlier pieces
Military or belligerent occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory, not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign. The territory is known as the occupied territory and the ruling power the occupant. Occupation is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature, by its military nature, by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population. While an occupant may setup a formal military government in the occupied territory to facilitate its administration, it is not a necessary precondition for occupation; the rules of occupation are delineated in various international agreements the Hague Convention of 1907, the Geneva Conventions of 1949, as well as established state practice. The relevant international conventions, the International Committee of the Red Cross Commentaries, other treaties by military scholars provide guidelines on such topics as rights and duties of the occupying power, protection of civilians, treatment of prisoners of war, coordination of relief efforts, issuance of travel documents, property rights of the populace, handling of cultural and art objects, management of refugees, other concerns which are important both before and after the cessation of hostilities.
A country that establishes an occupation and violates internationally agreed upon norms runs the risk of censure, criticism, or condemnation. In the current era, the practices of occupations have become a part of customary international law, form a part of the laws of war. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, international law has come to distinguish between the occupation of a country and territorial acquisition by invasion and annexation, the difference between the two being expounded upon by Emerich de Vattel in The Law of Nations; the clear distinction has been recognized among the principles of international law since the end of the Napoleonic wars in the 19th century. These customary laws of occupation which evolved as part of the laws of war gave some protection to the population under the occupation of a belligerent power; the Hague Convention of 1907 codified these customary laws within "Laws and Customs of War on Land". The first two articles of that section state: Art.
42. Territory is considered occupied when it is placed under the authority of the hostile army; the occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised. Art. 43. The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore, ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless prevented, the laws in force in the country. In 1949 these laws governing occupation of an enemy state's territory were further extended by the adoption of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Much of GCIV is relevant to protected persons in occupied territories and Section III: Occupied territories is a specific section covering the issue. Article 6 restricts the length of time that most of GCIV applies: The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2. In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.
In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations. GCIV emphasised an important change in international law; the United Nations Charter had prohibited war of aggression and GCIV Article 47, the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the territorial gains which could be made through war by stating: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. Article 49 prohibits the forced mass movement of people out of or into occupied state's territory: Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive....
The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. Protocol I: "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts" has additional articles which cover occupation but many countries including the U. S. are not signatory to this additional protocol. In the situation of a territorial cession as the result of war, the specification of a "receiving country" in the peace treaty means that the country in question is authorized by the international community to establish civil
A carronade is a short, cast iron cannon, used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland. It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s, its main function was to serve as a short-range, anti-ship and anti-crew weapon. Carronades were found to be successful, but they disappeared as naval artillery advanced, with the introduction of rifling and consequent change in the shape of the projectile, exploding shells replacing solid shot, naval engagements being fought at longer ranges; the carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity for merchant ships, but it found a niche role on warships. It was produced by the Carron ironworks and was at first sold as a system with the gun and shot all together; the standard package of shot per gun was 25 roundshot, 15 barshot, 15 double-headed shot, 10 "single" grapeshot, 10 "single" canister shot. "Single" meant that the shot weighed the same as the roundshot, while some other canister and grapeshot were included which weighed one and a half times the roundshot.
Its invention is variously ascribed to Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759, or to Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779. In its early years, the weapon was sometimes called a "mellvinade" or a "gasconade"; the carronade can be seen as the culmination of a development of naval guns reducing the barrel length and gunpowder charge. The Carron Company was selling a "new light-constructed" gun, two-thirds of the weight of the standard naval gun and charged with one sixth of the weight of ball in powder before it introduced the carronade, which further halved the gunpowder charge; the advantages for merchant ships are described in an advertising pamphlet of 1779. Production of both shot and gun by the same firm allowed a reduction in the windage, the gap between the bore of the gun and the diameter of the ball; the smaller gunpowder charge reduced the barrel heating in action, reduced the recoil. The mounting, attached to the side of the ship on a pivot, took the recoil on a slider, without altering the alignment of the gun.
The pamphlet advocated the use of woollen cartridges, which eliminated the need for wadding and worming, although they were more expensive. Simplifying gunnery for comparatively untrained merchant seamen in both aiming and reloading was part of the rationale for the gun; the replacement of trunnions by a bolt underneath, to connect the gun to the mounting, reduced the width of the carriage enhancing the wide angle of fire. A merchant ship would always be running away from an enemy, so a wide angle of fire was much more important than on a warship. A carronade weighed a quarter as much and used a quarter to a third of the gunpowder charge as a long gun firing the same cannonball; the reduced charge allowed carronades to have a shorter length and much lighter weight than long guns. Increasing the size of the bore and ball reduces the required length of barrel; the force acting on the ball is proportional to the square of the diameter, while the mass of the ball rises by the cube, so acceleration is slower.
