Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service. In land armies, a quartermaster is generally a senior soldier who supervises stores and distributes supplies. In many navies, quartermaster is an officer rank. In some navies, it is not a rank but a related to navigation. The term appears to derive from the title of a German royal official and this term meant master of quarters. Or it could have derived from master of the quarterdeck where the helmsman. The term was adopted by some European armies and navies. The first use in English was as a term, entering English via the equivalent French and Dutch naval titles quartier-maître. The term began to refer to officers in English around 1600. For land armies, the term was first coined in Germany as Quartiermeister, in the 17th century, it started to be used in various militaries in the sense of organizing supplies. In the British Army, the Quartermaster is the officer in a battalion or regiment responsible for supply, by longstanding tradition, he or she is always commissioned from the ranks and holds the rank of captain or major.
Some units have a Technical Quartermaster, who is in charge of technical stores, the Quartermaster is assisted by the Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant and a staff of storemen. The QM, RQMS and storemen are drawn from the regiment or corps in which work, not from the Royal Logistic Corps. Units which specialize in supply are known as units, not quartermaster units. From at least the English Civil War period until 1813, the Quartermaster was the senior NCO in a British cavalry troop, in that year, the position was replaced by the new appointment of Troop Sergeant Major, with the cavalry adopting commissioned, regimental Quartermasters as described above. In recent years, the Quartermaster has been a trained officer of the Logistics Branch. The Quartermaster was responsible for operations in the Imperial Russian Army. In the United States Army, the term is used to describe all supply personnel, in the Swiss Army, a Quartermaster is an Officer in charge with the coordination of the Kommissariatsdienst of a Battalion and Brigade/Division
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
It has been traversed by major roads such as the El Camino Viejo, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road, the Ridge Route, U. S. Route 99, and now Interstate 5. The highest point of the pass is near the northwestern-most corner of Los Angeles County and its highest point is 4,144 feet or 4,160 feet,75 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles and 47 miles south of Bakersfield. The route of Interstate 5 winds through Tejon Pass, connecting the part of the state with the San Joaquin Valley. On its northward slope lies Fort Tejon State Historic Park, the site of a former U. S. Army post, first garrisoned on August 10,1854. Historians speak of the area around Gorman, California, as one of the oldest continuously used roadside rest stops in California and this is because pre-Columbian indigenous Californians would have stopped there when it was the Tataviam village of Kulshrajek, a trading crossroads for hundreds to thousands of years. In 1772, Lieutenant Pedro Fages crossed the pass in pursuit of military deserters, Fages named the canyon beyond the pass leading down into the Tulare Basin, Cañada de las Uvas for all the grape vines growing in it.
In the late 18th century, El Camino Viejo, a road between Los Angeles and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis began to be used for travel north and south along the western San Joaquin Valley. It crossed over the pass and turned westward up Cuddy Canyon and he recorded the name as Tejon —after a dead badger found at the canyons mouth. This original Tejon Pass, was situated 15 miles to the northeast of what is now Tejon Pass, the old pass went through the Tehachapi Mountains, at the top of the divide between Tejon Creek Canyon in the San Joaquin Valley and Cottonwood Creek Canyon in Antelope Valley. In 1843, Rancho Castac was established in La Cañada de las Uvas, during that same year, the first grant of Rancho Los Alamos y Agua Caliente included the pass, which was now called Portezuela de Castac. After the establishment of Fort Tejon and the Stockton - Los Angeles Road, the rather poor wagon route of the old Tejon Pass route was generally abandoned, and eventually the Fort Tejon Pass took the shortened name it has today.
In 1858 the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line ran through the pass on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road. The Butterfield Overland was discontinued in 1861 but was replaced by the Telegraph Stage Line, which stopped at almost all the stations, including Gormans. Six of them were used for the pull up from Bakersfield to Gormans, the Ridge Route was the first automobile highway linking the Central Valley with the Los Angeles Basin. It was laid in a sinuous fashion through the ridges and gullies of the Sierra Pelona Mountains to the Tejon Pass around 1910, the northern portion of this highway, which became a part of U. S. Route 99, was known as The Grapevine. The Ridge Route was replaced by a three-lane alternate highway in 1933, an expressway in 1947. The pass is sunny in the summer and fall, whenever there is such a closure, traffic must either wait for it to reopen, or endure a multi-hour detour running between Bakersfield and Los Angeles via CA58. This historic gap has given its name to the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass, beginning on the south at Santa Clarita, it passes through Castaic and Lebec, to end at Grapevine
Lebec is an unincorporated area and census-designated place, located in southwestern Kern County, California. It is one of the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass, Lebec is 40 miles south of Bakersfield. Lebec is the home of the Tejon Ranch Company, according to the United States Census Bureau, Lebec has an area of 15.3 square miles. The community, which is near Tejon Pass, lies at an elevation of 3,481 feet, interstate 5 is the only highway passing through the community. Local traffic drives on Lebec Road, Peace Valley Road, Frazier Mountain Park Road and this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Lebec has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, Lebec is named in honor of Peter Lebeck or Lebecque, a French trapper killed by a grizzly bear in 1837 in the area that became Fort Tejon. He was memorialized in an epitaph at the site, found carved in a spot on an old oak tree. The epitaph read PETER LEBECK / KILLED BY A X BEAR / OCTR17 /1837, the bark of the oak tree eventually grew over the carving.
