The Piikani Nation is a First Nation, representing Canadian Indigenous peoples known as the Northern Piikani or the Peigan. Speaking the Blackfoot language and having membership of the Blackfoot Confederacy, before the 1870s the Peigan people occupied territory on both sides of what is now the Canada–United States border; the Blackfoot Confederacy signed several treaties with the US and received the Great Northern Reservation, an vast reservation in present-day Montana. However, 220 Peigans were massacred by the US Army in 1870 and American authorities pressured the Blackfoot to give up more and more lands to white settlers, leading some Peigans to relocate to Canada and sign Treaty 7 with the Canadian government in 1877; the Peigan are now divided between the Blackfeet Nation based on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in Montana, the Piikani Nation in Alberta. The other members of the Confederacy are the Blackfoot-speaking Káínaa or Blood and the Siksiká or Blackfoot, as well as the Tsuu T'ina or Sarcee who only became allied and spoke an unrelated language.
At the time the treaties were signed, the Northern Peigan were situated on the Oldman River, west of Lethbridge, Canada, to the west of the Kainai tribe. With its headquarters in Brocket, the Piikani Nation controls two parcels of land, Peigan Timber Limit "B" and the Piikani 147 Indian reserve; as of 2014 the band had a registered population of 3,638 members, of whom 2,358 lived on Piikani Nation reserves. The band is a member of the Treaty 7 Management Corporation; the Piikani Nation has a history of firsts. It was the first band in Alberta to demand a vote in provincial elections, the first to allow liquor onto a reserve, the first to assume administration of their reserve, the first to host Indian Day Celebrations as a means of retaining and maintaining their culture. Education has been controlled by the band since 1986; this is managed by the Peigan Board of Education, a non-profit society registered under the Societies Act of Alberta, comprising six trustees elected at large by the band's membership and one appointed by the band council.
Scholarships and bursaries are provided by the Piikani Youth & Education Foundation with monies from the Piikani Trust Agreement. The band is governed by a council comprising a chief and twelve councilors elected according to custom rather than the provisions of the Indian Act. To this end, in 2002, the Piikani Nation implemented the Piikani Nation Election By-law and Regulations; this code includes a reference in its preamble to Piikanissini, the traditional teachings of the Piikani, allows for councilors to be dismissed if they are found to be in violation of the tenets of Piikanissini. A court case in 2008 allowed for the principles of Piikanissini to be invoked to prevent a candidate from running from office, rather than to remove them once in office; the court found that the elders of the community functioned like a senate, that they were the proper body to advise the Piikani Nation Election Removals Board and the Chief Electoral Officer. The court ruled that the Election Code did not include such powers for the elders as written, so it gave the band six months to clarify the code.
The principles of Piikanissini were invoked once again when on December 13, 2013 Gayle Strikes with A Gun was removed as chief by the Piikani Nation Removal Appeals Board because she "failed to maintain a standard of conduct expected of a member of the Piikani Nation Council, as set out in the Election Bylaws and in keeping with the principles of Piikanissini."In 2002 the voters of Piikani Nation approved a C$64.3 million settlement with the governments of Alberta and Canada over Piikani water rights impacted by the Lethbridge Northern Irrigation Headworks on the Oldman River. The monies were deposited in the Piikani Trust governed by the Piikani Trust Agreement; the agreement allowed the Nation to acquire 10,300 acres of new reserve land. The Band took out loans against the trust to invest in industrial developments, were sued by a band member alleging mismanagement; the Band filed suit against a Calgary-based investment broker for defrauding it of $23 million from the settlement. In 2012, the Band's investment company, Piikani Investment Corporation, was restructured in the bankruptcy courts.
The alleged mismanagement became part of a RCMP investigation in 2013. Nation's website Introduction to photo essay, Nitsitapiisinni: Our Way of Life, Glenbow Museum Concise description of the Blackfoot tribes
Waterton Lakes National Park
Waterton Lakes National Park is a national park located in the southwest corner of Alberta, Canada. It borders Glacier National Park in United States. Waterton was the fourth Canadian national park, formed in 1895 and named after Waterton Lake, in turn after the Victorian naturalist and conservationist Charles Waterton, its range is between prairies. This park contains 505 km2 of rugged mountains and wilderness. Operated by Parks Canada, Waterton is open all year, but the main tourist season is during July and August; the only commercial facilities available within the park are located at the Waterton Park townsite. This park ranges in elevation from 1,290 metres at the townsite to 2,910 m at Mount Blakiston, it offers many scenic trails, including Crypt Lake trail. In 2012/2013, Waterton Lakes National Park had 402,542 visitors; the park was the subject of a short film in 2011's National Parks Project, directed by Peter Lynch and scored by Cadence Weapon, Laura Barrett and Mark Hamilton. In 1932, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was formed from Glacier.
