Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.
Caboolture is a town and suburb in Moreton Bay Region, Australia. At the 2016 census, the town of Caboolture had an estimated population of 67,460, it is located on the north side of the Caboolture River, which separates the town from Morayfield and Caboolture South. Caboolture is an urban centre or satellite city 44 kilometres north of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland. Caboolture is considered to be the northernmost urban area of the greater Brisbane metropolitan region within South East Queensland, it marks the end of the Brisbane suburban commuter railway service along the North Coast railway line; the urban extent of the town of Caboolture is not formally defined but is regarded as including the following suburbs: Bellmere Caboolture Caboolture South Morayfield Upper Caboolture The Kabi indigenous people are the traditional custodians of the area now known as Caboolture. The name Kabultur is derived from the Yugarabul dialect meaning "place of the carpet snake"; the Kabi people harvested bush food, fresh water mussels, oysters and some game animals, moving around the land to take best advantage of seasonally-available produce.
Each year in March, the Kabi people would hold Bunya Festivals to feast on the plentiful and nutritious annual nuts of the Bunya Pine. These huge trees provided a food source. Neighbouring clans were invited to the festivals, where singing, dancing story-telling and arranging of marriages took place; the Caboolture area was colonised by European people in 1842 when the land around the Moreton Bay penal colony was opened up to free settlers. By the mid-1860s the local pastoralists were experimenting with sugar cotton. In 1867, a tiny settlement was established as a supply and trading centre for the settlers in the area and to service the needs of miners trekking from Brisbane to the goldfields near Gympie The local shire was constituted in 1879 and in 1888 the railway line from Brisbane was opened. Caboolture Post Office opened on 1 September 1869. Settlement in Caboolture was accelerated with the discovery of gold at Gympie. In 1868, the town was used as a stop-over point by the Cobb and Co coach service connecting Brisbane and Maryborough.
This function continued with the rail link established in 1888. A small dairy town, the location of Caboolture on the corridor between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast resulted in an influx of residents in the 1970s and 1980s; the three main factors in this expansion were the electrification of the railway line to Brisbane, enabling travel to the Brisbane CBD in less than an hour, the development of the Bruce Highway to freeway standard, the availability of cheap land. The Caboolture Library opened in 2011; as part of the 30th Anniversary of Expo 88 celebration, on 26 October 2018, artist Ken Done unveiled the restoration of his iconic signs made for the Australia pavilion at Expo 88. It had spent the intervening years in a cow paddock beside the Bruce Highway at Deception Bay; the restoration was undertaken by the Caboolture Historical Village where they will remain on display. Caboolture has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Buckle Street: Lagoon Creek Pumping Station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 67,460 people in Caboolture Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 4.8% of the population.
75.7% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were New Zealand 4.6%, England 3.5%, Philippines 0.9%, Taiwan 0.6% and South Korea 0.5%. 85.8% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 0.8%, Samoan 0.6%, Tagalog 0.4%, Korean 0.4% and Cantonese 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.2%, Catholic 19.0% and Anglican 15.7%. Caboolture is a regional transport hub. With its connections across the Great Dividing Range via the D'Aguilar Highway, easy highway access to Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast via the Bruce Highway, the Bribie Island Road to Bribie Island, it is a focal point for road traffic. Caboolture railway station is the terminus for QR Citytrain's Caboolture railway line, as well as being a major stop on the North Coast railway line. Citytrain operates regular services to Brisbane, in addition to interurban services to Nambour and Gympie, with significant expansion of services north of Caboolture planned over the next decade.
The area is serviced by Caboolture Bus Lines and the larger Kangaroo Bus Lines. Caboolture contains its own airfield, which services general and recreational aviation. Visiting aircraft are able to operate into the Caboolture airstrip, under the operational control of the Caboolture Aero Club Inc. Additionally the airport is home to a number of aviation enterprises and attractions - amongst them, the Caboolture Warplane Museum, skydiving club, the Beaufort Restoration group. Caboolture's senior sporting teams predominantly play in the respective Sunshine Coast competitions; the suburbs cricket club are reigning Sunshine Coast Cricket Association first division premiers. The rugby union club have rejoined the Sunshine Coast Rugby Union competition after a few years in Queensland Suburban rugby's Barber Cup; the town has a Little Athletics club, Schools in Caboolture include Caboolture State School near the CBD, Minimbah State School, Tullawong State School, Caboolture East Primary School, Saint Paul's Lutheran Primary School and Australian Christian College - Moreton.
