Military Auxiliary Radio System
The Military Auxiliary Radio System is a United States Department of Defense sponsored program, established as a separately managed and operated program by the United States Army, the United States Air Force. The United States Navy-Marine program has been closed; the program is a civilian auxiliary consisting of licensed amateur radio operators who are interested in assisting the military with communications on a local and international basis as an adjunct to normal communications. The MARS programs include active duty and National Guard units. MARS has a long history of providing worldwide auxiliary emergency communications during times of need; the combined two-service MARS programs, volunteer force of over 3,000 dedicated and skilled amateur radio operators provide the backbone of the MARS program. The main benefit of MARS membership is enjoying the amateur radio hobby through an ever-expanding horizon of MARS service to the nation. MARS members work by the slogans "Proudly Serving Those Who Serve" and "Proud and Ready."
The organization that led to the Military Auxiliary Radio System was called the Auxiliary Amateur Radio System. AARS was created in November 1925 by a few dedicated pioneers in the United States Army Signal Corps led by Captain Thomas C. Rives, his original intent was to enlist the talents of volunteer amateur radio operators who could train soldiers in the then-new technology of radio, as well as pursuing radio research and development to improve radio equipment within the Army. This support would be useful during the mobilization of forces by providing a pool of trained radio operators, their efforts were successful, the present-day MARS program is the direct descendant of the work of those early pioneers. Between 1925 and 1941, the AARS continued to operate and functioned more or less as an extracurricular activity for members of the Army Signal Corps, with its scope limited by budget cuts during the Great Depression; the AARS organization continued to operate until the United States entry into World War II on 7 December 1941, at which time radio amateurs were denied the use of the airwaves, the amateur service and the Army Amateur Radio System were deactivated.
Following WWII, the US Army recognized the importance of reactivating the AARS to train vitally needed communications personnel at a low direct cost to the government, in 1946 the AARS was reactivated. The AARS functioned as such until the creation of the Military Affiliate Radio System in November 1948 with the establishment of separate Army and Air Force MARS programs, reflecting the creation of the Air Force as a separate service; the program's name was changed to the Military Affiliate Radio System on 2 September 1952, in recognition of the organization's changing nature with the growing number of civilian volunteer members. The Navy-Marine Corps MARS program was established on 17 August 1962, began operations on 1 January 1963; this followed the Cuban Missile Crisis and President Kennedy's concern for viable and extended communications capabilities. During the Korean War, Vietnam War, Cold War and Gulf War, MARS was most known for its handling of "Marsgram" written messages and providing "phone patches" to allow overseas servicemen to contact their families at home.
The program's name was changed again to the current Military Auxiliary Radio System on 23 December 2009. MARS continues to be active today, its primary mission is to provide contingency communications to the Department of Defense and Military Services. MARS is available to provide communications for Defense Support to Civil Authorities such as FEMA and the Department of Homeland Security. Under DSCA, MARS may available to assist state and local emergency response agencies. On a day-to-day basis MARS members are available to handle messages to and from service men and women: active duty, guard, or retired and certain employees of the federal government who are stationed outside the US. Military Auxiliary Radio System provides Department of Defense sponsored emergency communications on a local and international basis. MARS provides auxiliary communications for military entities only. One major mission that MARS has had for many years is to handle morale and official record and voice communications traffic for Armed Forces and authorized U.
S. Government civilian personnel stationed throughout the world. MARS establishes programs to create civilian interest, recruit qualified volunteers, furnish training in military communications and procedures; every year, MARS conducts an appropriate military and amateur radio cross-band exercise as an integral part of the annual Armed Forces Day. They provide a reserve of personnel trained in military radio communications and procedures as well as to initiate efforts to improve radio-operating techniques. MARS members test state-of-the-art technology through testing. MARS celebrates Armed Forces Day annually with a traditional military to amateur crossband communications test and a message-receiving test; these tests give amateur radio operators and shortwave listeners an opportunity to demonstrate their individual technical skills and receive recognition from the Secretary of Defense or the appropriate military radio station for their proven expertise. A QSL card is provided to those making contact with one of the military stations.