It was dedicated to world peace by Sir Charles Arthur Mander on behalf of Rotary International. Although this park has a lot of diversity for its size, the main highlight is the lakes which are deeper than any other lake elsewhere in Canada, they are overlooked by the historic Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site. In September 2017, a large forest fire forced the evacuation of the park; the fire burned through 200 km2 of the park, destroying the visitor centre and other buildings. Some 80% of hiking trails were affected and several remained closed for the 2018 season. Animals that inhabit this national park include wolverines, bighorn sheep, bald eagles, white-tailed deer, mule deer, mountain goats, moose, timber wolves, coyotes, river otters, lynxes, snowshoe hares, hoary marmots, grizzly bears and black bears. In 1979, Waterton and bordering Glacier National park in the US were designated as World Biosphere reserves, preserving mountains, prairie and freshwater wetlands ecosystems. Habitats represented in the parks' range include: prairie grasslands, aspen grove forests, alpine tundra/high meadows, lower subalpine forests and coniferous forests.
The park is part of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, designated as World Heritage Site in 1995 for their distinctive climate, physiographic setting, mountain-prairie interface, tri-ocean hydrographical divide. They are areas of significant scenic values with abundant and diverse fauna. List of National Parks of Canada List of parks in Alberta List of trails in Alberta List of mountains in Alberta List of waterfalls of Alberta Waterton Lakes National Park Map Highlighting Park's Boundaries Pure Experience: Waterton Lakes National Park
John Barlow (Canadian politician)
John Barlow is a Canadian politician, elected to represent the riding of Macleod in the House of Commons of Canada in the 2014 by-election. Barlow was re-elected on October 19, 2015, in the riding of Foothills Prior to his election, Barlow was a newspaper editor. Barlow had run for the Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta in Highwood during the 2012 Alberta general election, losing to Wildrose leader Danielle Smith. Barlow was first elected to represent the riding of Macleod in the House of Commons of Canada in the 2014 by-election resulting from the retirement of former Member of Parliament Ted Menzies, he was re-elected on October 2015, in the riding of Foothills, Alberta. In 2016, Barlow was appointed as the Interprovincial Trade Critic by Rona Ambrose, the interim Leader of the Conservative Party of Canada; as critic, he focused on the campaign, #FreeTheBeer, intended to build public pressure for the provinces to ratify a free trade deal for Canada focused on alcohol trade between provinces.
In 2016, Barlow tabled his Private Member's Bill C-351, "An Act to amend the Importation of Intoxicating Liquors Act and the Excise Act, 2001". If passed, this legislation would: allow producers to sell their product directly to consumers anywhere in Canada without permission of a provincial liquor board, allow a person to transport alcohol from one province to another for personal use. In 2016, newly elected leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, Andrew Scheer, appointed Barlow as the Shadow Minister for Agriculture and Agri-Food. Barlow sits on the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Agri-Food. On Friday September 7, 2018, Honourable Andrew Scheer, Leader of the Official Opposition, appointed John Barlow, Member of Parliament for Foothills as Shadow Minister of Employment, Workforce Development, Labour, he was appointed as the Vice-Chair for the Standing Committee on Human Resources and Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities. This position was held by MP Steven Blaney
Livingstone-Macleod is a provincial electoral district in Alberta, Canada. The district is one of 87 current districts in the province mandated to return a single member to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta using the first past the post method of voting; the electoral district located in rural southwestern Alberta was created with minimal boundary changes in the 1997 boundary re-distribution from the old riding of Pincher Creek-Macleod. The district is named after the town of Fort Macleod; the district contains the communities of Pincher Creek and the municipality of the Crowsnest Pass. The district and its antecedent have been favorable to electing Progressive Conservative candidates in the past few decades, but this history was broken in the Alberta general election, 2012 when Wildrose candidate Pat Stier was elected; the electoral district was created in the 1996 boundary redistribution from the old electoral district of Pincher Creek-Macleod. Significant changes were made to the district in the 2010 boundary redistribution.
