St Pancras railway station
St Pancras railway station, known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus located on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden. It was opened in 1868 by the Midland Railway as the terminus of its main line. When inaugurated, the train shed by William Henry Barlow was the largest single-span roof in the world. The restored station has 15 platforms, a centre. St Pancras is owned by London and Continental Railways and is managed by Network Rail, high-speed domestic services to Kent, run by Southeastern, began in December 2009. St Pancras is often termed the cathedral of the railways, the train shed, completed in 1868 by the engineer William Henry Barlow, was the largest single-span structure built up to that time. The terminal is one of relatively few stations in England to feature multilingual signage, all notices are written in English. Ashford International station has similar bilingual signs, other stations with foreign-language signs include Southall, which has signs in Punjabi, Wallsend Metro station, and Moreton-in-Marsh.
In March 2014, the public relations team commissioned a study of mispronounced words. St Pancras occupies a site orientated north/south, deeper than it is wide, the south is bounded by the busy Euston Road, with the frontage provided by the former Midland Grand Hotel. Behind the hotel, the Barlow train shed is elevated 5 m above street level, to the west, the original station is bounded by Midland Road with the British Library on the other side of the road. To the east, it is bounded by Pancras Road and is opposite Kings Cross station, the new northern half of the station is mainly bounded to the east by Camley Street, with Camley Street Natural Park across the road. To the north-east is Kings Cross Central, formerly known as the Railway Lands, a complex of intersecting railway lines crossed by several roads, St Pancras contains four groups of platforms on two levels, accessed via the main concourse at ground level. The below-surface group contains through platforms A and B, and the level has three groups of terminal platforms, domestic platforms 1–4 and 11–13 on each side of international platforms 5–10.
The international platforms do not occupy the width of the Barlow train shed. The southern end of The Arcade links to the ticket hall of Kings Cross St Pancras tube station. The main pedestrian entrance is at the end of this concourse, where a subway enables pedestrians to reach Kings Cross station. There are several items of art on display to the public at St Pancras, at the south end of the upper level, a 9-metre high 20-tonne bronze statue named The Meeting Place stands beneath the station clock
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Baked beans is a dish containing beans, sometimes baked but, despite the name, usually stewed, in a sauce. Most commercially canned baked beans are made from beans, known as navy beans – a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris in a sauce. In Ireland and the United Kingdom, a sauce is most commonly used. American Boston baked beans use a sauce prepared with molasses and salt pork, Beans in a tomato and brown sugar, sugar or corn syrup sauce are a widely available type throughout the U. S. Canadas Quebec-style beans often use maple syrup. This style is popular in states bordering Canadas Eastern provinces. Canned baked beans are used as a convenience food and they may be eaten hot or cold straight from the can as they are fully cooked. The beans presently used to make baked beans are all native to South America and were introduced to Europe around 1528. The dish of baked beans is commonly described as having a savory-sweet flavor, according to alternative traditions, sailors brought cassoulet from the south of France or northern France and the Channel Islands where bean stews were popular.
Most probably, a number of regional bean recipes coalesced and cross-fertilised in North America, while many recipes today are stewed, traditionally beans were slow baked in a ceramic or cast-iron beanpot. A tradition in Maine, of bean hole cooking, may have originated with the native Penobscot people and was practiced in logging camps. These beans were a staple of Maines logging camps, served at every meal. Canned beans, often pork, were among the first convenience foods. This is typically a piece of pork to add fat to the dish. Canned baked beans with small pork sausages are available, as are variants with other added ingredients such as chilli. In the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Brunei and they were originally imported from American companies, first sold in the UK in 1886 in the upmarket Fortnum & Mason store in London as an expensive foreign delicacy. Today, baked beans are a convenience food in the UK, often eaten as part of the modern full English breakfast. Baked beans freshly cooked from raw ingredients, much closer to their original unprocessed, unindustrialised form, are offered by a few upmarket brunch establishments, the best-selling brand in the UK is Heinz Baked Beans.
