Fort Pitt Tunnel

The Fort Pitt Tunnel is a vehicular tunnel under Mount Washington in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It connects the West End region on the southwest side to the South Shore neighborhood on the northeast side; the adjoining Fort Pitt Bridge on the northeast end connects to Downtown Pittsburgh. The tunnel carries traffic on Interstate 376, U. S. Route 22, US 30, US 19 Truck; the structure comprises each with two lanes of traffic. The inbound tunnel flows onto the top deck of the double-deck Fort Pitt Bridge, opposite traffic from the lower deck using the outbound tunnel. To accommodate the bridge, the northeast portals of the parallel tunnels are vertically staggered by 30 feet; the tunnel opened in September 1960, a year after the Fort Pitt Bridge. Before entering the southwest end of the inbound tunnel, travelers see a commonplace view of Southwestern Pennsylvania's hills, but at the northeast end, travelers emerge to a panorama of Downtown Pittsburgh and the surrounding skyline; the view was cited by The New York Times as "the best way to enter an American city".

The vantage was the inspiration for the news opening on Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV for several years in the 1980s and 1990s, is referenced in Stephen Chbosky's novel The Perks of Being a Wallflower. The Fort Pitt Tunnel is the third-longest automobile tunnel in Pittsburgh, following the Liberty Tunnels and the Squirrel Hill Tunnel, it is one of four major tunnels passing beneath Mount Washington, including the Liberty Tunnels and the Wabash Tunnel for automobiles, the Mount Washington Transit Tunnel for public transportation. Before the existence of the Fort Pitt Tunnels, South Hills commuters travelled around the Banksville Circle, the northern terminus of Banksville Road and western terminus of Saw Mill Run Blvd at the time. On July 11, 1954, contracts were awarded for the basic design of the Fort Pitt Tunnels; the groundbreaking ceremony for the Fort Pitt tunnel was held April 17, 1957 and drilling began August 28 of the same year. In April 1960 construction on the tunnels was complete and they opened for the first time at 11 a.m. on September 1, 1960, with a dedication ceremony on the southwestern portal by Governor Lawrence, Pennsylvania Transportation Secretary Park H. Martin and Pittsburgh Mayor Joseph M. Barr followed by a "christening" of the tunnels in which the Governor led a caravan of antique cars through.

The tunnel cost $17 million. On Thursday, May 31, 2007, a bomb threat shut down the Fort Pitt Tunnel along with the Liberty and Squirrel Hill tunnels, causing a major traffic jam; the tunnel provided AM reception in 1960, but due to design repairs it was discontinued until 1986. It was improved to cover the entire tunnel with strong reception in March 1997. Since August 1987, the tunnels have provided cellular phone reception. With the help of Carnegie Mellon University graduate students, the tunnel has provided FM reception since July 2005 as well as having its AM signals upgraded at that time. In 2015, the original flat ceiling was removed due to its poor condition. 3,614 ft in length 28 ft wide 13.5 ft vertical clearance Serves nearly 107,000 vehicles per day. There are 1,788 light fixtures with 3,576 bulbs. There are 187,200 sq ft of tiled surface to wash. Travel Channel video Video of the tunnel 40.43191°N 80.02440°W / 40.43191.


Rahatani is a suburb of Pimpri-Chinchwad situated on the banks of the Pavana in Pune district. Rahatani is 7 kilometres from Hinjawadi and centered in between the suburbs of Pimple Saudagar and Kalewadi; the locality is a developing residential area. Its proximity to the Rajiv Gandhi InfoTech Park located at Hinjawadi makes it a residential hub for people working in the Information Technology industry. Rahatani is located on flat land as the area's near it; the suburbs bordering Rahatani are Pimple Saudagar to the south, Kalewadi to the north and east and Wakad to the west. Rahatani has the same climate as that of Pune city. Rahatani is well connected by road to the rest of the city by public transportation; the nearest airport is Pune Airport, with the Maharashtra government planning to set up a new airport near Chakan. The railway station nearest to this area is Pimpri Railway Station. Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited operates the public transport system in this area; the Rainbow BRTS bus system is now operational in Rahatani since November 2015.

All local trains between Pune Junction railway station and Lonavala railway station stop at Pimpri railway station. Some primary schools and pre-primary schools affiliated to MSBTE have been developed in this locality in the past few years. Many schools affiliated to national education boards ICSE and CBSE have been established within the area limits. Healing Touch Hospital Lotus Multispeciality Hospital Bright Smiles Dental & Implant Care Omkar Khalane Multispeciality Hospital VitaLife Clinic B Positive Physiotherapy Clinic Metro Hospital Vighnaharta Hospital Bhikoba Tambe Highschool SNBP International School Era Kids A Play School Pearls English Medium School Path-Shaala Pimple Gurav Aundh Pimpri Wakad Hinjawadi Kalewadi Chinchwad

Mother Ludlam's Cave

Mother Ludlam's Cave known as Mother Ludlum's Cave or Mother Ludlum's Hole, is a small cave in the sandstone cliff of the Wey Valley at Moor Park, near Farnham, Surrey, in England. The cave is the subject of a number of local legends. A spring rising in the cave is recorded in the 13th century "Annals of Waverley Abbey" as "Ludewell". A monk named Symon is credited with identifying the spring as a suitable water supply for Waverley Abbey in 1218, after the original source had dried up; the brothers of the abbey dedicated the spring to St Mary, so it became known as St Mary's Well. The cave has been formed by the spring but may have been enlarged by the monks and was made into a grotto and further enhanced by addition of an ironstone arched entrance during the reign of Queen Victoria; the cave was explored and surveyed at around 200 feet long in 1945 and as 192 feet to a recent roof collapse in 1961. According to the information panel erected at the cave by Waverley Borough Council the name Ludwell can be traced back to the Celtic language, means "bubbling spring".

John Aubrey visited the area in 1673 and was informed that Ludwell was named after Lud, King of the South Saxons, who went there to bathe his wounds after a battle. A story originating with the Norman-Welsh writer of historicised legends Geoffrey of Monmouth has Ludd, Lud or Llud as the ruler of Celtic Britain and founder of London. A modern ethnographer would identify Lud as a Celtic god: a temple dedicated to him once stood in London near eponymous Ludgate, as are numerous toponyms in England and a few in Ireland, he is known as the Celtic god of healing thus Celtic-speaking people must have known of the spring but whether they considered it a sacred spring long before the monks of nearby Waverley Abbey used it as a source of fresh water and rededicated it to St Mary is unknown. The "Lud" element of the name is maintained in the latest adaptation, "Mother Ludlam". Alternatively, the name may be derived from Anglo-Saxon "hluttor well," meaning "a pure, or clear spring." The cave has long been associated with the legend of "Mother Ludlam", a white witch who lived in the cave.

The earliest versions of the legend, such as that recorded by John Aubrey in 1673 in his Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey, make no mention of a witch and it is that the story was associated with fairies. Various versions of the legend have existed; the simplest version is that Mother Ludlam would loan utensils and that a large cauldron was borrowed but not returned. The cauldron associated with this legend remains in the church to this day, but is believed by historians to have been used for brewing church ale in past times – made of hammered copper and measuring three feet in diameter and 19 inches deep, it is of the type, used in the Middle Ages for catering at parishioners' weddings and religious festivals; as recorded in 1937 the legend is that one day the Devil, in disguise, had visited Mother Ludlam and asked to borrow the cauldron she used for mixing her potions. Recognising the Devil from his hoof-prints in the sand, she refused, so the Devil stole the cauldron, with the witch in pursuit.

Making great leaps, the Devil created a series of hills where he touched the ground, these now being the sandstone hills near Churt, known as the Devil's Jumps. The Devil dropped the cauldron – or kettle – on the last of these hills, "Kettle Bury", or "Kettlebury Hill". Mother Ludlam recovered the cauldron and placed it in Frensham Church, where it would be safe from the Devil. Another version, recorded in the 1920s, is that the cauldron could be borrowed by climbing the highest of the Devil's Jumps, whispering to the fairies who lived there through a hole in the rocky outcrop on the summit. A borrower failed to return it on time, so the fairies condemned the borrower to have the cauldron follow him wherever he went. Distressed by the presence of his pursuer, he sought sanctuary in Frensham Church where he collapsed and died, leaving the cauldron trapped inside. William Cobbett wrote of the cave in his Rural Rides, recounting his visit of 27 October 1825: From Waverley we went to Moore Park, once the seat of Sir William Temple, when I was a little boy, the seat of a lady or a Mrs Temple.

Here I showed Richard "Mother Ludlum's Hole". The semicircular paling is gone; the cave is now in an more dire state of repair following collapse of part of its roof during the drought of 1976, which affected the floor of the cave by covering the remaining signs of habitation with a large mound of sand. The cave provides a roost for a variety of bat species: Natterer's Bat, Daubenton's Bat and Long-eared Bat exist in some numbers. Conservation efforts are now encouraging a return of the Greater Horseshoe Bat; the entrance to the cave has been the subject of a partnership project between Waverley Borough, English Nature, Farnham Town Council in 2001/2002