Flevoland is the twelfth and last province of the Netherlands, established on 1 January 1986, when the southern and eastern Flevopolders were merged into one provincial entity. It is located in the centre of the country. All of the land belonging to Flevoland was reclaimed only in the 1950s and 1960s; the province consists of 6 municipalities. Its capital is most populous city Almere. Flevoland was named after Lacus Flevo, a name recorded in Roman sources for a large inland lake at the southern end of the later-formed Zuiderzee. After a flood in 1916, it was decided that the Zuiderzee, an inland sea within the Netherlands, would be enclosed and reclaimed: the Zuiderzee Works started. Other sources indicate other times and reasons, but agree that in 1932, the Afsluitdijk was completed, which closed off the sea completely; the Zuiderzee was subsequently divided into IJsselmeer and Markermeer, which in itself was planned to be drained to make the Markerwaard. However, for economic reasons, the Markerwaard never went ahead.
The first part of the new lake, reclaimed was the Noordoostpolder in 1939. This new land included the former islands of Urk and Schokland and it was included in the province of Overijssel. After this, other parts were reclaimed: the southeastern part in 1957 and the southwestern part in 1968. There was an important change in these post-war projects from the earlier Noordoostpolder reclamation: a narrow body of water was preserved along the old coast to stabilise the water table and to prevent coastal towns from losing their access to the sea, thus the Flevopolder became. The municipalities on the three parts voted to become a separate province, which happened in 1986. Eastern Flevoland and Southern Flevoland, unlike the Noordoostpolder, have peripheral lakes between them and the mainland: the Veluwemeer and Gooimeer making them, the world's largest artificial island, they are two polders with a joint hydrological infrastructure, with a dividing dike in the middle, the Knardijk, that will keep one polder safe if the other is flooded.
The two main drainage canals that traverse the dike can be closed by floodgates in such an event. The pumping stations are the Wortman at Lelystad-Haven, the Lovink near Harderwijk on the mainland and the Colijn along the northern dike beside the Ketelmeer. A new element in the design of Eastern Flevoland is the larger city Lelystad, named after Cornelis Lely, the man who had played a crucial role in designing and realising the Zuiderzee Works. Other more conventional settlements existed by then; these three were incorporated in the new municipality of Dronten on 1 January 1972. Southern Flevoland has only one pumping the diesel powered De Blocq van Kuffeler; because of the hydrological union of the two Flevolands it joins the other three in maintaining the water-level of both polders. Almere relieves the housing shortage and increasing overcrowding on the old land, its name is derived from the early medieval name for Lacus Flevo. Almere was to be divided into 3 major settlements initially. In 2003, the municipality made a new Structuurplan which started development of three new settlements: Overgooi in the southeast, Almere-Hout in the east, Almere-Poort in the West.
In time, Almere-Pampus could be developed in the northwest, with a new bridge over the IJmeer towards Amsterdam. The Oostvaardersplassen is a landscape of shallow pools and swamps; this low part of the new polder was destined to become an industrial area. Spontaneous settlement of interesting flora & fauna turned the area into a nature park, of such importance that the new railway-line was diverted; the recent decline in agricultural land use will in time make it possible to expand natural land use, connect the Oostvaardersplassen to the Veluwe. The centre of the polder most resembles the pre-war polders in that it is exclusively agricultural. In contrast, the southeastern part is dominated by extensive forests. Here is found the only other settlement of the polder, again a more conventional town acting as the local centre. Zeewolde became a municipality at the same time as Almere on 1 January 1984, which in the case of Zeewolde meant that the municipality existed before the town itself, with only farms in the surrounding land to be governed until the town started to grow.