Special commemorative certificates are awarded to anyone who receives and copies the digital Armed Forces Day message from the Secretary of Defense. Participating military stations tr
Nelson A. Miles
Nelson Appleton Miles was an American military general who served in the American Civil War, the American Indian Wars, the Spanish–American War. From 1895 to 1903, he served as the last Commanding General of the United States Army before the office was abolished. Miles was born in Massachusetts, on his family's farm, he worked in Boston, read military history, mastered military principles and techniques, including battle drills. Miles was working as a crockery store clerk in Boston, he entered the Union Army as a volunteer on September 9, 1861, fought in many crucial battles. He became a lieutenant in the 22nd Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, was commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the 61st New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment on May 31, 1862, he was promoted to colonel after the Battle of Antietam. Other battles he participated in include Fredericksburg and the Appomattox Campaign. Wounded four times in battle, on March 2, 1867, Miles was brevetted a brigadier general in the regular army in recognition of his actions at Chancellorsville.
He was again brevetted, this time to the rank of major general, for his actions at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. He received the Medal of Honor on July 1892 for his gallantry at Chancellorsville, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers as of May 12, 1864, for the Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House. On October 21, 1865, he was appointed major general of volunteers at the age of 26. After the war, he was commandant of Fort Monroe, where former Confederate President Jefferson Davis was held prisoner. During his tenure at Fort Monroe, Miles was forced to defend himself against charges that Davis was being mistreated. Sometime before 1867, Miles was appointed assistant commissioner of the North Carolina Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands under Commissioner O. O. Howard. In July 1866, Miles was appointed a colonel in the Regular Army. In March 1869, he became commander of the 5th U. S. Infantry Regiment. On June 30, 1868, he married Mary Hoyt Sherman. Miles played a leading role in nearly all of the U.
S. Army's campaigns against the American Indian tribes of the Great Plains. In 1874–1875, he was a field commander in the force that defeated the Kiowa and the Southern Cheyenne along the Red River. Between 1876 and 1877, he participated in the campaign that scoured the Northern Plains after Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer's defeat at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, forced the Lakota and their allies onto reservations. In the winter of 1877, he drove his troops on a forced march across eastern Montana to intercept the Nez Perce band led by Chief Joseph at the conclusion of the Nez Perce War. For the rest of his career, Miles would quarrel with General Oliver O. Howard over credit for Joseph's capture. While on the Yellowstone, he developed expertise with the heliograph for sending communications signals, establishing a 140-mile-long line of heliographs connecting Fort Keogh and Fort Custer, Montana, in 1878; the heliographs were supplied by Brig. Gen. Albert J. Myer of the Signal Corps. In December 1880, Miles was promoted to brigadier general in the Regular Army.
He was assigned to command the Department of the Columbia and the Department of Missouri. In 1886, Miles replaced General George Crook as commander of forces fighting against Geronimo, a Chiricahua Apache leader, in the Department of Arizona. Crook had relied on Apache scouts in his efforts to capture Geronimo. Instead, Miles relied on white troops, who traveled 3,000 miles without success as they tracked Geronimo through the tortuous Sierra Madre Mountains. First Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, who had studied Apache ways, succeeded in negotiating a surrender, under the terms of which Geronimo and his followers agreed to spend two years on a Florida reservation. Geronimo agreed on these terms; the exile included the Chiricahuas who had worked for the army, in violation of Miles' agreement with them. Miles denied Gatewood any credit for the negotiations and had him transferred to the Dakota Territory. During this campaign, Miles's special signals unit used the heliograph extensively, proving its worth in the field.
The special signals unit was under the command of Captain W. A. Glassford. In 1888, Miles became the commander of the Military Division of the Pacific and the Department of California. In April 1890, Miles was promoted to major general in the Regular Army and became the commander of the Military Division of the Missouri; that same year, the last major resistance of the Sioux on the Lakota reservations, known as the Ghost Dance, brought Miles back into the field. His efforts to subdue the Sioux led to Sitting the massacre of about 300 Sioux; this included women and children at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. Miles was critical of the commanding officer. Just two days after the event, Miles wrote to his wife, describing Wounded Knee as "the most abominable criminal military blunder and a horrible massacre of women and children". After his retirement from the army, he fought for compensation payments to the survivors of the massacre. Overall, he believed that the United States should have authority over the Indians, with the Lakota under military control.