High Schools include Caboolture State High School, Morayfield State High School
Lamington National Park
The Lamington National Park is a national park, lying on the Lamington Plateau of the McPherson Range on the Queensland/New South Wales border in Australia. From Southport on the Gold Coast the park is 85 kilometres to the southwest and Brisbane is 110 kilometres north; the 20,600 hectares Lamington National Park is known for its natural environment, birdlife, ancient trees, walking tracks and mountain views. Protected areas to the east in Springbrook National Park and south along the Tweed Range in the Border Ranges National Park around Mount Warning in New South Wales conserve similar landscapes; the park is part of the Shield Volcano Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. The park is part of the Scenic Rim Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance in the conservation of several species of threatened birds. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Lamington National Park was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction".
Most of the park is situated 900 metres above sea level only 30 kilometres from the Pacific's ocean shores. The plateaus and cliffs in Lamington and Springbrook National Parks are the northern and north western remnants of the huge 23-million-year-old Tweed Volcano, centered around Mount Warning. Elevation in the south of the park is above 1,000 metres in some parts; the land declines to under 700 metres in the north. Some of the mountains in the park include Mount Hobwee, Mount Widgee, Mount Toolona, Mount Cominan, Mount Roberts and Mount Bithongabel, containing much of Australia's few cloud forests; the Nerang River, Albert River and Coomera River all have their source in Lamington National Park. Eastern parts of the park feature high cliffs; the park is within the City of Gold Scenic Rim Region local government areas. Southern Lamington and sections of O'Reilly, Binna Burra and Natural Bridge are protected with Lamington National Park. For at least 6000 years, Aboriginal people visited these mountains.
The Wangerriburras and Nerangballum tribes claimed home to the plateau territory. 900 years ago the indigenous population began to decline. Bushrangers Cave, close to Mount Hobwee and is 60 metres long, was once an aboriginal camp; this site shows Aboriginal occupation going back 10,000 years. Captain Patrick Logan and Allan Cunningham were the first European explorers in the area; the timber cutters soon followed, including the Lahey family who owned one of Queensland's largest timber mills at the time. In 1863 a survey of the Queensland/New South Wales border was conducted; the task was carried out by Francis Edward Roberts and Isaiah Rowland, both surveyors, who had to define the border along the highest points in dense rainforest where there were few clear lines of sight. Robert Collins campaigned for the protection of the area from logging from the 1890s. Collins entered state parliament and saw a bill passed that preserved state forests and national parks but he died before the McPherson Range was protected.
It was another local, Romeo Lahey who recognised the value of preserving the forests. He campaigned to make it one of the first protected areas in Queensland; the O’Reilly family established a guesthouse near the park in 1926, now named O'Reilly's Rainforest Retreat, founding members of the National Parks Association of Queensland built Binna Burra Lodge next to the park in the 1930s. Lamington National Park was established in 1915; the park was named after Lord Lamington, Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1902. In 1937, Bernard O'Reilly became a hero when he rescued the survivors from the Airlines of Australia Stinson Model A airliner City of Brisbane, which had crashed in the remote Lamington wilderness. In typical Australian bushman fashion he embarked on his rescue mission taking only onions and bread to eat. Only a small portion of the original wreck remains today, 10 km south of the O'Reilly's guesthouse. Rugged mountain scenery, caves, wildflower heaths, tall open forests, varied wildlife and some of the best bushwalking in Queensland are protected in Lamington National Park.