A group from Bakersfield called the Foxtail Rangers removed the bark in the late 19th century, the piece is now displayed in the museum at Fort Tejon State Historic Park. Lieutenant R. S. Williamson camped at the oak grove in 1853 while on a mid-1850s mapping mission for a practicable railway route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Geologist William P. Blake accompanied Williamsons party, the area was garrisoned by the United States Army a year later, on August 10,1854, as Fort Tejon, the first military fort in the California interior. The fort suffered extensive damage during the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, the first post office opened in 1895, having been transferred there from Tejon. The Lebec Hotel was a large Spanish Colonial Revival-style hotel located on the Ridge Route in the community and it was built in 1921, and was popular with Hollywood executives and movie stars before World War II. It closed in 1968, and was demolished in 1971, the 2010 United States Census reported that 1,468 people,533 households, and 372 families resided in the CDP.
The population density was 95.8 people per square mile, there were 594 housing units at an average density of 38.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 78. 5% White,1. 0% African American,3. 1% Native American,1. 2% Asian,10. 1% from other races,26. 9% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. The Census reported that 100% of the lived in households. 5. 3% of households were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships and 0. 6% were same-sex married couples or partnerships,25. 1% of households were made up of individuals and 8. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Butterfield Overland Mail
The Butterfield Overland Mail Trail was a stagecoach service in the United States, operating from 1857 to 1861. Mail from two eastern termini, Tennessee and St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco, California. The routes from each eastern terminus met at Fort Smith and continued through Indian Territory, New Mexico, Baja California, and California ending in San Francisco. On March 3,1857, Congress under James Buchanan authorized the U. S. postmaster general, Aaron Brown, to contract for delivery of the U. S. mail from Saint Louis to San Francisco. Mail bound for the Far West had been transported by ship across the Gulf of Mexico to Panama, through the 1840s and 1850s there was a desire for better communication between the east and west coasts of the US. Though there were proposals for railroads connecting the two coasts, a more immediate realization was an overland mail route across the west. Congress authorized the Postmaster General to contract for service from Missouri to California to facilitate settlement in the west.
The Post Office Department advertised for bids for a mail service on April 20,1857. Bidders were to propose routes from the Mississippi River westward, John W. Butterfield and his associates William B. Dinsmore, William G. Fargo, James V. P. Gardner, Marcus L. Kinyon, Alexander Holland, the Post Office Department received nine bids. The Postmaster General, was from Tennessee and favored a southern route and this route was 600 miles longer than the central and northern routes through Denver and Salt Lake City, but was snow free. The bid and route was awarded to Butterfield and his associates, at that time it was the largest land-mail contract ever awarded in the US. Post Office, which went into effect on September 16,1858, identified the route, Texas to be named El Paso was the dividing point and these two were subdivided into minor divisions, five in the East and four in the West. These minor divisions were numbered west to east from San Francisco, as noted above, the route from San Francisco to Fort Smith was the same for both routes.
Travel time from Fort Smith to Memphis was about the same as to St. Louis, management of the route from Fort Smith to Memphis was included in Division 8. However, because of the nature of the Mississippi River and its Arkansas tributaries in those years. From there the route headed overland by stagecoach, when the Arkansas was too low for steamboat traffic, the Butterfield could take the White River to Clarendon, Arkansas or Des Arc, Arkansas before switching to the stagecoaches. Sometimes the entire route across eastern Arkansas would be by stage, the Butterfield Overland Mail Company held the U. S
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Arrested decay is a term coined by the State of California, United States to explain how it would preserve its Bodie State Historic Park. A more common application of concept is the preservation of war ruins as memorials. At Bodie State Historic Park, the structures will be maintained, any building that was standing in 1962, when Bodie became a State Park, may be rebuilt or preserved as the photographs of 1962 showed them. By putting new roofs on the buildings, rebuilding foundations, and resealing glass that is in window frames, eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania uses a similar system, though it uses the term preserved ruin. Recently, the authorities in Vukovar, decided to keep the old tower in the city as it is found today. Several buildings destroyed in the Second World War have been preserved in their condition as memorials. These include part of the facade of the Anhalter Bahnhof and the belfry of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, the authorities in Sarajevo, Bosnia have preserved the building of the daily newspaper Oslobođenje to this day the way it was shelled during the Bosnian War.