The Blood Reserve was transferred to the electoral district of Cardston-Taber-Warner while land south of the town of High River, in Highwood as well as a portion of land in that constituency in the north west and the portion of land, part of the abolished Foothills-Rocky View electoral district south of Tsuu T'ina Nation was transferred into the electoral district. The electoral district was created in the 1997 boundary redistribution; the election held that year saw Pincher Creek-Macleod Progressive Conservative incumbent David Coutts win more than half the popular vote over Liberal candidate Ernie Patterson to pick up the seat for his party. The two would face each other again in the 2001 general election. Coutts would be re-elected with a larger majority to win his third term in office. Coutts won his fourth term in the 2004 election taking just over half of the popular vote in the riding, he retired from office at dissolution of the assembly in 2004. The second representative of the district was Progressive Conservative MLA Evan Berger.
Results compared to Alberta First Party in 2001 Voters had the option of selecting 4 Candidates on the Ballot On November 19, 2004 a Student Vote was conducted at participating Alberta schools to parallel the 2004 Alberta general election results. The vote was designed to educate students and simulate the electoral process for persons who have not yet reached the legal majority; the vote was conducted in 80 of the 83 provincial electoral districts with students voting for actual election candidates. Schools with a large student body that reside in another electoral district had the option to vote for candidates outside of the electoral district where they were physically located. Website of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, known as Canadian Pacific is a historic Canadian Class I railroad incorporated in 1881. The railroad is owned by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001. Headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, it owns 20,000 kilometres of track all across Canada and into the United States, stretching from Montreal to Vancouver, as far north as Edmonton, its rail network serves Minneapolis-St. Paul, Detroit and New York City in the United States; the railway was first built between eastern Canada and British Columbia between 1881 and 1885, fulfilling a promise extended to British Columbia when it entered Confederation in 1871. It was Canada's first transcontinental railway, but no longer reaches the Atlantic coast. A freight railway, the CPR was for decades the only practical means of long-distance passenger transport in most regions of Canada, was instrumental in the settlement and development of Western Canada.
The CPR became one of the largest and most powerful companies in Canada, a position it held as late as 1975. Its primary passenger services were eliminated in 1986, after being assumed by Via Rail Canada in 1978. A beaver was chosen as the railway's logo in honor of Sir Donald A Smith who had risen from Factor to Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company over a lengthy career in the beaver fur trade. Smith was a principal financier of the C. P. R. Staking much of his personal wealth. In 1885, he drove the last spike to complete the transcontinental line; the company acquired two American lines in 2009: the Dakota and Eastern Railroad and the Iowa and Eastern Railroad. The trackage of the IC&E was at one time part of CP subsidiary Soo Line and predecessor line The Milwaukee Road; the combined DME/ICE system spanned North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin and Iowa, as well as two short stretches into two other states, which included a line to Kansas City, a line to Chicago and regulatory approval to build a line into the Powder River Basin of Wyoming.
It is publicly traded on both the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker CP. Its U. S. headquarters are in Minneapolis. Together with the Canadian Confederation, the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway was a task undertaken as the National Dream by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, he was helped by Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt, the owner of the North Western Coal and Navigation Company. British Columbia, a four-month sea voyage away from the East Coast, had insisted upon a land transport link to the East as a condition for joining Confederation; the government however proposed to build a railway linking the Pacific province to the Eastern provinces within 10 years of 20 July 1871. Macdonald saw it as essential to the creation of a unified Canadian nation that would stretch across the continent. Moreover, manufacturing interests in Quebec and Ontario wanted access to raw materials and markets in Western Canada; the first obstacle to its construction was political.
The logical route went through the city of Chicago, Illinois. In addition to this was the difficulty of building a railroad through the Canadian Rockies. To ensure this routing, the government offered huge incentives including vast grants of land in the West. In 1873, Sir John A. Macdonald and other high-ranking politicians, bribed in the Pacific Scandal, granted federal contracts to Hugh Allan's Canada Pacific Railway Company rather than to David Lewis Macpherson's Inter-Ocean Railway Company, thought to have connections to the American Northern Pacific Railway Company; because of this scandal, the Conservative Party was removed from office in 1873. The new Liberal prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, ordered construction of segments of the railway as a public enterprise under the supervision of the Department of Public Works led by Sandford Fleming. Surveying was carried out during the first years of a number of alternative routes in this virgin territory followed by construction of a telegraph along the lines, agreed upon.