In his capacity as commander of the Department of the East from 1894 to 1895, Miles commanded the tr
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Harris Corporation is an American technology company, defense contractor and information technology services provider that produces wireless equipment, tactical radios, electronic systems, night vision equipment and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government and commercial sectors. They specialize in surveillance solutions, microwave weaponry, electronic warfare. Headquartered in Melbourne, the company has $7 billion of annual revenue, it is the largest private-sector employer in Florida. The company was the parent of Intersil. Most of the wireless start-ups in South Brevard County were founded and are staffed by former Harris Corporation engineers and technicians; the company's Digital Telephone Systems division was sold to Teltronics. In 2016, Harris was named one of the top hundred federal contractors by Defense News. In January 2015, Wired Magazine ranked Harris Corporation—tied with U. S. Marshals Service—as the number two threat to privacy and communications on the Internet.
The "Harris Automatic Press Company" was founded by Alfred S. Harris in Niles, Ohio, in 1895; the company spent the next 60 years developing lithographic processes and printing presses before acquiring typesetting company Intertype Corporation. In 1957, Harris acquired Gates Radio, a producer of broadcast transmitters and associated electronics gear, but kept the Gates brand name alive by putting the Gates sticker on the back of numerous transmitters that were labeled Harris on the front panels. In 1959, they acquired microwave technology company PRD Electronics of New York. In 1967, they merged with Radiation, Inc. of Melbourne, Florida, a developer of antenna, integrated circuit and modem technology used in the space race. The company headquarters was moved from Cleveland to Melbourne in 1978. In 1969, Harris Corporation acquired RF Communications and Farinon Electric Corporation, furthering its microwave assets; the printing operations are now known as GSS Printing Equipment. GSS Printing Equipment acquired Lanier Worldwide, which itself was spun off from Harris Corporation in the late 1990s.
In 1979, Harris formed a semiconductor joint venture Matra Harris Semiconductors, from which Harris withdrew in 1989. After further changes MHS was taken over by Atmel. In 1988, Harris acquired GE's semiconductor business, which at this time incorporated the Intersil and RCA semiconductor businesses; these were combined with Harris' existing semiconductor businesses. In 1996, Harris Corporation formed a joint venture with Shenzhen Telecom Company to produce and sell Harris' digital microwave radios and integrate them with other systems. In November 1998, Harris sold its commercial and standard military logic product lines to Texas Instruments, which included the HC/HCT, CD4000, AC/ACT and FCT product families. Harris retained production of the Radiation Hardened versions of these products. In 1999, Harris spun off their remaining semiconductor business as an independent company, under the Intersil name. In 2005, the corporation spent $870 million on development. Harris Corporation developed a Hand Held Computer for use during the address canvassing portion of the 2010 United States Census.
Secured access via a fingerprint swipe guaranteed that only the verified user had access to the unit. A GPS capacity was integral to the daily address management and the transfer of information, gathered. Of major importance was the security and integrity of the personal and private information of the populace. In January 2011, Harris re-opened its Calgary, Alberta avionics operation, Harris Canada Inc.. The expanded facility's operations include among others the support of the work to be completed under the company's six-year, $273 million services contract with the Government of Canada for the CF-18 Avionics Optimized Weapon System Support program. On December 2012, Harris Corporation sold its broadcast equipment operations to the Gores Group which operated as Harris Broadcast and is now GatesAir. Harris received $225M for the transaction half of what it paid seven years earlier for Leitch Technology, its final acquisition for the Broadcast division. On May 29, 2015, the purchase of competitor Exelis Inc. was finalized doubling the size of the original company.
In July 2015, Harris Corporation sold its healthcare division, Harris Healthcare Solutions, to NantHealth. In January 2017, Harris sold off its government IT services division to Veritas Capital for $690 million. In October 2018 Harris announced an all-stock "merger of equals" with New York-based L3 Technologies, to be closed in mid-2019; the new company, tentatively called L3 Harris Technologies, Inc. will be based in Melbourne, where Harris is headquartered. In 2019, Elbit Systems of America, the American division of the Israli Elbit Systems, agreed to purchase Harris's night vision product line for $350 million, contingent on the completion of the merger with L3; the Harris Communication Systems segment serves markets in tactical and airborne radios, night vision technology and defense and public safety networks. The Harris Electronic Systems segment provides products and services in electronic warfare, air traffic management, wireless technology, C4I, undersea systems and aerostructures.