One of Queensland’s best-loved parks, Lamington is the core of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves Australia World Heritage Area along the adjoining Border Ranges National Park in New South Wales. David Attenborough visited and filmed the park while making the 1979 television series Life on Earth in which beech trees and bowerbirds were featured; the national park protects one of the most diverse areas of vegetation in the country. The park’s lush rainforests include one of the largest upland subtropical rainforest remnants in the world and the most northern Antarctic beech cool temperate rainforests in Australia; the roots of the oldest Antarctic beech trees are over 5,000 years old. Around Mount Widgee numbers of Antarctic beech appear to be increasing; the park protects one of the country's largest remaining forests of hoop pine which are found on the drier slopes. Below 880 metres the white booyong and black booyong are found. In higher elevations the yellow carabeen, red carabeen, pigeonberry ash and soft corkwood trees predominate.
Many of Lamington's plants are found nowhere else on earth, such as O’Reilly's pittosporum, the Lamington peach myrtle, the Mt Merino eyebright and everlasting daisy which are subalpine relics from the last ice age. In 2006 it was realised that an old collection of the eastern underg
Fort Lytton is a heritage-listed 19th century coastal fort in the suburb of Lytton in Brisbane, Australia. The name “Fort Lytton” is used to describe the 1 square mile military base that surrounded the fort. Fort Lytton was built in 1880-1882, operated until 1965; the historic fort is now contained in Fort Lytton National Park. The park is open to the public on most public holidays. Guided tours are provided by Fort Lytton Historical Association, a non-profit volunteer organisation. Fort Lytton was built in 1880-1882 in response to a fear that a foreign colonial power such as Russia or France might launch a naval attack on Brisbane or its port, both of which were located along the banks of the Brisbane River; the fort was designed by Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Scratchley. It was located at the mouth of the Brisbane river, was designed to deny enemy vessels access to the river; this was achieved by a remote-controlled minefield across the mouth of the river, four muzzle-loading heavy guns. By 1888, the 80pdr guns were replaced with two 6-inch 100pdr breech-loading disappearing guns.
Five years after that, the defences were increased with the addition of two quick-firing Hotchkiss 6pdr guns. The minefield was closed in 1908, but the disappearing guns continued in operation until 1938. Throughout its life, Fort Lytton was a major training base. Thousands of soldiers trained at Fort Lytton for the Boer War, World War I and World War II. For its first forty years the fort was the main training base for Queensland's reserve soldiers; each year up to 5000 reservists attended training at Fort Lytton's "Easter Encampment". The Australian colonies were part of the British Empire, which had made many enemies by the nineteenth century, when other colonial powers were expanding their empires. At the time the fort was built, Brisbane had fewer than 100,000 people, with an annual trade worth more than four million pounds. Brisbane was more vulnerable to naval attack than Sydney or Melbourne as it was just three days' sail from the French naval garrison at Nouméa. Local defences were essential as Moreton Bay had numerous island on which the enemy could establish a base.
Based on the recommendations of the illustrious British soldiers and military tacticians Colonel Sir William Jervois and Scratchley, Queensland opted to rely on Fort Lytton as a fixed defence position for its capital and wealthiest port, Brisbane. The fort is a typical nineteenth century garrison - a pentagonal fortress concealed behind grassy embankments - surrounded for greater protection by a water-filled moat. Approval for construction of the fort at Lytton was given by the Parliament of Queensland in 1878. A field force of field artillery and infantry was established to defend against a land attack by enemy forces; the government did not favour cavalry, as mounted soldiers could be recruited from the police force in an emergency. A small marine defence force was developed, consisting of the two gunboats Gayundah and Paluma, the torpedo boat Mosquito and a number of armed barges. Lytton Hill was the only significant hill in the one square mile Fort Lytton complex, giving it enormous defensive significance.
It is located about 0.75 miles east of the colonial fort. In the mid 1880s a redoubt was constructed on the hill to serve as a lookout and as a base for the infantry and field artillery units that were needed to protect Fort Lytton from an attack by land; the redoubt was connected to Fort Lytton by telegraph, no doubt backed up by more traditional signalling means such as semaphore. Lytton Hill was able to observe and report ship movements in Moreton Bay, land movements of attacking forces. In the Second World War, Lytton Hill accommodated an army signals station and a Royal Australian Airforce radar station. At various times Lytton Hill was used for civilian applications such as for semaphore communications with the prison located on St Helena Island, to temporarily accommodate a boys reformatory school, as a radar station for the Brisbane Pilot Service; the Second Boer War was fought in Southern Africa between 1899 and 1902. In total over 3000 Queensland officers and men were sent to help the British forces to fight the war, most being mounted troops from the Queensland Mounted Infantry, the Queensland Imperial Bushmen and the Australian Commonwealth Horse.
