National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Battle of Fort Washington
The Battle of Fort Washington was a battle fought in New York on November 16, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War between the United States and Great Britain. It was a British victory that gained the surrender of the remnant of the garrison of Fort Washington near the north end of Manhattan Island, it was one of the worst Patriot defeats of the war. After defeating the Continental Army under Commander-in-Chief General George Washington at the Battle of White Plains, the British Army forces under the command of Lieutenant General William Howe planned to capture Fort Washington, the last American stronghold on Manhattan. General Washington issued a discretionary order to General Nathanael Greene to abandon the fort and remove its garrison – numbering 1,200 men but which to grow to 3,000 – to New Jersey. Colonel Robert Magaw, commanding the fort, declined to abandon it as he believed it could be defended from the British. Howe's forces attacked the fort. Howe launched his attack on November 16.
He led an assault from three sides: the north and south. Tides in the Harlem River delayed the attack; when the British moved against the defenses, the southern and western American defenses fell quickly. Patriot forces on the north side offered stiff resistance to the Hessian attack, but they too were overwhelmed. With the fort surrounded by land and sea, Colonel Magaw chose to surrender. A total of 59 Americans were killed and 2,837 were taken as prisoners of war. After this defeat, most of Washington's army was chased across New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, the British consolidated their control of New York and eastern New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, Fort Washington was located at the highest point of the island of Manhattan, along a large outcropping of Manhattan schist near its northernmost tip. Along with Fort Lee, located just across the Hudson River atop the New Jersey Palisades, the twin forts were intended to protect the lower Hudson from British warships. In June 1776, American Patriot officers Henry Knox, Nathanael Greene, William Heath, Israel Putnam examined the terrain on which Fort Washington would be located.
In June, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, George Washington, inspected the location and determined that the area was the key to defense of the lower Hudson. Shortly after Washington's survey, troops from Pennsylvania began construction on the fort under the supervision of Rufus Putnam, they first prepared a cheval de frise to prevent British ships from sailing up the Hudson and outflanking the U. S. position. For more than a month, the troops transported boulders from the heights of Manhattan to the edge of the river, where they loaded them into a collection of hulks and cribs made of timber and stretched it across the river; when the cheval de frise was finished, they began work on the fort. Little soil covered the rocky surface, so men had to haul soil up from the low ground, they were unable to dig the customary trenches around the fort. The fort was built in the shape of a pentagon with five bastions; the main walls were made of earth, constructed with ravelins with openings for guns from every angle.
The fort enclosed a total of three to four acres. The troops built an abbattis around the fort. After the barracks were finished in September, all the troops in the area were placed under the command of Major General William Heath. Washington established his headquarters near the fort. Supporting the fort were numerous defenses. Batteries were placed on Jeffrey's Hook, which extended into the Hudson, on Cox's Hill looking over Spuyten Duyvil Creek, at the north end of Manhattan controlling the King's Bridge and Dyckman's Bridge over the Harlem River and along Laurel Hill, to the east of the Fort and went along the Harlem River. To the south of the fort were three lines of defense; the lines were made of trenches and foxholes. The first line was supported by a second line about 0.33 mi to the north, a third line was planned to be built 0.25 mi north of the second. British General William Howe, after first gaining control of western Long Island in the Battle of Long Island at the end of August 1776, launched an invasion of Manhattan on September 15.
His northward progress was checked the next day in the Battle of Harlem Heights, after which he sought to flank the strong U. S. position on the north of the island. After an abortive landing attempt on October 11, Howe began landing troops in southern Westchester County, New York on October 18, intending to cut off the Continental Army's avenue of retreat. Washington, aware of the danger, withdrew most of his troops north to White Plains, he left a garrison of 1,200 men at Fort Washington under the command of Colonel Robert Magaw. In order to monitor the U. S. garrison in the fort, Howe left a small force below Harlem Heights. On the morning of October 27, sentries informed Magaw that Percy's troops were launching an attack supported by two frigates sailing up the Hudson. Magaw ordered an attack on the frigates, both British ships were badly damaged by the guns from Fort Lee and Fort Washington; the frigates could not elevate their own guns to the height of the U. S. positions. The British towed away the frigates, but an artillery duel continued for some time between British and U.