The King's Commissioner of Flevoland is Leen Verbeek, a member of the Labour Party. The States of Flevoland have 39 seats. Since the 2011 provincial elections, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy has been the largest party in The States, with 9 seats; the second largest parties are the Labour Party and the Party both with 6 seats. Since the 2011 provincial elections, the seats of the States of Flevoland are as following: The Flevopolder is served by the Flevolijn, running from Weesp to Lelystad, the Hanzelijn, continuing from Lelystad towards Zwolle; the two railways stations of the province with intercity services are Almere Centrum and Lelyst
North Holland is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, west of Friesland and Flevoland. In 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was an integral part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated. In the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland and known as the Noorderkwartier. In 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was turned into land; the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, the province's largest city is the Netherlands' capital Amsterdam. The King's Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, serving since 2010. There are three water boards in the province; the province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813.
This was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed; the republic was reorganised into eight departments with equal populations. Holland was split up into five departments named "Texel", "Amstel", "Delf", "Schelde en Maas", "Rijn"; the first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland. In 1801 the old borders were restored; this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. In 1807, Holland was reorganised; this time the two departments were called "Amstelland" and "Maasland". This did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire. Amstelland and Utrecht were amalgamated as the department of "Zuiderzee" and Maasland was renamed "Monden van de Maas". After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so.
When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, the country was reorganised as regions. Zuiderzee and Monden van de Maas were reunited as the province of "Holland". One of the ministers on the constitutional committee suggested that the old name "Holland and West Friesland" be reintroduced to respect the feelings of the people of that region; this proposal was rejected. However, the division was not reversed; when the province of Holland was re-established in 1814, it was given two governors, one for the former department of Amstelland and one for the former department of Maasland. Though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still being treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland remained alive. During this reorganisation the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling were returned to Holland and parts of "Hollands Brabant" went to North Brabant; the borders with Utrecht and Gelderland were definitively set in 1820. When the constitutional amendments were introduced in 1840, it was decided to split Holland once again, this time into two provinces called "North Holland" and "South Holland".
The need for this was not felt in West Friesland. The impetus came from Amsterdam, which still resented the 1838 relocation of the court of appeal to The Hague in South Holland. After the Haarlemmermeer was drained in 1855 and turned into arable land, it was made part of North Holland. In exchange, South Holland received the greater part of the municipality of Leimuiden in 1864. In 1942, the islands Vlieland and Terschelling went back to the province of Friesland. In 1950, the former island Urk was ceded to the province of Overijssel. In February 2011, North Holland, together with the provinces of Utrecht and Flevoland, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces; this has been positively received by the First Rutte cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has been mentioned in the coalition agreement. The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province, is not named.
With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. North Holland is situated at 52°40′N 4°50′E in the northwest of the Netherlands with to the northeast the province of Friesland, to the east the province of Flevoland, to the southeast the province of Utrecht, to the southwest the province of South Holland, to the west the North Sea. North Holland is a broad peninsula for the most part, located between the North Sea, the Wadden Sea, the IJsselmeer, the Markermeer. More than half of the province consists of reclaimed polder land situated below sea level; the West Frisian islands of Noorderhaaks and Texel are part of the province. North Holland makes up a single region of the International Organization for Standardization world region code system, having the code ISO 3166-2:NL-NH; as of January 2019, North Holland is divided into 47 municipalities. Af
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
Elections in the Netherlands
Elections in the Netherlands are held for five territorial levels of government: the European Union, the state, the twelve Provinces, the 25 water boards and the 380 municipalities. Apart from elections, referenda are held a recent phenomenon in Dutch politics; the most recent national election results and an overview of the resulting seat assignments and coalitions since World War II are shown at the bottom of this page. At the national level, legislative power is invested in the States General, bicameral; the House of Representatives has 150 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation. Elections are called after a dissolution of the House of Representatives. All elections are direct, except for the Senate, which has 75 members, elected for a four-year term by provincial councillors on the basis of proportional representation at the provincial elections; the Netherlands has a multi-party system, with numerous parties, in which no one party secures an overall majority of votes, so that several parties must cooperate to form a coalition government.