Long guns were much heavier than carronades because they were over-specified to be capable of being double-shotted, whereas it was dangerous to do this in a carronade. A ship could carry more carronades, or carronades of a larger caliber, than long guns, carronades could be mounted on the upper decks, where heavy long guns could cause the ship to be top-heavy and unstable. Carronades required a smaller gun crew, important for merchant ships, they were faster to reload. Carronades became popular on British merchant ships during the American Revolutionary War. A lightweight gun that needed only a small gun crew and was devastating at short range was well suited to defending merchant ships against French and American privateers; the French came in possession of their first carronades in December 1779 with the capture of the brig Finkastre by the frigate Précieuse, but the weapon was judged ineffective and was not adopted by them at the time. However, in the Action of 4 September 1782, the impact of a single carronade broadside fired at close range by the frigate HMS Rainbow under Henry Trollope caused a wounded French captain to capitulate and surrender the Hébé after a short fight.
The Royal Navy was reluctant to adopt the guns due to mistrust of the Carron Company, which had developed a reputation for incompetence and commercial sharp dealing. Carronades were not counted in numbering the guns of a ship. Lord Sandwich started mounting them in place of the light guns on the forecastle and quarterdeck of ships, they soon proved their effectiveness in battle. French gun foundries were unable to produce equivalents for twenty years, so carronades gave British warships a significant tactical advantage during the latter part of the 18th century—though French ships mounted another type of weapon in the same role, the obusier de vaisseau. HMS Victory used the two 68-pounder carronades which she carried on her forecastle to great effect at the Battle of Trafalgar, clearing the gun deck of the Bucentaure by firing a round shot and a keg of 500 musket balls through the Bucentaure's stern windows; the carronade was very successful and adopted, a few experimental ships were fitted with a carronade-only armament, such as HMS Glatton and HMS Rainbow.
Glatton, a fourth-rate ship with 56 guns, had a more destructive broadside than HMS Victory, a first-rate ship with 100 guns. Glatton and Rainbow were both successful in battle, though the carronade's lack of range was an arguable tactical disadvantage of this arrangement ag
Braye du Valle, Guernsey
The Braye du Valle is the area between the main Island of Guernsey and Le Clos du Valle, a tidal island to the north. The original reason for the separation of the north of the Island of Guernsey may relate to seismic disturbances or changes in the sea level; the rise and fall of the tide in Guernsey is over 10 metres which creates energy to move loose materials. The Braye was open to the sea and the shoreline moves with the tides. Gravel and sand are deposited onshore. Storms batter the coast, tides flood areas on a daily basis; the premiere forces that shapes the coastal landscape, are waves. Beaches are not fixed features, they are dynamic environments. At the eastern end an iron age fort to become the castle of Saint Michael where in 1117 there was a large ceremony to celebrate the finalisation of major works. Granite walls and gate were added in the 15th century, barracks in the 18th century, the name "Vale Castle" is now the common name, it is that at one time a land bridge connected the two sections next to the Vale church, before the sea broke through.
In 1204 it is reported that the Royal Court of Guernsey visited the Braye du Valle to replace boundary markers, washed away. The Braye covered around 350 acres of sand, gravel and bog. Water channels two feet deep ran its entire length. Salterns and marshy meadows that flooded at high tide formed the sides. Saltpans operated on the southern side. 1,600 metres long, up to 750 metres wide and 3 metres to 9 metres deep at high water. A leper hospice founded to care for returning crusaders in the 12th century, who had contracted the disease was located at Maladerie Road in St Sampsons, with the cemetery on the edge of Braye du Valle, now covered by L'Islet road, it closed. The Great bridge known as the Pont du Valle1204 is the date mentioned for a bridge, it required to be maintained in good condition, the bridge was requested in a petition by parish residents dated 4 October 1204 following the loss of a causeway to sea damage. There is mention of the bridge being destroyed in 1299, with the perpetrators being charged and fined.
The “great bridge” is mentioned in a response from Charles II in 1666. The bridge has, for as long as records exist, been wide enough for pedestrians and wagons, constructed of stone with a nearby sluice or “nocq”. F. C. Lucas, mentions a stone bridge called the “Le Pont du Valle” built of heavy rock with an open bridge to allow the water to pass underneath, at the “Bouche du Valle” near the Vale church. Low water bridgesThere were two small connected bridges at the Vale Church, the Pont St Michel and the Pont Allaire crossing two streams; these bridges were made of large stones with stone slabs resting on top. Covered by the sea at high tide and the stones would have been covered with seaweed, they are reputed to have been built by monks from Mont Saint-Michel who had settled in Guernsey around 968 A. D; the bridges still existed in 1715. FerryA ferry existed near the Vale Church, which must have assisted worshippers attending the Vale Church. FordsThree causeways were identified, one being destroyed in 1708.