The Thunder Bay section linking Lake Superior to Winnipeg was commenced in 1875. By 1880, around 1,000 kilometres was nearly complete across the troublesome Canadian Shield terrain, with trains running on only 500 kilometres of track. With Macdonald's return to power on 16 October 1878, a more aggressive construction policy was adopted. Macdonald confirmed that Port Moody would be the terminus of the transcontinental railway, announced that the railway would follow the Fraser and Thompson rivers between Port Moody and Kamloops. In 1879, the federal government floated bonds in London and called for tenders to construct the 206 km section of the railway from Yale, British Columbia, to Savona's Ferry, on Kamloops Lake; the contract was awarded to Andrew Onderdonk, whose men started work on 15 May 1880. After the completion of that section, Onderdonk received contracts to build between Yale and Port Moody, between Savona's Ferry and Eagle Pass. On 21 October 1880, a new syndicate, unrelated to Hugh Allan's, signed
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act, is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, soil and fauna, its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Quebec. Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required; the department is responsible for international environmental issues. CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill entered into effect in June 2012.
Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges; the federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country. Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of Global Ecolabelling Network. Environment Canada continues to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, to standardize policy implementation. Minister Deputy Minister Associate Deputy Minister Assistant Deputy Minister Associate Assistant Deputy Minister Director General Director Managers Supervisors Staff Environment Canada is divided into several geographic regions: National Capital Atlantic and Quebec Region Ontario West and North The department has several organizations which carry out specific tasks: Enforcement Branch Environmental Enforcement Wildlife Enforcement Environmental Protection Branch Canadian Wildlife Service Chemical Sectors Energy and Transportation Environmental Protection Operations Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Strategic Priorities Meteorological Service of Canada Weather and environmental monitoring Weather and Environmental Operations Weather and Environmental Prediction and Services Canadian Hurricane Centre Science and Technology Branch Atmospheric and Climate Science Water Science and Technology Directorate National Pollutant Release Inventory Wildlife and Landscape Science Air Quality Mobile Source Emissions Measurement and ResearchThe Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency is an arms-length agency that reports to the Minister of EnvironmentParks Canada, which manages the Canadian National Parks system, was removed from Environment Canada and became an agency reporting to the Minister of Heritage in 1998.
In 2003, responsibility for Parks Canada was returned to the Minister of the Environment. Environment Canada Enforcement Branch is responsible for ensuring compliance with several federal statues; the Governor-in-Council appoints enforcement officers and pursuant to section 217 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, enforcement officers have all the powers of peace officers. There are two designations of enforcement officers: Environmental Enforcement and Wildlife Enforcement; the former administers the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and pollution provisions of the Fisheries Act and corresponding regulations. The latter enforces Migratory Birds Convention Act, Canada Wildlife Act, Species at Risk Act and The Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act. All officers wear dark green uniform with a badge. Environmental Enforcement Officers only carry baton and OC spray whereas Wildlife Enforcement Officers are equipped with firearm.
The Minister may appoint members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, fishery officers, parks officers, customs officers and conservation officers of provincial and territorial governments as enforcement officers and to allow them to exercise the powers and privilege of Environment Canada officers. On March 4, 2009, a bill to increase the enforcement capabilities of Environment Canada was introduced into the House of Commons; the Environmental Enforcement Bill would increase the fines for individuals and corporations for ser
Area code 403
Area code 403 is a telephone area code in the Canadian province of Alberta, encompassing the southern third of the province, including the Calgary area. The 403 area code was one of the original 89 area codes assigned in 1947 in the contiguous United States and the nine-province extent of Canada, it encompassed the whole province of Alberta, the Yukon and the western half of the Northwest Territories. It was the second-largest numbering plan area in the North American Numbering Plan, spanning more than one-ninth of the circumference of the planet from the 49th parallel north to the North Pole. On October 3, 1997, 403 was cut back to Alberta, when the territories were split off as their own separate area code, 867. Within only a year, 403 was back to the brink of exhaustion due to Canada's number allocation system; every local exchange carrier is allocated blocks of 10,000 numbers–corresponding to a single three-digit prefix–for every rate centre where they plan to offer service for the smallest hamlets.