This includes the party supported by a plurality of voters, with only three exceptions since World War II, in 1971, 1977 and 1982, when the Labour Party was the largest party but did not take part in the coalition. Candidates to the elections of the House of Representatives are chosen from party lists according to a system of party-list proportional representation; the threshold is 1/150th of the total number of valid votes. During the municipal elections of 2006, elections were electronic throughout the country; as a result, results were known before the end of the day, a mere two hours after the closing of the poll stations. For the national elections in November of that same year, several polling stations decided to return to paper and red pencil because of security issues with the voting machines. Since most elections have been held using paper and pencil; the most recent election was the municipal election on 21 March 2018. The maximum parliamentary term is five years and elections are held about four years after the previous one.
Regular elections, i.e. after the House of Representatives has fulfilled its term, take place in March. If municipal or provincial elections are taking place in March of that year, the parliamentary election is postponed to May. Elections are planned for spring to ensure that a new cabinet is formed in time to present its plans on the most important day in the Dutch Parliament, Prinsjesdag. If the House of Representatives is dissolved, due to a severe conflict between the House of Representatives and cabinet, or within the cabinet, a snap election takes place as soon as possible after two months to give parties time to prepare; the term of the next House can be shortened or prolonged by a year to ensure the next normal election again takes place in March or May. Municipal and provincial elections always take place every four years, in March. Municipal councils and States-Provincial cannot be dissolved, so no snap elections can occur. An exception to the four-year term is made when two or more municipalities merge and a new election takes place for the merged municipality.
Senate elections take place every four years, in May following the provincial elections. The Senate can be dissolved, subsequently snap elections take place, but since the States-Provincial remain the same, this occurs. A Senate elected in a snap election sits out the remainder of its predecessor's term. Elections take place on Wednesdays, but the government can decide to change this to a Tuesday, Thursday or Friday if there are good reasons to do so. Elections for the European Parliament always take place on a Thursday; every Dutch citizen who has reached the age of 18 is eligible to vote or to stand for election as a member of the House of Representatives. A notable exception is municipal elections, in which persons younger than 18 can be elected, although they may not take their seat until their 18th birthday. For the municipal election one does not have to be Dutch. Someone may be deprived of these rights if they are mentally incapable of making a reasoned choice or have lost their right to vote by court sentence.
Two weeks before an election all voters receive a card, the evidence that they are entitled to vote, this card must be handed over at the polling-station before voting. Voting is not compulsory. Compulsory voting was introduced along with universal suffrage in 1917, but it was abolished in 1967, it is not necessary or possible to register as a voter for elections in the Netherlands: every resident inhabitant of the Netherlands is required to register as such with the municipality in which they are living, this data is the basis from which the electoral register is derived. Dutch citizens who live abroad are allowed to vote for the House of Representatives and for the European Parliament, but not for municipal or provincial elections, they do. The House of Representati
Euroscepticism means criticism of the European Union and European integration. It ranges from those who oppose some EU institutions and policies and seek reform, to those who oppose EU membership outright and see the EU as unreformable; the opposite of Euroscepticism is known as pro-Europeanism. The main sources of Euroscepticism have been beliefs that integration undermines national sovereignty and the nation state. Euroscepticism is found in groups across the political spectrum, both left-wing and right-wing, is found in populist parties. Although they criticise the EU for many of the same reasons, Eurosceptic left-wing populists focus more on economic issues while Eurosceptic right-wing populists focus more on nationalism and immigration; the recent rise in radical right-wing parties is linked to a rise in Euroscepticism. Eurobarometer surveys of EU citizens show that trust in the EU and its institutions has declined since a peak in 2007. Since it has been below 50%. A 2009 survey showed that support for EU membership was lowest in the United Kingdom and Hungary.
By 2016, the countries viewing the EU most unfavourably were the UK, Greece and Spain. A referendum on continued EU membership was held in the UK in 2016, which resulted in a 51.9% vote in favour of leaving the EU. Since 2015, trust in the EU has risen in most EU countries as a result of falling unemployment rates and accelerating economic growth. Euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-Europeanism, a dislike of European culture and European ethnic groups by non-Europeans. While having some overlaps and anti-Europeanism are different. Anti-Europeanism has always had a strong influence in American culture and American exceptionalism, which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or both; some aspects of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom have been mirrored by U. S. authors. There can be considered to be several different types of Eurosceptic thought, which differ in the extent to which adherents reject integration between member states of the European Union and in their reasons for doing so.