Heinz produce baked beans in a gluten-free sauce, in the United States, Van Camps, B&M, Inc. the H. J. Heinz Company, and the Campbells Soup Company are well-known producers or brands of packaged baked beans
Classical period (music)
The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about the year 1730 and the year 1820. This article is about the period in most of the 18th century to the early 19th century, though overlapping with the Baroque. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods, Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic, using a melody line over a subordinate chordal accompaniment. It makes use of style galant which emphasized light elegance in place of the Baroques dignified seriousness and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before and the orchestra increased in size and power. The harpsichord was replaced as the keyboard instrument by the piano. Instrumental music was considered important by Classical period composers, vocal music, such as songs for a singer and piano, choral works, and opera were important during this period. Ludwig van Beethoven is regarded either as a Romantic composer or a Classical period composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic era, Franz Schubert is a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, and Carl Maria von Weber.
The period is referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Gluck, Haydn, Salieri. In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture and this style sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity, especially those of Classical Greece. Classical music was still linked to aristocratic Court culture and supported by absolute monarchies. Classical music used formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, in contrast with the richly layered music of the Baroque era, Classical music moved towards simplicity rather than complexity. In addition, the size of orchestras began to increase. The remarkable development of ideas in natural philosophy had already established itself in the public consciousness, in particular, Newtons physics was taken as a paradigm, structures should be well-founded in axioms and be both well-articulated and orderly. This move meant that chords became a more prevalent feature of music. As a result, the structure of a piece of music became more audible.
The new style was encouraged by changes in the economic order. As the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the patrons of instrumental music, while public taste increasingly preferred lighter
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world, in some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either small game or large game. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, from the generic meaning of Old English gamen joy, sport, merriment. Small game includes animals, such as rabbits, pheasants. Large game includes animals like deer and bear, big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large, typically African, mammals which are hunted mainly for trophies in safaris. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world and this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted.
Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish, the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is often described as having a gamey flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the diet of the animal. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, a single small game licence may cover all small game species and be subject to yearly bag limits. Large game are often subject to individual licensing where a licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat, see article for more detailed information on how this operates within the economy. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game, see the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, bustard, of the remaining 41 species,24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so.
The status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the three species. S. and Canada, deer are the most commonly hunted big game. Other game species include, In the PRC there is a special category called ye wei. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831 and it is illegal to shoot game on Sundays or at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife, the ban is generally considered voluntary on private lands, and few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly
Heathrow Airport is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. In 2016, it handled a record 75.7 million passengers, Heathrow lies 14 miles west of Central London, and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres. London Heathrow is the hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic. In September 2012, the UK government established the Airports Commission, in July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow and the government approved a third runway in October 2016. Heathrow is 14 mi west of central London, near the end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Slough in Berkshire by the M25 motorway, Heathrow falls entirely under the TW postcode area.
As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, for a chronicled history of Heathrow Airport, see History of Heathrow Airport. Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as an airfield on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there, there was a Heathrow Farm about where Terminal 1 is now, a Heathrow Hall and a Heathrow House. This hamlet was largely along a lane which ran roughly along the east. Development of the whole Heathrow area as a much larger airport began in 1944. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended, the government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport, it opened as London Airport in 1946 and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries, the airport is the primary hub of British Airways and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has four terminals and a cargo terminal.
Of Heathrows 73.4 million passengers in 2014, 93% were international travellers, the busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013. As the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east–west runways from the original hexagram, from the air, almost all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways
Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while serving as a manager of nurses trained by her during the Crimean War and she gave nursing a highly favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of The Lady with the Lamp making rounds of wounded soldiers at night. Some recent commentators have asserted Nightingales achievements in the Crimean War were exaggerated by the media at the time, critics agree on the decisive importance of her follow-up achievements in professionalising nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her school at St Thomas Hospital in London. It was the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of Kings College London, Nightingale was a prodigious and versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge. Some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could easily be understood by those with poor literary skills and she helped popularise the graphical presentation of statistical data.