Electronic Systems division provides the "ALQ-214" radio frequency jamming equipment for the U. S. Navy's F/A-18 Hornet aircraft; the ALQ-214 was developed by Exelis ES, which Harris acquired in 2015. ES is a provider of components in the avionics package and targeting systems for the U. S. Navy's EA-18 Growlers; the Harris Space and Intelligence Systems segment, formed when
Sierra Vista, Arizona
Sierra Vista is a city in Cochise County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population of the city was 43,888; the city is part of the Sierra Vista-Douglas Metropolitan Area, with a 2010 population of 131,346. Fort Huachuca, a U. S. Army post, is located in the northwest part of the city. Sierra Vista, Spanish for "Mountain Range View", is located 75 miles southeast of Tucson and serves as the main commercial and recreational hub of Cochise County; as evidenced by several neolithic sites and known archeological sites, Paleo-Indians have been in southern Arizona from at least 12,000 years ago. It was the home to a large Sobaipuri, Pueblo near Fairbank which had several smaller pueblos and settlements throughout the valley, a Spanish Fort, Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrenate between modern Huachuca City and Tombstone, on the Western bank of the San Pedro River. Along with sparse Spanish settlers supporting the route to Tucson's Mission San Xavier del Bac and Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón. Like most of Cochise County it was part of the Gadsden Purchase.
At the end of the Apache Wars, with the protection of Fort Huachuca and the completion of the Southern Pacific and El Paso & Southwestern railroads, the San Pedro Valley began to be populated by American Settlers. The first business that opened just outside the east gate of Fort Huachuca was a saloon and house of ill repute owned by John and Ellen Reilly opened in 1892. In 1911, Margaret Carmichael bought business. By 1913, Margaret Carmichael had leased the business back to the Reillys. In 1913, a group of dry land farmers settled in the local area and named their settlement Buena. Buena was located east of Garden Canyon, between Lewis Springs and Fort Huachuca East of the junction of present-day Hwy 90 and Hwy 92. At this site was a post office and a school house that served children in Buena, Garden Canyon and outreaches of the local area. Oliver Fry and his two oldest sons traveled from Texas on the railroad and settled on 320 acres just east of Fort Huachuca in January, 1913. By 1917, the Overton Post Office was established.
This name came from the Overton Mercantile and Investment Company, who took option on the Carmichael property with plans to develop a townsite outside of Fort Huachuca. However, it is believed that the company was unable to persuade anyone to move to the area so when the option expired, the Carmichael's took back the property with a general mercantile store and the post office. In 1918, the Carmichaels named it after the Garden Canyon Sawmill, they called their Post Office where Carmichael was the postmaster Garden Canyon. In addition, the Carmichael's built a home across the street from Garden Canyon store, as well as 18 rock houses, on Garden Avenue. From 1927 to 1938, the Frys ran the post office; the Frys established their own General Store and the first official federally recognized Post office established in 1938 as Fry Post office, so the name of this settlement changed to Fry. When the base was reactivated in February 1, 1954 the base commander Brigadier General Emil Lenzner, pushed for incorporation as both a way to solve the on base housing problems as well as to distance themselves from reputation of "The White City" and Fry Town Settlement, hoping to encourage people to want to live off base in a more family friendly community, away from undesirables like the minorities allowed to live unsegregated in Fry Town.
Petitions for incorporation began to be filed in 1955 and were accepted in 1956 which included what had been Garden Canyon and Buena but pointedly did not include most of Fry Town as a way in part to keep a Federal Housing Authority housing project contacts for housing off post away from the Fry Town area was used as an excuse to incorporate and begin getting a share of tax revenues without having to pay the Fry family for the parts of Fry Town considered desirable and wholesome. In 1955, the first attempt to incorporate and rename the area was rejected, as Fry opposed both incorporating and renaming the town that bore his family name. In 1956, the ballot issue failed 76 to 61. People who owned land outside of Fry's property in the area of Garden Canyon/Overton and Buena, as well as parts of Fry went forward with incorporation and renaming by petition on May 26, 1956, excluding the half-square-mile owned by Fry that included the local red light district called "the White City" as well as off base housing of the African-American "Buffalo" soldier officers families, other minorities and groups they considered undesirable in the 1950s.