Nine contingents sailed from Brisbane between November 1899 and May 1902. Most contingents trained at Fort Lytton prior to embarkation. During the First World War, Fort Lytton was a training facility for troops preparing to go overseas. Fort Lytton had its own wharf where numerous troops embarked; the Fort's artillery was used operationally on two occasions, firing warning shots near two ships that were failing to follow wartime procedures. Following the war, the Fort was used as an extension of the adjacent quarantine station by accommodating quarantined returning soldiers in tents. Fort Lytton's role in the Second World War was different from previous times, it was now part of a much larger defence system. Between 1937 and 1943, four more coastal forts were built to defend Moreton Bay; these forts provided the outer defence to prevent enemy vessels from reaching the mouth of the Brisbane River, while Fort Lytton provided the inner defence. The four outer forts were Fort Bribie and Fort Skirmish on Bribie Island, Fort Cowan Cowan and Fort Rous on Moreton Island.
Each of these forts was equipped with two six inch guns, giving combined coverage of most of Moreton Bay. The navy operated indicator loops and remote-controlled minefields in the deep water channels of Moreton Bay, giving them the
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Nambour is a town and locality in South East Queensland, Australia, 101 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane. The town lies in the sub-tropical hinterland of the Sunshine Coast at the foot of the Blackall Range and has a population of 11,187, it was the administrative centre and capital of the Maroochy Shire and is now the administrative centre of the Sunshine Coast Region. The greater Nambour region includes surrounding suburbs such as Burnside, Coes Creek, Perwillowen, has an estimated population of 15,550; the name is derived from the Aboriginal word "naamba", referring to the red-flowering bottle brush Callistemon viminalis. In 1862, Tom Petrie with 25 Turrbal and Kabi Kabi men including Ker-Walli and Billy Dinghy entered Petrie's Creek with the view to exploit the large cedar growing in the vicinity. Near Rosemount, they encountered some resident aboriginals with whom they had a traditional ceremony together. Petrie's group afterwards made a permanent logging camp further up the creek in the area now known as Nambour.
At this camp, Petrie branded the 25 aboriginals. With a piece of prepared glass, he cut his logging symbol of a P inside a circle into each of the men's arms; these aboriginals, as well as local Maroochy men such as Puram, worked hard, returning with Petrie to build the roadway, fell the timber and transport the logs downriver. The Nambour area had its first permanent European settlement in 1870; the town was still just called Petrie's Creek. In 1890 the Maroochy Divisional Board was established. In 1891, the rail link with Brisbane was completed, at its opening Petrie's Creek was renamed "Nambour", after the Nambour cattle station. A fire in 1924 destroyed many of the timber buildings along the main street. Petrie's Creek Post Office opened on 1 June 1888 and was renamed Nambour by 1890; the Nambour branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association was founded on 1 November 1928. In 1931 they established their QCWA Rest Rooms in the Shire Hall. In September 1958 they opened their own building at 10 Short Street.
The town was bypassed by the Bruce Highway on 16 October 1990, which now forms the locality's north-eastern boundary. This alleviated most of the local traffic congestion. Along the middle of the roadway of Mill and Howard Streets, a piece of Queensland Rail history is still on display - the Nambour to Coolum Tramline; the Tramline was used to transport passengers and sugar cane in the early 1920s. The Tramline forms part of the Moreton Central Sugar Mill Cane Tramway, The tramway closed at the end of 2001. Much of the track and signal lighting still remains; the Nambour & District Historical Museum, more known as the Nambour Museum began with an opening ceremony held on 20 April 1996. The Nambour Public Library opened in 1982 and had a major refurbishment in 1998 with a minor refurbishment in 2016. In the 2011 census, Nambour had a population of 10,221. Nambour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Mill Street, Currie Street, Howard Street: Moreton Central Sugar Mill Cane Tramway 17 & 19 Mill Street, 14 & 16 Bury Street: former Moreton Central Sugar Mill Worker's HousingAnother heritage listing associated with the Moreton Central Sugar Mill is the Store Road, Maroochy River: Tramway Lift Bridge over Maroochy River According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 11,187 people in Nambour.