Aleks Szczerbiak and Paul Taggart described two of these as soft Euroscepticism. According to Taggart and Szczerbiak, hard Euroscepticism is "a principled opposition to the EU and European integration and therefore can be seen in parties who think that their countries should withdraw from membership, or whose policies towards the EU are tantamount to being opposed to the whole project of European integration as it is conceived."The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament, typified by such parties as the United Kingdom Independence Party, displays hard Euroscepticism. In western European EU member countries, hard Euroscepticism is a characteristic of many anti-establishment parties; some hard Eurosceptics prefer to call themselves'Eurorealists' rather than'sceptics', regard their position as pragmatic rather than "in principle". Additionally, Tony Benn, a left-wing Labour Party MP who fought against European integration in 1975 by opposing membership of the European Communities in that year's referendum on the issue, emphasised his opposition to xenophobia and his support of democracy, saying: "My view about the European Union has always been not that I am hostile to foreigners, but that I am in favour of democracy I think they're building an empire there, they want us to be a part of their empire and I don't want that."The Czech president Václav Klaus rejected the term "Euroscepticism" for its purported negative undertones, saying that the expressions for a Eurosceptic and their opponent should be "a Euro-realist" and someone, "Euro-naïve", respectively.
François Asselineau of the French Popular Republican Union has criticised the use of the term'sceptic' to describe hard Eurosceptics, would rather advocate the use of the term "Euro opponent". However, he believes the use of the term'sceptic' for soft Eurosceptics to be correct, since other Eurosceptic parties in France are "merely criticising" the EU without taking into account the fact that the Treaty of Rome can only be modified with a unanimous agreement of all the EU member states, something he considers impossible to achieve. Soft Euroscepticism is support for the existence of, membership of, a form of European Union, but with opposition to specific EU policies; the European Conservatives and Reformists group, typified by centre-right parties such as Czech Civic Democratic Party, along with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left, an alliance of the left-wing parties in the European Parliament, display soft Euroscepticism. Some have claimed. Kopecky and Mudde have said that if the demarcation line is the number of and which policies
The King’s Commissioner is the head of a province in the Netherlands. The officeholder chairs of both the States-Provincial and the Provincial-Executive, but has a right to vote only in the latter; when the reigning monarch is a female, the office is Queen's Commissioner. As there are twelve provinces in the Netherlands, there are twelve King's Commissioners. There are two levels of local government in the Netherlands: the municipalities; the twelve provinces form the tier of administration between central government and the municipalities. The three tiers are organised in the same way, with a directly elected legislature, which in turn chooses the executive branch, headed by an appointed chairman. At the national and municipal levels, these are the Mayor; the King’s Commissioner is not elected by the residents of the province, but appointed by the Dutch Crown, for a term of six years, renewable. The King’s Commissioner can be dismissed only by the Dutch Crown; when a vacancy arises, the provincial council gives the Minister of the Interior a profile of the kind of candidate it would like to see in the job.
Although all King’s Commissioners are prominent members of one or another of the major national political parties, they are expected to be politically impartial while they are in office. The King's Commissioners play a role within the provincial administration and are the official representatives of central government in the provinces, they coordinate disaster management and prevention and pay regular official visits to the municipalities in their region. The King's Commissioners play an important part in the appointment of municipal mayors; when a vacancy arises, the King's Commissioner first asks the municipal council for its views as to a successor writes to the Minister of the Interior, recommending a candidate. Since the King's Commissioners are both the chairs and full members of the provincial executives, they may include some of the executive's tasks in their portfolio, they oversee the official apparatus and any provincial utilities and represent the province in its dealings with business.