They were described as the "Fry People."Sierra Vista was incorporated in 1956, has a population of over 43,000 today. The city is the economic and commercial center of Cochise County, northern Sonora, Mexico. Sierra Vista annexed Fort Huachuca, a U. S. military base, one of the largest employers in Arizona, the adjacent community, in 1971. The proposed city counsel held a radio contest asking for names of the proposed town. Marie Pfister the city clerk asked her friend Nola Walker to store the suggestions; when the town was approved, they called Nola for the contest winner, but without counting the votes she told them her personal entry of "Sierra Vista" was the winner. On July 13, 2006 at a special ceremony during the city's 50th anniversary, Nola was granted "clemency" for her misrepresentation of the vote. In 1961 the town grew large enough to have the name changed to a city allowing establishment of a community college. In 1973 Ethel Berger became the first female mayor in Arizona. In the 1970s the Art in the Park Festival was established by a committee of Army Wives, with it proceeds benefiting the Huachuca Arts Association, college scholarships.
Sierra Vista was the
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, facilitates training and operations. A military base provides accommodations for one or more units, but it may be used as a command center, training ground or proving ground. In most cases, military bases rely on outside help to operate. However, certain complex bases are able to endure on their own for long periods because they are able to provide food and other life support necessities for their inhabitants while under siege. Military bases for military aviation are called military air bases. Military bases for military ships are called naval bases. Military bases within the United States are considered federal property and are subject to federal law. Civilians living on military bases are subject to the civil and criminal laws of the states where the bases are located. Military bases can range from small outposts to military cities containing up to 100,000 people.
Military bases may belong to a different state than the territory surrounding it. The name used refers to the type of military activity that takes place at the base. A military base may go by any of a number of names, such as the following: Depending on the context, the term'military base' may refer to any establishment that houses a nation's armed forces, or organized paramilitary forces such as the Police, Militia, or Guards. Alternatively, the term may refer to an establishment, used only by an army to the exclusion of a base used by either an air force or a navy; this is consistent with the different meanings of the word'military'. Some examples of permanent military bases used by the navies and air forces of the world are the HMNB Portsmouth in Portsmouth, UK, the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington State, USA, or Ramstein Air Base, Germany. Other examples of non- or semi-permanent military bases include a Forward Operating Base, a Logistics Base and a Fire Base. A military base may contain large concentrations of military supplies in order to support military logistics.
Most military bases are restricted to the public and only authorized personnel may enter them. In addition to the main military facilities on a certain installation, military bases have various different facilities for military personnel; these facilities vary from country to country. Military bases can provide housing for a post office and dining facilities, they may provide support facilities such as fast food restaurants, gas stations, schools, thrift stores, a hospital or clinic, movie theaters, retail stores. Family, Morale and Recreation provides facilities such as fitness centers, golf courses, Travel centers, Community service centers, child development centers, youth centers, automotive workshops, hobby/arts and crafts centers, bowling centers, community centers. Bases used by the United States Air Force Reserve tend to be active USAF bases. However, there are a few Air Reserve Bases, such as Dobbins ARB, Grissom ARB, both of which are former active-duty USAF bases. Facilities of the Air National Guard are located on civil airports in a secure cantonment area not accessible to the general public, though some units are based on USAF bases, a few ANG-operated bases, such as Selfridge ANGB, Michigan.
Support facilities on Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve installations tend to not be as extensive as active bases. As an examples, 1) the Russian Sevastopol Naval Base comprises individual facilities located within the city of Sevastopol proper as well as an airfield at Kacha north of the city. An overseas military base is a military base, geographically located outside of the territory of the country whose armed forces are the principal occupants of the base; the use of overseas military base has throughout its history of usage been a contentious issue of debate, is a source of opposition for antimilitarists and nationalists in the host country. Such bases may be established by treaties between the governing power in the host country and another country which needs to establish the military base in the host country for various reasons strategic and logistic. Furthermore, overseas military bases serve as the source of the military brat subculture due to the children of the bases' occupant military being born or raised in the host country but raised with a remote parental knowledge of the occupant military's home country.
In the 18th and 19th Centuries the Royal Eng
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri