Fort Rock, Oregon

Fort Rock is an unincorporated community in Lake County, United States, southeast of Fort Rock State Natural Area. The community of Fort Rock was named after the natural feature Fort Rock by the town's founder, Ray Nash. Fort Rock post office was established in 1908 under postmaster Josiah Thomas Rhoton; the Fort Rock Valley flourished during the homestead period before World War I, but little remains in the area today. Fort Rock is one of two homestead-era communities remaining in the area, along with Silver Lake. Fort Rock had a general store, in operation since the early 1900s; the store, which included a gas station, closed in May 2013. As of September 2014, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality had entered into a prospective purchaser agreement to reopen the store after performing needed underground storage tank cleanup; the store has reopened as of 2017. Fort Rock has a community church, a Grange hall, a restaurant and a tavern; the Rock View Apartments burned down in 2012. The senior apartments were only six years old.

Today, many of the buildings in Fort Rock are part of the Fort Rock Valley Historical Society's Fort Rock Valley Historical Homestead Museum, a collection of homestead-era buildings moved there from the surrounding area, starting in 1988. The museum was created by the Fort Rock Valley Historical Society to preserve historic buildings that were in danger of being razed by the Bureau of Land Management or were being vandalized in their remote locations. Buildings include a church, a log cabin, a doctor's office, a school, a land office, several other cabins and houses. Historic photos of Fort Rock, Oregon from Salem Public Library Photos of Fort Rock buildings at the Fort Rock Valley Historical Homestead Museum

Forensic serology

Forensic serology is the detection, identification and study of various bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, breast milk, fecal matter and perspiration, their relationship to a crime scene. A forensic serologist may be involved in DNA analysis and bloodstain pattern analysis. Serology testing begins with presumptive tests which gives the analyst an indication that a specific bodily fluid may be present, but cannot confirm its presence. Following the presumptive tests, are the confirmatory tests that confirms what the unknown substance is. Blood is composed of liquid plasma and serum with solid components consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets. To detect blood at a crime scene an array of tests can be used; the most publicized test by crime shows is the Luminol process in which a chemical is sprayed onto a surface where blood is suspected to be. The chemical reacts with traces of blood, fluoresces under UV light. However, this technique can produce false positives because metals and strong chemicals such as bleach will fluoresce.

Another common presumptive test is the Kastle-Meyer or Phenolphthalein test. This is a catalytic test that detects the heme group in blood that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, it is a two step reaction where one drop of phenolphthalein reagent is added to the suspected blood sample, followed by a drop of hydrogen peroxide. A positive result induces a color change to pink. Similar to the Kastle-Meyer test, a hemastix is a catalytic test simplified to a specialized strip where the blood sample is added and a positive result induces a color change to a dark green. For confirmatory tests, the Takayama Crystal Assay or an immunochromatographic test are used; the Takayama Crystal Assay, which forms a ferro protoporphyrin ring by a reaction between pyridine and the iron atom of the heme group. The Takayama reagent is added to a slide with a presumptive blood sample; the slide is dried at 115 degrees Celsius following the addition of the Takayama reagent. It is placed under a microscope and a positive result is the visualization of dark red, feathery crystals.

For the immunochromatographic test, it functions similar to a pregnancy test where antigens present in blood are detected and a positive result is a band at the test site and control site. After performing the various tests an analyst can confirm the presence of blood and continue to developing a DNA profile with downstream applications such as DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Capillary Electrophoresis, etc. followed by profile interpretation. Semen is a colorless fluid, ejaculated from a male's penis due to sexual arousal. In order to detect semen, an Alternative Light Source is used. Under UV light, semen fluoresces making it visible to investigators to collect samples from a crime scene. A common presumptive test for detecting semen is called the Acid Phosphatase Test; the AP Test detects the enzyme acid phosphatase, secreted from the prostate gland. However, this test is only presumptive. To perform the test, a drop of the reagent sodium alpha-napthyphosphate is added to the presumptive stain followed by a drop of Fast Blue B.

A positive result of this test is a color change to dark purple. Confirmatory tests for semen include the p30/PSA RSID Kit. For the Christmas Tree Stain, the sample is extracted with sterile water in order to make a wet mount on a microscope slide; the sample is heat-fixed to the slide and stained with Nuclear Fast Red for 15 minutes rinsed with deionized water. Next, a green stain is applied for 10 seconds rinsed with ethanol; the slide is placed under a compound light microscope for sperm observation. If sperm are present, the heads will stain the mid-piece and tail stain green. However, not all males release sperm in their semen. If a male is aspermic or oligospermic, they either have a low sperm count. Vasectomized males will not release sperm either; when sperm cells are not present, a second confirmatory test, the p30/PSA test, is performed. PSA is a known as a prostate-specific antigen, produced by the prostatic gland in males; the p30/PSA test is an immunochromatographic test that detect the presence of the antigen p30 in semen samples.

This test functions similar to a pregnancy test, where if the antigen p30 is present a band will appear at the test site and a control band will appear to confirm if the test is working properly. If the confirmatory test are positive semen is present in the sample. From there an analyst could continue to develop a DNA profile with downstream applications; the presumptive test to detect saliva is the alpha-amylase test known as the Phadebas Test. This detection technique is based on the activity of the enzyme alpha-amylase which breaks down starches from food into smaller oligosaccharide molecules, starting digestion in the mouth. Using a petri dish gel, the saliva sample is allowed to diffuse through the gel overnight. Visualization is accomplished by adding iodine to the gel. If saliva is present the alpha-amylase breaks down the starch, creating a clear colored circle around where the sample was placed. For confirmatory tests there has not been as much research done compared to semen. However, RSID test have been made in order to detect alpha-amylase, but they are not always reliable because there can be a lot of false positives.

Testing for different body fluids with traditional serological techniques, such as those listed above, is possible, but not without some drawbacks. Firstly, not all body fluids have a

Cemetery Sunday

Cemetery Sunday is an annual ancestor veneration observance held in Roman Catholic cemeteries. These rituals are performed in some Protestant and non-denominational cemeteries in Ireland. Parishioners prepare by cleaning family graves and, in some cemeteries, decorating the graves. Grave decorations incorporate flowers as well as mementos. In cemeteries where a priest is not available, Cemetery Sunday may still be held absent the formal service and blessing. Costa Rica celebrates Día De Los Muertos on November 2nd every year; the day is called Día de Todos Santos and Día de Todos Almas. Catholic masses are celebrated and people visit their loved ones' graves to decorate them with flowers and candles. In Ireland, the date varies by parish, is in summer. Parishes coordinate to avoid scheduling Cemetery Sunday on the same week so that families can attend services at all cemeteries where their relatives are buried. For churches which are no longer used, Cemetery Sunday can the only held service on the grounds.

In the United States, Cemetery Sunday is the first Sunday in November, around the time of All Souls' Day. St. James Church in Dublin, had an long-established tradition of cemetery cleaning and decoration in conjunction with the Fair of St. James held on July 25, the Pattern Sunday for St. James. There are records of burials at St. James as early as 1495 and it is believed that the cemetery may have been in use as early as the 13th century. There is no known documentation of when cemetery decoration began at the St. James Cemetery, but it was well established by the early 19th century; the fair itself was banned from the public streets by the 1730s but continued in a smaller way next to the cemetery through the 1820s. In 1821, G. N. Wright wrote of a custom to "deck the graves with garlands and ornaments, made of white paper, disposed into extraordinary forms". By 1828, Nicholas Carlisle characterized St. James cemetery decoration as an custom, old: It was, is still, the custom in Dublin on St. James’s day, for the relatives and friends of those who are buried in St. James’s church-yard, to dress up the Graves with flowers, cut paper, Scripture phrases, chaplets, a number of other pretty and pious devices, where those affectionate mementos remained, until they were displaced by fresh ones the next year.

Burials continued in the St. James Cemetery through the 19th and 20th century before ceasing due to the closure of the cemetery. For days or weeks before the designated Cemetery Sunday at a particular cemetery, family members of those buried there work to clean and tidy the graves; this may include removing overgrown plants and debris from the cemetery and other general maintenance to the grounds. Cemetery decoration features cut flowers. Homemade crepe paper flowers were common in early St. James cemetery decoration. Today, artificial flowers are used. Flowers can be placed including in patterns. Decoration can include the placing of tokens at individual graves. Tokens are personal or household items significant to the relationship between the person who places the token and the deceased. Relatives of the deceased choose Cemetery Sundays to return home for visits and reunions after moving away. Food is a common element in many Cemetery Sunday traditions. Singing is common but not universal. Scholar Barbara Graham connects Cemetery Sunday traditions to the Decoration Day traditions of Appalachia and Liberia as many Irish and Scotch-Irish refugees and other immigrants from Ireland settled in Central and Southern Appalachia.

Decoration Day Flowering Sunday Pattern