The 1787 map records a low water crossing point west of the great bridge. Owned by the Crown, on 27 July 1640 the Braye du Valle was gifted, together with other flooded lands, to Sir Henry de Vic by Charles I in consideration of long service to the Crown; the registration of the title was delayed 25 years because of the English Civil War. This resulted in the boundaries being formally defined and recorded. By 1708 the Braye was owned by Henry de Sausmarez who reclaimed some of the land to construct the salt-pans, the export of salt from Guernsey to England being duty free. In 1730 the Braye was sold to a syndicate of five men for £125, and it was this syndicate that sold the Braye to the British Government in 1805 to enable it to be reclaimed. Sir Henry de Vic petitioned Charles II for leave to do so; the King gave “all those our lands overflowed by sea in our Island of Guernsey situated and lying from the church of the Valle there as far as the great bridge along that side, the north east side: from the said bridge all along Saint Sampson, the south west side, as far as that part, right against the said church of the Valle…” to Sir Vic.
The area was surveyed. In 1758 a law was passed fining militia soldiers 14 sols tournois if they refused to stand guard north of the Braye du Valle, some soldiers complaining that they were afraid of drowning when crossing the Braye; the Duke of Richmond as Master-General of the Ordnance, commissioned a military survey map of Guernsey, the Braye is well marked as a channel. It was undertaken by William Gardner before 1787. In 1803 the newly appointed Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey, Major-General John Doyle was tasked with improving the Island defences, he became concerned with the possibility of French troops landing in the north of the Island and British troops, the militia and artillery being unable to cross the Braye to contest the landing. Not knowing whether he would fight the French as an Admiral or General, as it would depend on the state of the tide; the concern about an invasion was because of the successful Privateer business undertaken by Guernsey. During the eight years of the American Revolutionary War Guernsey ships carrying letter of marque had captured French and American vessels to the value of £900,000 and continued to operate during the Napoleonic Wars The proposal was opposed by the States of Guernsey who would have preferred the Braye to be dredged and straightened to enable larger ships to sail along the channel with quarried stone.
Fort Hommet is a fortification on Vazon Bay headland in Castel, Guernsey. It is built on the site of fortifications that date back to 1680, consists of a Martello tower from 1804 additions during the Victorian Era, bunkers and casemates that the Germans constructed during World War II. In 1680 it is recorded. Following the French attempt to invade Jersey in 1781 improvements were made to island defences with Guernsey loophole towers being built, including the nearby one at Vazon. During 1795 the fortifications were improved on the headland with additional gun positions added. By 1805 six guns were recorded on the site; the connection between St Peter Port and the fort were improved with an upgrade of the road to military standard around 1808, using money arising from the sale of land from the reclaimed Braye du Valle. The Martello tower was constructed in 1804 after the onset of the Napoleonic Wars, during the tenure of Lieutenant Governor General Sir John Doyle. To simplify matters, Doyle had a local builder named Gray construct the tower, two others, under the rubric of "fieldworks", thereby bypassing the Ordnance Corps.
The Fort Hommet tower, like the other two Guernsey martello towers, Fort Grey and Fort Saumarez, was intended as a keep for the battery in which it was placed. The Guernsey martellos are all smaller than the British martello towers, with the Fort Saumarez and Fort Hommet towers being smaller than the Fort Grey tower; each mounted a 24-pounder carronade on the roof to support the battery. Fort Saumarez and Fort Hommet have exterior staircases up to the second floor. During the Victorian Era, the fort received additional barracks. In 1852, 68-pounder and 8" shell guns replaced some of the 24-pounder guns in the batteries; the largest addition, occurred during World War II and the German occupation of the Channel Islands. The Germans recognized the enduring utility of the site and fortified it further, creating the Stützpunkt Rotenstein; the whole of the headland was designated a strongpoint. West of the Martello tower is a bunker; the Martello tower itself includes two bunkers that housed a 60cm and a 150cm searchlight, crew accommodation.
Facing north are two casemates. Two similar casemates face south across Vazon beach including one now open as a museum. A Tobruk pit and a casemate for a 4.7cm Pak36 anti-tank gun complete the beach-facing defences. In the centre of the headland is a R633 bunker that housed a 5cm M19 automatic mortar. A reinforced field order emplacement, a fortress-quality personnel shelter, a minefield, field positions with trenches and machine gun pits, including a coaxial ball mounted MG 37, barbed wire completed the strongpoint's defences. Minefield No 27, comprising 417 S-mines, 464 Teller mines, 624 captured British mines protected the headland. After the liberation of Guernsey in 1945, the British Army and the islanders stripped the fortifications. By the late 1940s all the metal fittings, including guns and blast doors, had been removed for scrap. Many of the bunkers, including the gun-casemate at Fort Hommet, were buried in an attempt to return the coastal landscape to its pre-war condition. More the States of Guernsey has restored parts of the fort, the Fort Hommet 10.5 cm Coastal Defence Gun Casement Bunker.
