West Lafayette, Indiana
West Lafayette is directly across the Wabash River from its sister city, Lafayette. As of the 2010 census, its population was 29,796 and it is the most densely populated city in Indiana and is home to Purdue University. Augustus Wylie laid out a town in 1836 in the Wabash River floodplain south of the present Levee, due to regular flooding of the site, Wylies town was never built. The present city was formed in 1888 by the merger of the adjacent suburban towns of Chauncey, the three towns had been small suburban villages which were directly adjacent to one another. Kingston was laid out in 1855 by Jesse B, Chauncey was platted in 1860 by the Chauncey family of Philadelphia, wealthy land speculators. Chauncey and Kingston formed a government in 1866 which selected the name Chauncey. The new town of Chauncey remained a suburban village until Purdue University opened in 1869. In 1871 Chauncey voted to be annexed by Lafayette because it was unable to provide the infrastructure, Lafayette voted against annexing Chauncey because of the high cost of the many improvements that the village lacked.
In May 1888, the town of Chauncey voted to change its name to West Lafayette after a petition signed by 152 electors, by that time, the growth of the university was fueling the growth of the little town. The address of Purdue University was given as Lafayette, Indiana until well into the twentieth century, West Lafayette never gained a railroad depot and lagged several years behind Lafayette in the establishment of municipal infrastructure and services. Today, West Lafayette has established itself as a city, with independent services and unique neighborhoods distinct from those of its sister city. This expansion included a section of the US Highway 231 corridor that was previously part of unincorporated Tippecanoe County. The city of West Lafayette has its share of non-profits. West Lafayette lies in central Tippecanoe County and overlooks the Wabash River, most of the city lies in eastern Wabash Township, though a small portion on the northeast side extends into Tippecanoe Township. Elevations range from slightly over 500 feet near the river to more than 720 feet in parts of the city near U. S.
Route 52. According to the 2010 census, West Lafayette has an area of 7.63 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,796 people,11,945 households, the population density was 3,884.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,591 housing units at a density of 1,652.4 per square mile
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Lafayette is a city in and the county seat of Tippecanoe County, United States, located 63 miles northwest of Indianapolis and 105 miles southeast of Chicago. West Lafayette, on the side of the Wabash River, is home to Purdue University. Together and West Lafayette form the core of the Lafayette, according to the 2010 United States Census, the population of Lafayette was 67,140, roughly a 19% increase from 56,397 in 2000. Meanwhile, the 2010 U. S. Census pegged the population of West Lafayette at 29,596. When European explorers arrived at the area around what is now Tippecanoe County, in 1717, the French government established Fort Ouiatenon across the Wabash River and three miles south of present-day Lafayette. The fort became the center of trade for fur trappers, merchants, an annual reenactment and festival known as Feast of the Hunters Moon takes place there each autumn. The town of Lafayette was platted in May 1825 by William Digby and it was designated as the county seat of the newly formed Tippecanoe County the following year.
Like many frontier towns, Lafayette was named for General Lafayette, Lafayette toured the United States in 1824 and 1825. In its earliest days, Lafayette was a center on the Wabash River. By 1845, Ellsworth had purchased 93,000 acres of farmland in and around Lafayette, by 1847 Ellsworth was distributing broadsides looking for farmers to purchase his farmland. Ellsworth Street and Ellsworth Historic District are named for the real estate developer. The Wabash and Erie Canal in the 1840s stimulated trade and affirmed Lafayettes regional prominence, railroads arrived in the town in the 1850s, connecting it with other major markets. The Monon Railroad connected Lafayette with other sections of Indiana, wise hoped to reach New York, weather conditions forced the balloon down near Crawfordsville and the mail reached its final destination by train. In 1959, the U. S. Postal Service issued a 7¢ airmail stamp commemorating the centennial of the event, Lafayette is located at 40°24′38″N 86°52′29″W and lies in Fairfield and Wea Townships.
Elevation at the house is 550 feet, but city elevations range from a little over 500 feet at the Wabash River to approximately 700 feet in the areas of Murdock Park. According to the 2010 census, Lafayette has an area of 27.74 square miles. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.58 inches in February to 4.24 inches in June, as of the census of 2010, there were 67,140 people,28,545 households, and 15,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,420.3 inhabitants per square mile, there were 31,260 housing units at an average density of 1,126.9 per square mile
The Miami are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory that is now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, by 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe, the name Miami derives from Myaamia, the tribes autonym in their Algonquian language of Miami-Illinois. This appears to have derived from an older term meaning downstream people. Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee, supposedly a reference to their sacred bird. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, some Miami have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miami, and not their autonym. The Miami continue to use this autonym today, early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture.
Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns. The historical Miami engaged in hunting, as did other Mississippian peoples, the Dutch and French traders and, after 1652, the British fueled demand. The warfare and social disruption contributed to the decimation of Native American populations and these are believed to have reduced the populations by ninety percent. Historic locations When French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the Miami had reportedly moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples. He befriended the Miami people, settling first at the St. Joseph River, by the 18th century, the Miami had for the most part returned to their homeland in present-day Indiana and Ohio.
The eventual victory of the British in the French and Indian War led to an increased British presence in traditional Miami areas, shifting alliances and the gradual encroachment of European-American settlement led to some Miami bands merging. Native Americans created larger tribal confederacies led by Chief Little Turtle, their alliances were for waging war against Europeans, by the end of the century, the tribal divisions were three, the Miami and Wea. The latter two groups were aligned with some of the Illini tribes. The US government included them with the Illini for administrative purposes, the Eel River band maintained a somewhat separate status, which proved beneficial in the removals of the 19th century
From the dam near Huntington, Indiana, to its terminus at the Ohio River, the Wabash flows freely for 411 miles. Its watershed drains most of Indiana, the Wabash is the state river of Indiana, and subject of the state song On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away by Paul Dresser. As the Laurentide ice sheet began to retreat from present day Northern Indiana, the eastern or Erie Lobe sat atop and behind the Fort Wayne Moraine. Meltwater from the glacier fed into two streams, which became the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers. Their combined discharge was probably the source of water for the proglacial Wabash River system. Around 11,000 years ago the waters of Lake Maumee became deep enough that it breached a sag or weak spot in the Fort Wayne Moraine. This caused a catastrophic draining of the lake which in turn scoured a 1 to 2 mi wide valley known as the Wabash-Erie Channel or sluiceway, the Little River flows through this channel and U. S.24 traverses it between Fort Wayne and Huntington. The valley is the largest topographical feature in Allen County, when the ice melted completely from the region, new outlets for Lake Maumees water opened up at elevations lower than the Wabash-Erie Channel.
While the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers continued to flow through the channel, now a low-lying, probably marshy bit of terrain lay in between. It is not known for certain when, but at some point in the distant past the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers jumped their banks and flooded the marshy ground of the Fort Wayne Outlet. The discharge of this flood was enough to cut across the outlet. This meant that when the waters receded, the sluiceway was permanently abandoned by the two rivers. As a result of capturing both, the Maumee was converted from a minor creek to a large river. Once again, river waters flowed through the Fort Wayne Outlet, following this event, the branch of the Wabash River that originates along the Wabash Moraine near Bluffton became the systems main course and source. For part of its course the Wabash follows the path of the pre-glacial Teays River, the name Wabash is an English spelling of the French name for the river, Ouabache. French traders named the river after the Miami-Illinois word for the river, waapaahšiiki, meaning it shines white, pure white, the Miami name reflected the clarity of the river in Huntington County, Indiana where the river bottom is limestone.
The Wabash was first mapped by French explorers to the Mississippi, although the Wabash is today considered a tributary of the Ohio, the Ohio was considered a tributary of the Wabash until the mid-18th century. This is because the French traders traveled north and south from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Wabash, it served as a vital trade route for North American-French trade
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. The war is named after the Odawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many leaders in the conflict. The war began in May 1763 when Native Americans, offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst, eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict. Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, the ruthlessness and treachery of the conflict was a reflection of a growing divide between the separate populations of the British colonists and Native Americans. This proved unpopular with British colonists, and may have one of the early contributing factors to the American Revolution.
The conflict is named after its most famous participant, the Ottawa leader Pontiac, variations include Pontiacs War, Pontiacs Rebellion, an early name for the war was the Kiyasuta and Pontiac War, Kiyasuta being an alternate spelling for Guyasuta, an influential Seneca/Mingo leader. The war became known as Pontiacs Conspiracy after the publication in 1851 of Francis Parkmans The Conspiracy of Pontiac. Parkmans influential book, the account of the war for nearly a century, is still in print. In the 20th century, some argued that Parkman exaggerated the extent of Pontiacs influence in the conflict. Alternate titles for the war have been proposed, but historians continue to refer to the war by the familiar names. Pontiacs Conspiracy is now used by scholars. In the decades before Pontiacs Rebellion and Great Britain participated in a series of wars in Europe that involved the French, the largest of these wars was the worldwide Seven Years War, in which France lost New France in North America to Great Britain.