52.9% of the population were female and 47.1% were male The median age was 40 years Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 4.4% of the population. 77.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.0% and New Zealand 3.6%. 87.7% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.5%, Catholic 16.0% and Anglican 13.5%. Nambour is represented by the following politicians: Nambour's primary industry has been sugar, with extensive cane fields surrounding the town, the Moreton Central Sugar Mill in the town centre; the mill itself began operating in 1897 until it was closed in 2003. The long-term future of the sugar industry in the area is in doubt. Other industries in the area include tourism, the growing of tropical fruits; the Big Pineapple tourist attraction on the southern outskirts of the town reflects both of these pursuits. The Big Pineapple Music Festival attracts thousands of visitors to Nambour.
Other tourist attractions include Thrill Hill Waterslide Park, the Big Cow, the Big Macadamia nut. Situated near Nambour is the Queensland Government's Maroochy Research Station, a major subtropical fruit and nut research and extension centre; the 61 ha research facility was established in 1945, has an office and laboratory complex, netted orchards, postharvest coolrooms and a biotechnology facility. With access to national and international funding sources, specialist staff work in conjunction with investigators from other research agencies; the main shopping areas in Nambour are Nambour Plaza which has 40 stores, Nambour Mill Village Shopping Centre and Centenary Square Shopping Centre. The TransLink Transit Authority is the authority that coordinates and integrates the public rail and bus services in South-East Queensland, of which Nambour is in Zone 6. Nambour is serviced by several Queensland Rail passenger trains, including the Tilt Train and is one and a half hours north of Brisbane by rail.
Regular services use the Sunshine Coast line. The region connected to Brisbane via the Bruce Highway. Greyhound Australia interstate coach
Gold Coast, Queensland
The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland 66 kilometres south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 638,090, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, Queensland's second-largest city; the Gold Coast region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. In 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. After the establishment of the Surfers Paradise Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly; the area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination and in 1994, the City of Gold Coast local government area was expanded to encompass the majority of the Gold Coast's metropolitan area, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane.
Today, the Gold Coast is a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate and has become known for its surfing beaches, high-rise dominated skyline, theme parks and rainforest hinterland. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry; the city hosted the 21st Commonwealth Games which ran from 4 to 15 April 2018. The Gold Coast is the ancestral home of a number of Indigenous clans of the Yugambeh people, including the Kombumerri and Tulgi-gi-gin clans. Lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in HMS Endeavour. Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region; the region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach, named after seeing a cutter named Mermaid.
The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. A number of small townships developed in the hinterland; the western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the Nerang River, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed, renamed Southport with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh. Southport grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents; the Gold Coast was known as the South Coast. However, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta.
The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of Town of Coolangatta and Town of Southport along with the coastal areas from the Shire of Nerang on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term Gold Coast in their names, on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast; the area was proclaimed a city less than one year on 16 May 1959. In 1995, the Albert Shire was amalgamated into the City of Gold Coast. In 2007, the Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales, to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. Today the Gold Coast is known for its golden sanded surf beaches, theme parks and rainforest hinterlands; the Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The Gold Coast is half covered by forests of various types; this includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalypt forest.
Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of Queensland, to the south of Brisbane, the state capital; the Albert River separates the Gold Coast from a suburban area of Brisbane. Gold Coast City stretches from Beenleigh and Russell Island to the border with New South Wales 56 km south, extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage listed Lamington National Park; the southernmost town of Gold Coast City, includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At 28.1667°S 153.55°E / -28.1667. From Coolangatta forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, further on Stradbroke Island; the suburbs of Southport and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre.
The major river in the area is the Nerang River. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but th