Much of her writing, including her work on religion. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, in Florence and was named after the city of her birth. Florences older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly named after her place of birth, Parthenope. The family moved back to England in 1821, with Nightingale being brought up in the homes at Embley and Lea Hurst. Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore, williams mother Mary née Evans was the niece of Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate at Lea Hurst, and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fannys father was the abolitionist and Unitarian William Smith, in 1838, her father took the family on a tour in Europe where he was introduced to the English-born Parisian hostess Mary Clarke, with whom Florence bonded. She recorded that Clarkey was a hostess who did not care for her appearance. Her behaviour was said to be exasperating and eccentric and she had no respect for upper-class British women and she said that if given the choice between being a woman or a galley slave, she would choose the freedom of the galleys.
She generally rejected female company and spent her time with male intellectuals, Clarkey made an exception in the case of the Nightingale family and Florence in particular. She and Florence were to close friends for 40 years despite their 27-year age difference. Clarke demonstrated that women could be equals to men, an idea that Florence had not obtained from her mother, in her youth she was respectful of her familys opposition to her working as a nurse, only announcing her decision to enter the field in 1844
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the wife of King George III. She was the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, Queen Charlotte was a patroness of the arts and an amateur botanist, who helped expand Kew Gardens. George III and Charlotte had 15 children,13 of whom survived to adulthood and she was distressed by her husbands bouts of physical illness and insanity, which became permanent in life and resulted in their eldest son being appointed Prince Regent in 1811. Sophia Charlotte was born on 19 May 1744 and she was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow and his wife Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a small north German duchy in the Holy Roman Empire, the children of Duke Charles were all born at the Untere Schloss in Mirow. According to diplomatic reports at the time of her engagement to George III, when King George III succeeded to the throne of Great Britain upon the death of his grandfather, George II, he was unmarried.
His mother and advisors were anxious to have him settled in marriage and he instructed her on her arrival in London not to meddle, a precept she was glad to follow. Charlotte spoke no English but was quick to learn the language and it was noted by many observers that she was ugly, had a dark complexion and flared nostrils. She is timid at first but talks a lot, when she is among people she knows, said one observer. Three days of public celebrations followed, and on 17 Aug 1761, the Princess set out for Britain, accompanied by her brother, Duke Adolphus Frederick, on 22 Aug, they reached Cuxhaven, where a small fleet awaited to convey them to England. The voyage was difficult, the party encountered three storms at sea, and landed at Harwich only on 7 September. They set out at once for London, spent that night in Witham, at the residence of Lord Abercorn and they were received by the King and his family, which marked the first meeting of the bride and groom. At 9,00 pm that evening, within six hours of her arrival, Charlotte married George III at the Chapel Royal, St.
Jamess Palace, with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Secker, officiating. The Queen favored this residence, and spent much of her time there, as many as 14 of her 15 children were born in Buckingham House. Less than a year after the marriage, on 12 August 1762, the Queen gave birth to her first child, the Prince of Wales, in the course of their marriage, they had 15 children, all but two of whom survived into adulthood. Around 1762 the King and Queen moved to Buckingham House, at the end of St. Jamess Park. The house which forms the core of the present palace was built for the first Duke of Buckingham. Buckinghams descendant, Sir Charles Sheffield, sold Buckingham House to George III in 1761 for £21,000, the house was originally intended as a private retreat, in particular for Charlotte, and was known as The Queens House
Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value. It is part of a mixture of distilled spirits and spices, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, figs, peaches and these are referred to as conventional or traditional dried fruits, fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, cherries, some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi fruit and pineapple are most often candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most of the value of fresh fruits. The specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart, traditional dried fruit such as raisins, dates and apples have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia.