British troops proceeded to occupy the forts in the Ohio Country. Even before the war ended with the Treaty of Paris. While the French had long cultivated alliances among certain of the Native Americans, before long, Native Americans who had been allies of the defeated French found themselves increasingly dissatisfied with the British occupation and the new policies imposed by the victors. Native Americans involved in Pontiacs Rebellion lived in a defined region of New France known as the pays den haut
The beaver is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American beaver and Eurasian beaver, Beavers are known for building dams and lodges. They are the second-largest rodent in the world and their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver population was more than 60 million. Beavers, along with pocket gophers and kangaroo rats, are castorimorph rodents, Beavers are known for their natural trait of building dams on rivers and streams, and building their homes in the resulting pond. Beavers build canals to float building materials that are difficult to haul over land and they use powerful front teeth to cut trees and other plants that they use both for building and for food. In the absence of existing ponds, beavers must construct dams before building their lodges, first they place vertical poles, fill between the poles with a crisscross of horizontally placed branches.
They fill in the gaps between the branches with a combination of weeds and mud until the dam impounds sufficient water to surround the lodge and this serves as a warning to beavers in the area. Once a beaver has sounded the alarm, nearby beavers will dive, Beavers are slow on land, but are good swimmers, and can stay under water for as long as 15 minutes. Beavers are herbivores, and prefer the wood of quaking aspen, willow, birch and they eat sedges and water lilies. Beavers do not hibernate, but store sticks and logs in a pile in their ponds, some of the pile is generally above water and accumulates snow in the winter. This insulation of snow often keeps the water freezing in and around the food pile. Beavers have webbed hind-feet, and a broad, scaly tail and they have poor eyesight, but keen senses of hearing and touch. A beavers teeth grow continuously so that they not be worn down by chewing on wood. Their four incisors are composed of hard orange enamel on the front, the chisel-like ends of incisors are maintained by their self-sharpening wear pattern.
The enamel in a beavers incisors contains iron and is resistant to acid than enamel in the teeth of other mammals. Beavers continue to grow throughout their lives, adult specimens weighing over 25 kg are not uncommon. Females are as large as or larger than males of the same age, Beavers live up to 24 years of age in the wild
Adam Dollard des Ormeaux
Adam Dollard des Ormeaux, is an iconic figure in the history of New France. Arriving in the colony in 1658, Dollard was appointed the position of commander of the fort of Ville-Marie. In the spring of 1660, Dollard led an expedition up the Ottawa River to wage war on the Iroquois, accompanied by seventeen Frenchmen, Dollard arrived at the foot of Long Sault on May 1 and settled his troops at an abandoned Algonquin fort. He was joined by forty Huron and four Algonquin allies, vastly outnumbered by the Iroquois and his companions died at the Battle of Long Sault somewhere between May 9 and May 12,1660. For these reasons, Dollard is regarded as one of the saviors of New France, Dollard was born in Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux, France in 1635. At the age of 23, he settled in Montreal and took up a career in the military, aside from some military experience, nothing is known of his activities prior to his arrival in Canada. In Ville-Marie, Dollard had attained a positive reputation. Most importantly, Dollard had gained the trust of Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, there is little verifiable evidence regarding Dollards reason for being in Canada, but it is possible he was contemplating life as a settler in the colony.
Tellingly, by the end of 1659, Maisonneuve gave him a piece of land comprising 30 arpents, upon Dollard’s death, Pierre Picoté de Belestre inherited his land. Against the advice of seasoned Aboriginal fighters, Dollard got the support of the governor of Montreal, Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the group comprised about 17 volunteers who had little or no experience in Aboriginal warfare. After a 10-day canoe trip up the Ottawa River, they set up not far from Carillon, Quebec. They were soon surrounded by about 700 Iroquois and after a siege lasting several days, for reasons unknown, the Iroquois did not continue east to capture Ville-Marie. The events were witnessed by about 40 Huron allies who at times had joined the colonists in the stockade, according to some scholars, the battle so weakened the Iroquois they canceled their planned attack on Ville-Marie and returned home. For over a century Dollard des Ormeaux became a figure in New France, and Quebec, as he exemplified selfless personal sacrifice, as well as martyrdom for the church.
Agreements on the validity of this interpretation are debatable, the reason for Dollard and his companions for ambushing the Iroquois is up to debate. Tradition holds that Dollard anticipated an Iroquois attack on Ville-Marie, in response, he amassed a small force of seventeen Frenchmen, four Algonquins, and about forty Hurons. They fought to the death and saved Ville-Marie from invasion, there are many scholars who claim his reasons were different. According to André Vachon, some claim that Dollard was in debt