The Repnin Sejm was a Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place between 1767 and 1768 in Warsaw. This session followed the Sejms of 1764 to 1766, where the newly elected King of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski, attempted with some successes to push through reforms to strengthen the government of the Commonwealth; these reforms were viewed as dangerous by Poland's neighbors, who preferred a weak Commonwealth and did not want to see it threaten their own political and military aspirations. The Russian Empire sent ambassador Nikolai Repnin, who became the driving force behind the Sejm proceedings; the Repnin Sejm marked one of the important milestones in increasing Polish dependence on the Russian Empire, turning it into a Russian protectorate. This dependent position was bluntly spelled out in Nikita Ivanovich Panin's letter to King Poniatowski, in which he made it clear that Poland was now in the Russian sphere of influence; the Ambassador of the Russian Empire to Warsaw Prince Nikolai Repnin received orders from Russian Empress Catherine the Great to bribe and coerce the Sejm deputies in order to push legislation favourable to Russia, in effect "a drafted plan for destroying the republic".
At that time Poland had a population of about 11.5 million, out of which about 1 million were non-Catholics. In his preparations Repnin fostered unrest among the religious minorities – Protestants and Eastern Orthodox, who wanted to have equal rights with the Roman Catholics. Repnin was well aware that a Catholic-dominated Sejm would be opposed to such demands, he calculated that such a demand itself would make the szlachta suspicious of all reform, including the recent reforms of King Stanisław August Poniatowski and his supporters from the magnate Czartoryski family. Repnin's calculations were proven correct at the Sejm of 1766, which not only rejected the dissident bill, but repealed all of Poniatowski's reforms; this weakened the position of King Poniatowski. Supporters of the previous King Augustus III of Poland from the Electorate of Saxony, led by Gabriel Podoski, started a campaign to dethrone the king. In order to further Russian goals, Repnin encouraged the formation of two Protestant konfederacjas of Słuck and Toruń and Catholic.
The first act of the Radom Confederation was to send a delegation to Saint Petersburg, petitioning Catherine to guarantee the liberties of the Republic, allow the proper legislation to be settled by the Russian ambassador at Warsaw. With Russian troops sent to "protect" the various pro-Russian factions and this carte blanche in his pocket, Repnin proceeded to treat the deputies of the Sejm as if they were servants of the Russian empress; the opposition was headed by four bishops: Bishop of Lwów Wacław Hieronim Sierakowski, Bishop of Chełm Feliks Turski, Bishop of Cracow Kajetan Sołtyk, Bishop of Kiev Józef Andrzej Załuski. To break the opposition, Repnin ordered the arrest of four vocal opponents of his policies in the Polish capital, namely bishops Józef Andrzej Załuski and Kajetan Sołtyk and hetman Wacław Rzewuski with his son Seweryn. All of them members of the Senate of Poland, they were arrested by Russian troops on October 13, 1767 and imprisoned in Kaluga for 5 years. Through the Polish nobles that he bribed or threatened by the presence of over 10,000 Russian soldiers in Warsaw and in the chambers of the parliament, despite some misgivings about the methods he was ordered to employ, de facto dictated the terms of that Sejm.
The intimidated Sejm, which met in October 1767 and adjourned till February 1768, appointed a commission which drafted a Polish–Russian treaty, approved in a "silent session" on February 27, 1768. The legislation undid some of the reforms of 1764 under King Poniatowski and pushed through legislation which ensured that the political system of the Commonwealth would be ineffective and controlled by its foreign neighbours; the liberum veto, wolna elekcja, neminem captivabimus, rights to form the confederation and rokosz — in other words, all the important privileges of the Golden Liberty, which made the Commonwealth so ungovernable — were guaranteed as unalterable parts in the Cardinal Laws. The Sejm, however passed some more beneficial reforms. Russia, which had used the pretext of increased religious freedoms for the Protestant and Orthodox Christians to destabilize the Commonwealth in the first place, now had to push those reforms through the Sejm to save face, thus the legislation of the Sejm granted those religious minorities the same status as that of the dominant Roman Catholics, some privileges of the Catholic clergy were limited.
In addition, the penalty for killing a peasant was increased from a fine to the death, liberum veto was abolished on sejmiks, a mint was created. All those reforms were guaranteed by the Russian Empress, Catherine II; the resulting reaction among Poland's Roman Catholic leadership to the laws granting privileges to the Protestants, as well as the deep resentment of Russia's meddling in the Commonwealth's domestic affairs, led to the War of the Bar Confederation, directed against Poniatowski and Russia, which ended with Russian victory and the First Partition of Poland. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Poland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21. Cambridge University Press. P. 918
The 2015 National League was the seventh season of the National League, the third tier of British speedway. The Cradley Heathens were the defending champions after winning the competition in 2014. Cradley finished the 2015 season in third place, as the Birmingham Brummies won the championship title. With 14 wins from 18 matches, the Brummies won the title after a 47–42 victory at the Mildenhall Fen Tigers in September, finished 6 points clear of the Eastbourne Eagles; the 2015 season featured 10 teams, one more than in 2014. The Scunthorpe Stags and Devon Demons did not compete in 2015, whilst the Birmingham Brummies, Eastbourne Eagles and Rye House Raiders all joined the league. National League co-ordinator Peter Morrish expressed his excitement ahead of the new season, with the addition of the Brummies and Eagles – two teams with extensive Elite League experience – it was expected to be one of the most exciting National League seasons in years. Unless otherwise stated, all listed riders were declared at the start of the 2015 National League season.
The 2015 National League Knockout Cup was the 18th edition of the Knockout Cup for tier three teams. Eastbourne Eagles were the winners. List of United Kingdom Speedway League Champions
Carlos Roberto Jatobá, known as Jatobá is a Brazilian retired footballer. Born in Peabiru, Jatobá played with Grêmio Maringá. However, it was during his spell at Pinheiros, he was declared the revelation of thechampionship and elected the best fourth defender of the Campeonato Paranaense and in September 1986 Corinthians brought him. And became part of what was known as the reactionary generation of Corinthians. In 1987–88 he joined promoted Spanish La Liga side Celta de Vigo but failed to make any appearance in the league, he returned to Brasil and played with Coritiba in 1989, Atlético Goianiense, Latter played with América Mineiro in 1990. In the season 1990–91 he joined Serbian club FK Spartak Subotica along two other fellow Brazilians and Oswaldo Monteiro, becoming the first Brazilians to play in the Yugoslav First League. Spartak was not performing as expected and after one league appearance Jatobá was back in Brasil joining Grêmio Catanduvense, but his return home was short, in 1991 he will be moving back to Europe again, this time to Belgium joining Lokeren.
In 1992, he joined Atlético Paranaense and played the following three years with them, except a half-season spell in 1993 with Botafogo. After retiring, Jatobá became lives between Curitiba and Europe. PinheirosCampeonato Paranaense: 1984CoritibaCampeonato Paranaense: 1989BotafogoCopa CONMEBOL: 1993
Franklin K. Lane High School was a public high school in New York City, New York, United States, it began as a combined junior-senior high school in 1923 and moved into its current building in 1937. In 2012, it was shut down by the City of New York "for poor performance". New schools opened on the campus and they are administered by the New York City Department of Education as H. S. 420. Today the school is the campus site for five different high schools: The Academy of Innovative Technology, The Brooklyn Lab School, Cypress Hill Prep Academy, The Urban Assembly School for Collaborative Healthcare, Multicultural High School; the campus is located on the Brooklyn/Queens border at the bottom of a steep hill at the corner of Dexter Court and Jamaica Avenue. The line separating the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, which runs along Eldert Lane from Atlantic Avenue, passes through the school and the cemetery adjacent to it; the school is named for Franklin Knight Lane, United States Secretary of the Interior during the administration of President Woodrow Wilson.
One of the accomplishments of his tenure was the formation of the National Park Service. At the time Franklin K. Lane High School was built, it was one of the largest high school buildings in the world; the perimeter of the building measures one-quarter mile. The school building was a project of the WPA during the Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration; the boys' large gymnasium is named for 1938 alumnus William "Red" Holzman. The library is named for Sam Levenson, another alumnus, Class of 1930; the Guidance Suite of offices is named for a 1952 alumnus. During the 1960s/1970s, Franklin K. Lane High School fell on hard times. A large part of this period was documented in " RACE WAR IN HIGH SCHOOL: The Ten Year Destruction of Franklin K. Lane High School in Brooklyn," a book By Harold Saltzman, a social studies teacher and union leader at the school during that period. Parents and teachers brought a legal action in regard to the racial imbalance and poor performance at Lane. In 1974 Judge John Dooling of the Federal Court's Southern District of New York ruled that education at the school was inferior and ruled that the school racial imbalance was to be addressed by redistricting and redesigning the school program.
The "new" Franklin K. Lane opened in September 1976 with a 40% white, 30% Hispanic, 30% African-American student body; the school thrived for a period and became known in some circles as "the miracle on Jamaica Avenue". In 1978, Franklin K. Lane High School was one of ten schools across the nation cited by the United States Congress in the Safe School Study; the school was included in many case studies produced by the United States Government as well as private foundations, for its turnaround and for its safety in the midst of urban decline and deterioration. In the 1970s and 1980s, numerous programs were available to assist and enhance students' academic performance: College Bound Program, Career Development Program, Co-Op Program, Study to Employment Program, Toward Upward Mobility Program. To address the problems of students with difficulty attending school, the SOAR program was initiated and recognized by the Federal Government for excellence; the school's General Equivalency Diploma program was one of the most successful in the city with a code of 421.
A parent suit brought into question the school's methods of counseling students who were not attending classes regularly. These disruptive students were allowed to attend the school again, causing security problems. During the 1980s and 1990s, the school's magnet Law Studies Program attracted students from various parts of New York City, many of whom went on to attend prestigious universities, such as Columbia, Cornell, NYU, Syracuse. A majority of Lane's Honors Program alumni fared well. On March 8, 2004, the New York Daily News' front page headline "City's Worst School" led to a story in the newspaper regarding the poor academic performance, low graduation rates and students transferring out in large numbers due to those problems. In December 2007, the Department of Education announced that Franklin K. Lane would be phased out due to poor performance; the school stopped accepting 9th graders in 2007 and graduated its last seniors in 2012. Not all of the replacement schools have received acceptable ratings.
In September 2016, exterior shots of the school were filmed for the 2017 blockbuster Spider-Man: Homecoming, while In April 2019, interior shots of the school lobby were filmed for the 2019 blockbuster Avengers: Endgame. The edifice portrays the fictional Midtown School of Science and Technology that the protagonist Peter Parker attends. Notable alumni of the school include: Ted Ashley, chairman of the Warner Bros. film studio and founder of the Ashley-Famous talent agency Tony Consiglio, cartoonist. John Gotti, Mafia boss who headed the Gambino crime family, after dropping out at age 16. José Greco, dancer / choreographer. Bob Grim, major league baseball player Richie Havens, singer-songwriter and guitarist William "Red" Holzman, NBA 2-time All-Star Basketball Player and Hall of Famer. Shelley Hirsch, avant-garde singer / performer. Earle Hyman, actor Anne Jackson, actress. Alfred Kazin, writer Sam Levenson, writer / television host/ journalist. Dan Schneider and critic. Peter Senerchia, professional wrestler known as Tazz.
The men's middleweight event at the 2014 Asian Games took place on 30 September 2014 at Ganghwa Dolmens Gymnasium, South Korea. A total of twelve competitors from twelve different countries competed in this event, limited to fighters whose body weight was less than 87 kilograms. Jasur Baykuziyev from Uzbekistan won the gold medal after defeating Chen Linglong from People's Republic of China in the gold medal match by the score of 6–3; the bronze medal was shared by semifinal losers Nattapat Tantramart of Thailand and Shin Yeong-rae from the host nation South Korea. All times are Korea Standard Time Official website