S. gunners. On November 8, about two dozen U. S. soldiers drove off a larger Hessian company from a forward redoubt. The Hessians held higher ground with better cover and had the advantage of artillery support
Margaret Cochran Corbin was a woman who fought in the American Revolutionary War. On November 16, 1776, her husband, John Corbin, was one of some 600 American soldiers defending Fort Washington in northern Manhattan from 4,000 attacking Hessian troops under British command. Margaret, too nervous to let her husband go into battle alone, decided. Since she was a nurse, she was allowed to accompany her husband as a nurse for the injured soldiers. John Corbin was on the crew one of two cannons the defenders deployed, it is said. She took his post, because she had watched her husband, a trained artilleryman, fire the cannon so much, she was able to fire and aim the cannon with great ease and speed; this was the beginning of her military career. She became the first woman in U. S. history to receive a pension from Congress for military service because she could no longer work due to injury and was enlisted into the Corps of Invalids. Margaret Cochran was born in Western Pennsylvania on November 12, 1751 in what is now Franklin County.
Her parents were Robert Cochran, a Scots-Irish immigrant, his wife, Sarah. In 1756, when Margaret was five years old, her parents were attacked by Native Americans, her father was killed, her mother was kidnapped, never to be seen again — Margaret and her brother, escaped the raid because they were not at home. Margaret lived with her uncle for the rest of her childhood. In 1772, at the age of 21, Margaret married; when the war began, John enlisted in the First Company of Pennsylvania Artillery as a matross, an artilleryman, one of the members of a cannon crew. As was common at the time for wives of soldiers, Margaret became a camp follower, accompanying John during his enlistment, she joined many other wives in cooking and caring for the wounded soldiers. She acquired the nickname "Molly Pitcher" by bringing water during fighting, both for thirsty soldiers and to cool overheated cannons. On November 16, 1776, Fort Washington, where John's company was part of the garrison left behind when General George Washington retreated with the Continental Army to White Plains, New York, was attacked by the British.
John Corbin was in charge of firing a small cannon at the top of a ridge, today known as Fort Tryon Park. During an assault by the Hessians, John was killed. Margaret had been with her husband on the battlefield the entire time, after witnessing his death, she took his place at the cannon, continuing to fire until her arm and jaw were hit by enemy fire; the British won the Battle of Fort Washington, resulting in the surrender of Margaret and her comrades and the taking of the last American position in New York City. As the equivalent of a wounded soldier, Margaret was released by the British on parole. After the battle, Margaret went to Philadelphia disabled from her wound, never healed. Life was difficult for her because of her injury, in 1779 she received aid from the government. On June 29, the Executive Council of Pennsylvania granted her $30 to cover her present needs, passed her case on to Congress’s Board of War. On July 6, 1779, the Board, sympathetic to Margaret’s injuries and impressed with her service and bravery, granted her half the monthly pay of a soldier in the Continental Army and a new set of clothes or its equivalent in cash.
With this act, Congress made Margaret the first woman in the United States to receive a military pension from Congress. After Congress’s decision, Margaret was included on military rolls until the end of the war, she was enrolled in the Corps of Invalids, created by Congress for wounded soldiers. In 1781, the Corps of Invalids became part of the garrison at New York, she was discharged from the Continental Army in 1783. Corbin received financial support from the government after the first woman to do so, she died in Highland Falls, New York, on January 16, 1800, at the age of 48. A memorial commemorating her heroism was erected in 1909 near the scene of her service on the C. K. G. Billings Estate, in what would become New York City's Fort Tryon Park. In addition, after the park was constructed, "Margaret Corbin Circle" lies just outside the main entrance, "Margaret Corbin Drive" connects the circle through the park to the Henry Hudson Parkway. A plaque honoring Corbin, placed by the Chamber of Commerce of Washington Heights in 1982, is located on the eastern of the two stone plynths which mark the start of Margaret Corbin Drive.