This is now open to visitors, though with restrictive hours. The M19 Maschinengranatwerfer bunker is under renovation; the whole of Fort Hommet and associated structures and the whole of the German fortifications within the Fort Hommet headland was listed as a Protected Monument on 2 November 1990, reference PM137. Notes Citations Clements, William H. Towers of Strength: Martello Towers Worldwide.. ISBN 978-0-85052-679-0. Dillon, Paddy Channel Island Walks.. ISBN 1-85284-288-1
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
The Witches' Sabbath is a term applied to a gathering of those considered to practice witchcraft and other rites. Prior to the late 19th century, it is difficult to locate any English use of the term'sabbath' to denote a gathering of witches; the phrase is used by Henry Charles Lea's in his History of the Inquisition. Writing in 1900, German historian Joseph Hansen, a correspondent and a German translator of Lea's work uses the shorthand phrase hexensabbat to interpret medieval trial records, though any recurring term is noticeably rare in the copious Latin sources Hansen provides. Lea and Hansen's influence may have led to a broader use of the shorthand phrase, including in English. Prior to Hansen, German use of the term seems to have been rare and the compilation of German folklore by Jakob Grimm in the 1800s seems to contain no mention of hexensabbat or any other form of the term sabbat relative to fairies or magical acts; the contemporary of Grimm and early historian of witchcraft, WG Soldan doesn't seem to use the term in his history.
In contrast to German and English counterparts, French writers did use the term and there would seem to be roots to inquisitorial persecution of the Waldensians. In 1124, the term inzabbatos is used to describe the Waldensians in Northern Spain. In 1438 and 1460 related terms synagogam and synagogue of Sathan are used to describe Waldensians by inquisitors in France which could be a reference to Revelations 2:9. Writing in Latin in 1458, Francophone author Nicolas Jacquier applies synagogam fasciniorum to what he considers a gathering of witches. About 150 years at the peak of the witch-phobia and the persecutions which led to the burning to death of an estimated 50,000 persons, with 80% being women, the witch-phobic French and Francophone writers still seem to be the only ones using these related terms, though still infrequently and sporadically in most cases. Lambert Daneau uses sabbatha one time as Synagogas quas Satanica sabbatha. Jean Bodin uses it three times. Nicholas Remi uses it as well as synagoga.
In 1611, Jacques Fontaine uses sabat five times writing in French and in a way that would seem to correspond with modern usage. Writing a witch-phobic work in French the following year, Pierre de Lancre seems to use the term more than anyone before. More than two hundred years after Pierre de Lancre, French writer Lamothe-Langon, whose character and scholarship was questioned in the 1970s, uses the term in translating into French a handful of documents from the inquisition in Southern France. Joseph Hansen cited Lamothe-Langon as one of many sources. "Sabbath" came indirectly from Hebrew שַׁבָּת. In modern Judaism, Shabbat is the rest day celebrated from Friday evening to Saturday nightfall. In connection with the medieval beliefs in the evil power of witches and in the malevolence of Jews and Judaizing heretics, satanic gatherings of witches were by outsiders called "sabbats", "synagogues", or "convents". Local variations of the name given to witches' gatherings were frequent; the earliest work that mentions a something like a gathering that might be interpreted, from the Christian point of view, as witches sabbath is Canon Episcopi and included in Burchard of Worms's collection in the 11th century.
The Canon Episcopi forwards the Christian doctrine that things of this nature were false delusions and did not occur in reality. Errores Gazariorum evoked the Sabbat, in 1452. Helping to publicize belief in and the threat of the Witches' Sabbath was the extensive preaching of the popular Franciscan reformer, Saint Bernardino of Siena, whose circulating sermons contain various references to the sabbath as it was conceived and hence represent valuable early sources into the history of this phenomenon; some allusions to meetings of more than one witch and other demons are made in the Inquistors' manual of witch-hunting, the Malleus Maleficarum. It was during the Renaissance when Sabbath folklore was most popular, more books on them were published, more people lost their lives when accused of participating. Commentarius de Maleficiis, by Peter Binsfeld, cites accusation of participation in Sabbaths as a proof of guiltiness in an accusation for the practice of witchcraft. Bristol University's Ronald Hutton has encapsulated the witches' sabbath as an modern construction, saying: represent a combination of three older mythical components, all of which are active at night: A procession of female spirits joined by privileged human beings and led by a supernatural woman.
The first of these has pre-Christian origins, contributed directly to the formulation of the concept of the witches’ sabbath. The other two seem to be medieval in their inception, with the third to be directly related to growing speculation about the fate of the dead in the 11th and 12th centuries." The book Compendium Maleficarum by Francesco Maria Guazzo illustrates a typical witch-phobic view of gathering of wi