In 1996, the Hiroshima Peace Memorial was acknowledged as a Unesco World Heritage Site, originally completed in 1905, the building was known at the time of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion on August 6,1945 as the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall. Although suffering considerable damage, it was the closest structure to the hypocenter of the explosion to withstand the blast without being leveled to the ground. It has been preserved in the condition it was in after the bombing to serve as a symbol of hope for world peace and nuclear disarmament
It contains the 246, 812-acre Carrizo Plain National Monument, and it is the largest single native grassland remaining in California. It includes Painted Rock in the Carrizo Plain Rock Art Discontiguous District, in 2012 it was further designated a National Historic Landmark due to its archeological value. The San Andreas Fault cuts across the plain, the plain extends northwest from the town of Maricopa, following the San Andreas Fault. Bordering the plain to the northeast is the Temblor Range, on the side of which is the California Central Valley. Bordering the plain to the southwest is the Caliente Range, the community of California Valley is on the northern part of the plain. The average elevation of the plain is about 2,200 ft. Soda Lake, as the central depression in an enclosed basin, Soda Lake receives all of the runoff from both sides of the plain. At 5,106 ft, Caliente Mountain, southwest of the plain, the climate type of the Carrizo Plain is semi-arid grassland. No trees grow there and the rainfall is around 9 inches per year.
The Carrizo Plain is an accessible place to see surface fractures of the San Andreas Fault, they are clearly visible along the eastern side of the plain. They are best seen in morning and evening light, when shadows enhance the topography. It drains perpendicular to the San Andreas Fault, and the bed is currently offset by 425 ft due to the movement of the fault. About 23 ft of the displacement was created during the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, the current segment began forming 3,700 years ago. Sometime between 1540 to 1630 A. D. the creek was offset by about 40.6 feet in a larger earthquake. Two other older creek beds lie 1,560 and 1,310 ft northwest along the San Andreas Fault, the first creek bed was created around 13,000 years ago when climate change formed the creek on a large active alluvial fan. The second bed was created about 11,000 years ago, the creek has been carefully studied by geologists to find a correlation between the offset and historical events, such as earthquakes, that have occurred along the San Andreas Fault.
Although Wallace Creek is not the only creek that has been offset by the San Andreas Fault, State Route 166 passes the south entrance to the Carrizo Plain, and State Route 58 crosses through the northern portion. The section of the fault in the Carrizo Plain is the oldest section along the fault zone. The parent materials for soils in the Carrizo Plain are predominantly alluvium deposits, alluvium is soil that has been deposited by rivers or flowing water
San Andreas Fault
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 800 miles through California. It forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip. The fault was first identified in 1895 by Professor Andrew Lawson of UC Berkeley and it is often described as having been named after San Andreas Lake, a small body of water that was formed in a valley between the two plates. However, according to some of his reports from 1895 and 1908, following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Lawson concluded that the fault extended all the way into southern California. In 1953, geologist Thomas Dibblee astounded the scientific establishment with his conclusion that hundreds of miles of lateral movement could occur along the fault. A project called the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth near Parkfield, Monterey County, is drilling into the fault to improve prediction and this is the approximate location of the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
The fault returns onshore at Bolinas Lagoon just north of Stinson Beach in Marin County, from Fort Ross the northern segment continues overland, forming in part a linear valley through which the Gualala River flows. It goes back offshore at Point Arena, after that, it runs underwater along the coast until it nears Cape Mendocino, where it begins to bend to the west, terminating at the Mendocino Triple Junction. The central segment of the San Andreas fault runs in a direction from Parkfield to Hollister. The southern segment begins near Bombay Beach, box Canyon, near the Salton Sea, contains upturned strata associated with that section of the fault. The fault runs along the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, crosses through the Cajon Pass. These mountains are a result of movement along the San Andreas Fault and are called the Transverse Range. In Palmdale, a portion of the fault is easily examined at a roadcut for the Antelope Valley Freeway, the fault continues northwest alongside the Elizabeth Lake Road to the town of Elizabeth Lake.