A large Art Deco mural depicting the Battle of Fort Washington scene decorates the lobby of a nearby apartment building at 720 Fort Washington Avenue. According to the New York Historical Association, Corbin was "honored as no woman of the revolution has been honored before."In 1926, The New York State Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution verified Margaret's records and recognized her heroism and service to the United States through the papers of General Henry Knox. Remains believed to be hers were exhumed and re-interred with full military honors at the cemetery of the United States Military Academy at West Point behind the Old Cadet Chapel in the West Point Cemetery; the Margaret Corbin Monument was erected by the DAR at the gravesite. However, a 2017 archeological study revealed that the remains, moved were not those of Corbin, but rather an unknown male; the location of Corb
Fort Lee Historic Park
Fort Lee Historic Park is located atop a bluff of the Hudson Palisades overlooking Burdett's Landing, known as Mount Constitution, in Fort Lee, New Jersey. Native Americans appear to have lived in the area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. Site of George Washington's 1776 encampment opposite Fort Washington at the northern end of Manhattan. Fort Lee is named for General Charles Lee; the site is a reconstruction of the encampment including the blockhouse, quarters as well as a visitors center. It is part of Palisades Interstate Park. At the north end of the park there are two overlooks with views of the George Washington Bridge, the Hudson River, the skyline of upper Manhattan. There is metered parking. Fort Lee Fort Constitution, was an American Revolutionary War fort located on the crest of the Hudson Palisades in what was Hackensack Township, New Jersey opposite Fort Washington at the northern end of Manhattan Island. General George Washington issued orders to General Mercer to summon all available troops and erect a fort on the west side of the Hudson River.
Construction commenced in July 1776 on the new fort. It was located on the western side of the road. Concurrently, Fort Washington was being built directly across the North River in New York. Chevaux-de-frise, south of the Hudson River Chain, were laid between them; these twin forts were intended to protect the lower Hudson from British warships. At first efforts were concentrated close to the water level near Burdett's Landing. Fortifications were added atop the bluff under the supervision of Joseph Philips, Battalion Commander of the New Jersey State Militia; the Bourdette's ferry service was taken over by the Army, Peter Bourdette was forced to vacate his house. At the end of September 1776, Fort Constitution was renamed Fort Lee, for General Charles Lee of the Continental Army. George Washington used the stone Bourdette house for his headquarters when he passed time at Fort Lee. At this stage of the war the ferry operated as a supply line and the only link between Forts Lee and Washington; the Battle of Fort Lee on November 20, 1776 marked the successful invasion of New Jersey by British and Hessian forces and the subsequent general retreat of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
Peter Bourdette's sixteen-year-old son named Peter, provided assistance by direct use of the landing. During the week leading up to the evacuation of Fort Lee he rowed back and forth across the river gathering information for General Washington on the anticipated movements of the British forces. Well after dark on the night before the battle for New York at Fort Washington, George Washington was rowed from Burdett's Landing to the middle of the Hudson River for a strategy session with his senior officers in charge of New York, who rowed to meet him. On November 16, 1776 George Washington witnessed the battle for New York from across the river on the bluff of Fort Lee, above Burdett's Landing. Fort Lee was rendered defenseless after Continental Army troops holding Fort Washington were defeated and captured on November 16, 1776; the Royal Navy controlled the Hudson River. General William Howe ordered Charles Cornwallis to "clear the rebel troops from New Jersey without a major engagement, to do it before the weather changed."
The force included. The invasion of New Jersey began the night of November 19–20, when 5,000 British troops ferried across the Hudson on barges and began landing near New Dock Landing. George Washington and Nathanael Greene ordered the evacuation of the fort on the morning of November 20, 1776; the soldiers began a hasty retreat west, crossing the Hackensack River at New Bridge Landing and the Passaic River at Acquackanonk Bridge It was during Washington's retreat that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, "The American Crisis", which began with the recognized phrase, "These are the times that try men's souls". Fort Lee Museum is located in Monument Park. Which was created by the Daughters of the American Revolution and dedicated in 1908 at ceremony attended by General John "Black Jack" Pershing; the park was part of the original Fort Constitution of the Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. Over 2,600 troops were stationed around the Monument Park area. In 2004, the park was reconstructed for the Fort Lee Centennial Celebration.