While most rate centres do not need nearly that many numbers, it is not possible to move a number from one rate centre to another. This resulted in thousands of wasted numbers, the proliferation of cell phones and pagers–especially in Calgary and Edmonton–only exacerbated this. On January 25, 1999, the northern two-thirds of Alberta, including Edmonton, was split into the new area code 780. Everything from Red Deer and Lacombe southward stayed in 403. Permissive dialing of 403 continued across the province until May 18, 1999; this was intended as a long-term solution, but within a decade 403 was close to exhaustion once again. To solve the problem, it was decided to implement area code 587 as a province-wide overlay. Optional provincewide 10-digit dialing began on June 23, 2008, became mandatory on September 12, 2008. On September 20, 2008, Telus Mobility began assigning 587 numbers to new customers in Calgary and Edmonton; the incumbent local exchange carrier in 403 is Telus. Prior to 1990, Telus was known as Alberta Government Telephones, was a department of the provincial government.
Calgary -200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 225 226 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 303 305 312 313 319 333 338 351 354 355 365 366 367 369 370 371 374 375 383 384 385 386 387 389 390 397 398 399 400 401 402 404 407 408 410 428 437 440 441 444 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 481 483 487 500 503 508 509 510 512 513 514 515 516 517 519 520 521 523 530 531 532 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 547 554 560 561 567 568 569 570 571 585 589 590 592 604 605 606 607 608 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 629 630 640 645 648 650 651 656 660 661 662 663 667 668 669 670 671 680 681 685 686 689 690 691 692 693 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 705 708 710 714 716 717 718 719 720 723 724 726 727 730 731 735 736 744 747 750 764 765 766 767 769 770 771 774 775 776 777 781 796 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 813 815 816 817 818 819 826 827 828 829 830 831 835 836 837 850 852 860 861 862 863 869 870 873 874 875 879 880 888 889 890 891 899 906 909 910 918 919 920 921 922 923 926 927 931 943 944 955 956 966 968 969 970 971 973 974 975 978 984 987 988 990 991 992 993 997 998 999 Acme -546 Airdrie -316 420 768 912 945 948 960 980 Banff -431 497 760 762 763 778 951 985 996 Beiseker -947 Black Diamond -933 Blackfalds -600 885 Brooks -362 363 376 409 427 501 633 793 794 925 Canmore -493 609 621 675 678 679 688 707 812 953 961 Cardston -653 659 Carstairs -337 940 Castor -882 Cereal -326 Claresholm -468 489 490 625 682 706 Coaldale -345 405 Cochrane -709 840 851 855 907 932 981 Cremona -637 Crossfield -941 946 Crowsnest Pass -372 459 562 563 564 582 583 623 Didsbury -335 439 518 Drumheller -321 334 436 494 820 821 823 856 East Coulee -822 Eckville -746 High River -336 422 469 498 601 602 603 649 652 841 908 Innisfail -227 Irricana -935 Irvine -834 Kananaskis Improvement District -591 Lacombe -782 786 789 Lake Louise -434 522 Langdon -936 954 Leslieville -729 Lethbridge -308 315 317 320 327 328 329 330 331 332 353 359 360 380 381 382 388 393 394 524 593 634 635 694 715 795 849 892 894 915 929 942 Longview -558 Medicine Hat -458 487 488 502 504 525 526 527 528 529 548 580 581 594 712 866 878 905 926 928 952 957 977 979 Morley -881 Okotoks -306 842 917 938 939 982 995 Olds -415 438 507 556 559 586 672 791 994 Pincher Creek -339 432 484 624 627 632 683 Ponoka -704 783 785 790 913 963 Red Deer -302 304 307 309 314 318 340 341 342 343 346 347 348 349 350 352 356 357 358 373 391 392 396 406 505 506 550 588 596 597 598 713 754 755 848 872 877 896 967 986 Rocky Mountain House -322 418 429 844 845 846 847 871 895 Stettler -323 430 740 741 742 743 916 Strathmore -324 325 361 480 499 814 901 902 934 962 983 Sylvan Lake -858 864 887 Taber -223 416 Three Hills -443 Turner Valley -933 The projected exhaust date for Area Code 403 was March 2009.
For more information see the Canadian Numbering Administrator Website. Two area codes, 587 and 825, have been reserved and the first one, 587, was introduced in September 2008; the 403 area code with area code 780, will be overlaid with the new area code, which will cover the entire