As it passes the towns of Gorman, Tejon Pass and Frazier Park and this restraining bend is thought to be where the fault locks up in Southern California, with an earthquake-recurrence interval of roughly 140–160 years. Northwest of Frazier Park, the runs through the Carrizo Plain. The Elkhorn Scarp defines the fault trace along much of its length within the plain, the southern segment, which stretches from Parkfield in Monterey County all the way to the Salton Sea, is capable of an 8. 1-magnitude earthquake. At its closest, this fault passes about 35 miles to the northeast of Los Angeles. Such a large earthquake on this segment would kill thousands of people in Los Angeles, San Bernardino and surrounding areas
1st Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 1st Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army unit to have its antecedents in the early 19th century in the formation of the United States Regiment of Dragoons. To this day, the special designation is First Regiment of Dragoons. The United States Regiment of Dragoons was organized by an Act of Congress approved on 2 March 1833 and it became the First Regiment of Dragoons when the Second Dragoons was raised in 1836. Its Headquarters were initially established at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, in the spring of 1855, two new regiments of cavalry, the First and Second Cavalry, were authorized. One of these was named The First Cavalry Regiment, under the command of Lt. Col. Edwin Vose Sumner, Sumner was previously with the First Dragoons. In June 1834, the regiment filled its complement of officers, many of whom became noted Civil War generals, Henry Dodge Lieutenant Colonel, Stephen W. Kearny Major, Richard B. Captains, Clifton Wharton, E. V. Sumner, Eustace Trenor, David Hunter, Lemuel Ford, Nathan Boone, Jesse Bean, Matthew Duncan and David Perkins.
First Lieutenants, Philip St. George Cooke, S. W. Moore, A. Van Buren, J. F. Izard, Jefferson Davis, L. P. Lupton, Thomas Swords, T. B. Wheelock, J. W. Hamilton, B. D. Moore, and C. F. M. Noland. Second Lieutenants, James Allen, Theophilus H. Holmes, J. H. K. Burgwin, J. S. Van Derveer, J. W. Shaumburg, Enoch Steen, James Clyman, J. L. Watson, and B. A. Terrett. Brevet Second Lieutenants, William Eustis, G. W. McClure, northrop, G. P. Kingsbury, J. M. Bowman, Asbury Ury, A. G. Edwards and T. J. McKean. First Lieutenant Jefferson Davis was the first adjutant, but resigned the staff position 4 February 1834 and this assignment was revoked in May 1918. 1921 – 1st Cavalry Regiment was assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division on 20 August,1933 – The regiment was reorganized and redesignated as 1st Cavalry Regiment on 16 January. 1940 – The regiment was redesignated as 1st Armored Regiment,1944 – On 20 July, 1st Armored Regiment was reorganized. 2d Battalion was deactivated and the remainder was reorganized and redesignated as 1st Tank Battalion,1948 – On 20 December, 1st Constabulary Squadron was reconverted and redesignated as 1st Medium Tank Battalion, reassigned to the 1st Armored Division, and deactivated.
1951 – On 27 February, 2nd Battalion, 1st Armored Regiment was reconstituted, and redesignated as 100th Tank Battalion. On 7 March, 1st Medium Tank Battalion was reactivated as part of 1st Armored Division at Fort Hood, Texas. In October 1833, the five companies first organized were sent under Colonel Dodge to winter in the vicinity of Fort Gibson, Arkansas Territory, where they remained until June 1834
A stagecoach is a type of covered wagon used to carry passengers and goods inside. It is strongly sprung and generally drawn by four horses, usually four-in-hand, widely used before the introduction of railway transport, it made regular trips between stages or stations, which were places of rest provided for stagecoach travelers. The business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging, the yard of ale drinking glass is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though it was mainly used for drinking feats and special toasts. The stagecoach was a vehicle pulled by horses or mules. The primary requirement was that it was used as a conveyance, running on an established route. Vehicles that were used included buckboards and dead axle wagons, surplus Army ambulances, on the outside were two back seats facing one another, which the British called baskets. In addition to the driver who guided the vehicle, a shotgun messenger, armed with a coach gun. The stagecoach traveled at an speed of about five miles per hour.
The term stage originally referred to the distance between stations on a route, the coach traveling the route in stages, but through metonymy it came to apply to the coach. A fresh set of horses would be staged at the next station, under this staging system, the resting and feeding of the spent horses would not delay the coach. This system based on making fresh horses regularly available along a route had been in use by a number of different civilisations, the stagecoach was called a stage or stage carriage. Varieties included, mail coach or post coach, used for carrying mail, mud coach and smaller, with flat sides and simpler joinery. Road coach, revived in Great Britain and Ireland during the half of the 19th century. The first crude depiction of a coach, not necessarily a stagecoach, was in an English manuscript from the 13th century, crude coaches were built from the 16th century. Without suspension, these coaches achieved very low speeds on the poor quality rutted roads of the time, by the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place.
The first stagecoach route started in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith and this was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the country. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century, the coach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took roughly ten days to make the journey during the summer months. They became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century