A time capsule was placed at the foot of the monument, to be opened at the Bicentennial Celebration in the year 2104. Monument Park and Continental Army Plaza in Williamsburg, Brooklyn are the only parks in the United States dedicated to the soldiers of the American Revolution. New Jersey during the American Revolution Battle of Fort Washington Hudson River Chain New Bridge Landing Palisades Interstate Park Adams, Arthur G.. The Hudson River Guidebook. New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-1679-6. Fischer, David Hackett. "The Retreat. Cornwallis and the Conquest of New Jersey". Washington's Crossing. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517034-2. Hall, Edward Hagaman. "Fort Lee, New Jersey. A Sketch of its Revolutionary History". Fourteenth Annual Report. New York: The American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. Lefkowitz, Arthur S.. The Long Retreat: The Calamitous American Defense of New Jersey, 1776. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-08135-2759-8.
Mack, Arthur C.. "Historic Old Fort Lee". The Palisades of The H
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Wilhelm von Knyphausen
Wilhelm Reichsfreiherr von Innhausen und Knyphausen was a general officer of Hesse-Kassel. He fought in the American Revolutionary War, during which he commanded Hessian auxiliaries on behalf of Great Britain. Knyphausen's father was the colonel of a Prussian regiment under the Duke of Marlborough. Educated in Berlin, the young Knyphausen entered the Prussian military service in 1734, in 1775 he became a general officer in the army of Frederick the Great. In the army of Hesse-Cassel, he was a lieutenant general. In 1776, with 42 years of military experience, he came to the Thirteen Colonies of British North America as second-in-command of an army of 12,000 men called "Hessians" under General Heister. Knyphausen led the Hessian troops in the Battles of White Plains, Fort Washington, Germantown and Monmouth. In 1779 and 1780, he commanded British-held New York City; when Heister left for Germany, Knyphausen took command of the German troops serving under Sir William Howe. Because of Knyphausen's seniority, British officers held dormant commissions outranking him in case the British commander became disabled.
Despite this, Knyphausen was trusted by his British superiors. Knyphausen's regiment took part in the attack on Fort Washington and was in garrison at Trenton, New Jersey. Major von Dechow, in command in late 1776, warned Colonel Johann Rall to fortify the town, advice, ignored. During the Battle of Trenton the regiment tried to escape across Assunpink Creek but was forced to surrender. Dechow was mortally wounded during the battle. Sir William Howe gave Knyphausen responsibility for commanding the right flank at the Brandywine, tasked with keeping the attention of the Continental commanders on the river line at Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, he commanded the vanguard of the army withdrawing from Philadelphia at the time of the Battle of Monmouth. For several years the main body of Knyphausen's force occupied the upper part of Manhattan Island, during the temporary absence of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780, he was in command of the city. Knyphausen's regiment served in the Americas from 1776 to 1783. Knyphausen left the North American theater in 1782 in part because of ill health, including blindness in one eye caused by a cataract.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Lossberg succeeded to command of the Hessian troops in New York. Knyphausen returned to Europe, having, as he said, achieved neither glory nor advancement, but near the end of his life he became military governor of Cassel, he was a taciturn and discreet officer, who understood the temper of his troops and entered on hazardous exploits. His was a hireling army of recruits gathered from work-houses and by impressment, drilled in the use of arms on shipboard; as he declared, on such forces a judicious commander could place little reliance. In 1785, shortly after the end of the war, General Lafayette met Knyphausen, he wrote to General Washington that they exchanged compliments. Fort Hill Park in Staten Island, New York is the site of what was one called Fort Knyphausen, an earthen redoubt built to fend off Patriot forces. Rosengarten, Joseph George, The German Soldier in the Wars of the United States, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippencott Company Note: Considered by modern scholars to be the inaccurate work of an amateur historian.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Knyphausen, Wilhelm von". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Eelking, Max von. Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. Bernhard von Poten,'Knyphausen, Reichsfreiherr zu Innhausen und' in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vol. 16, pp. 343–345