Drying or dehydration happened to be the earliest form of preservation, dates. Early hunter-gatherers observed that these fallen fruit took on an edible form, the latest recorded mention of dried fruits can be found in Mesopotamian tablets dating to about 1700 BC, which contain what are probably the oldest known written recipes. These early civilizations used dates, date juice evaporated into syrup and they included dried fruits in their breads for which they had more than 300 recipes, from simple barley bread for the workers to very elaborate, spiced cakes with honey for the palaces and temples. Because cuneiform was very complex and only scribes who had studied for years could read it, it is unlikely that the tablets were meant for everyday cooks or chefs, instead they were written to document the culinary art of the times. Many recipes are quite elaborate and have rare ingredients so we may assume that they represent Mediterranean haute cuisine, the date palm was one of the first cultivated trees.
It was domesticated in Mesopotamia more than 5,000 years ago and it grew abundantly in the Fertile Crescent and it was so productive that dates were the cheapest of staple foods. Because they were so valuable they were recorded in Assyrian and Babylonian monuments. The villagers in Mesopotamia dried them and ate them as sweets, whether fresh, soft-dried or hard-dried, they helped to give character to meat dishes and grain pies. They were valued by travelers for their energy and were recommended as stimulants against fatigue, Figs were prized in early Mesopotamia and Egypt where their daily use was probably greater than or equal to that of dates. As well as appearing in paintings, many specimens have been found in Egyptian tombs as funerary offerings. In Greece and Crete, figs grew very readily and they were the staple of poor and rich alike, grape cultivation first began in Armenia and the eastern regions of the Mediterranean in the 4th century BC
2011 London anti-cuts protest
The 2011 anti-cuts protest in London, known as the March for the Alternative, was a demonstration held in central London on 26 March 2011. Organised by the Trades Union Congress, it was a protest march against planned public spending cuts by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government that was formed in May 2010, various sources estimated that the demonstration was attended by between 250,000 and 500,000 people. It was described as the largest protest in the United Kingdom since the 15 February 2003 anti-Iraq War protest, further clashes were reported in Trafalgar Square. 201 people were arrested, and 66 were injured, including 31 police officers, in May 2010, the United Kingdom general election resulted in a hung parliament and the Conservative Party and Liberal Democrats entered into a coalition government. The Conservative leader David Cameron became Prime Minister and Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became Deputy Prime Minister, the government planned to slow the rate of public spending, saying that it was necessary to turn around the countrys deficit.
They further argue that the recession was created by the finance sector, the march was four months after the 2010 student protests which focused on spending cuts and changes to higher and further education. The march was organised by the Trades Union Congress and promoted as the March for the Alternative. 800 coaches and ten trains were laid on to transport demonstrators to London with demand for transport being so high that some of those wishing to travel to the march were unable to do so, demonstrators began marching from Victoria Embankment, south to the Houses of Parliament. The march turned up Whitehall, passing Downing Street, and it was on Regent Street and Piccadilly that some protesters, apparently unconnected with the official march, caused vandalism to shops and banks. The numbers attending the rally were significantly higher than the TUCs initial estimate of 100,000 people, some families brought their children on the march, and performances were given by bands and dancers. The police stated that the TUC were very professional and very well prepared with the march.
The march concluded at a rally in Hyde Park, where TUC general secretary Brendan Barber told demonstrators, We are here to send a message to the government that we are strong and united. We will fight the cuts and we will not let them destroy peoples services, jobs. Leader of the opposition Ed Miliband said, The Tories said I should not come, but I am proud to stand with you. He went on to criticise the manner in which the government instituted the cuts. The big society united against what your government is doing to our country and we stand today not as the minority, but as the voice of the mainstream majority in this country. Outside of the main TUC march, various independent protests took place across central London, over one hundred people including some members of the direct action group UK Uncut occupied the Fortnum & Mason store as a protest against alleged tax avoidance by the businesss owners. Footage taken from inside the store and released showed police officers telling protesters they were free to leave,138 were arrested for aggravated trespass arising from the sit-in occupation of Fortnum & Mason