In the Dutch province of Limburg, the King’s Commissioner is informally called Gouverneur, as in Belgium. The Provinciehuis at Maastricht is called Gouvernement; this local custom arose from the particular status of the province in the nineteenth century. The official name of the office is the same as in the other provinces. List of King's and Queen's Commissioners of Flevoland List of King's and Queen's Commissioners of Limburg List of King's and Queen's Commissioners of North Holland Lord-lieutenant
Right-wing populism is a political ideology which combines right-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes. The rhetoric consists of anti-elitist sentiments, opposition to the Establishment and speaking for the common people. In Europe, right-wing populism is an expression used to describe groups and political parties known for their opposition to immigration from the Islamic world and in most cases Euroscepticism. Right-wing populism in the Western world is generally—though not exclusively—associated with ideologies such as neo-nationalism, anti-globalization, nativism and opposition to immigration. Anti-Muslim ideas and sentiments serve as the "great unifiers" among right-wing political formations throughout the United States and Europe. Traditional right-wing views such as opposition to an increasing support for the welfare state and a "more lavish, but more restrictive, domestic social spending" scheme is described under right-wing populism and is sometimes called "welfare chauvinism".
From the 1990s, right-wing populist parties became established in the legislatures of various democracies, including Australia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany and Sweden. Although extreme right-wing movements in the United States have been studied separately, where they are called "radical right", some writers consider them to be a part of the same phenomenon. Right-wing populism in the United States is closely linked to paleoconservatism. Right-wing populism is distinct from conservatism, but several right-wing populist parties have their roots in conservative political parties. Other populist parties have links to fascist movements founded during the interwar period when Italian, Hungarian and Japanese fascism rose to power. Since the Great Recession, right-wing populist movements such as the National Rally in France, the Northern League in Italy, the Party for Freedom in the Netherlands and the UK Independence Party began to grow in popularity, in large part because of increasing opposition to immigration from the Middle East and Africa, rising Euroscepticism and discontent with the economic policies of the European Union.
U. S. President Donald Trump's 2016 political views have been summarized by pundits as right-wing populist and nationalist. Classification of right-wing populism into a single political family has proved difficult and it is not certain whether a meaningful category exists, or a cluster of categories since the parties differ in ideology and leadership rhetoric. Unlike traditional parties, they do not belong to international organizations of like-minded parties, they do not use similar terms to describe themselves. Scholars use terminology inconsistently, sometimes referring to right-wing populism as "radical right" or other terms such as new nationalism. Pippa Norris noted that "standard reference works use alternate typologies and diverse labels categorising parties as'far' or'extreme' right,'new right','anti-immigrant' or'neofascist','antiestablishment','national populist','protest','ethnic','authoritarian','antigovernment','antiparty','ultranationalist','neoliberal','right-libertarian' and so on".
Piero Ignazi divided right-wing populist parties, which he called "extreme right parties", into two categories: he placed traditional right-wing parties that had developed out of the historical right and post-industrial parties that had developed independently. He placed the British National Party, the National Democratic Party of Germany, the German People's Union and the former Dutch Centre Party in the first category, whose prototype would be the disbanded Italian Social Movement. Right-wing populist parties in the English-speaking world include the UK Independence Party and Australia's One Nation; the U. S. Republican Party and Conservative Party of Canada include right-wing populist factions; the main right-wing populist party in Australia is One Nation, led by Pauline Hanson, Senator for Queensland. One Nation supports the governing Coalition. Other parties represented in the Australian Parliament with right-wing populist elements and rhetoric include the Australian Conservatives, led by Cory Bernardi, Senator for South Australia, the libertarian Liberal Democratic Party, led by David Leyonhjelm, Senator for New South Wales, Katter's Australian Party, led by Queensland MP Bob Katter.
The Liberal Democratic Party and the Australian Conservatives form a voting bloc in the Australian Senate. Some figures within the Liberal Party of Australia, part of the Coalition, have been described as right-wing populists, including former Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton. On 9 October 2018 Jair Bolsonaro, a right-wing candidate from the conservative Social Liberal Party, won the presidential election after a run off with left-wing candidate Fernando Haddad in the second round. Canada has a history of right-wing populist protest parties and politicians, most notably in Western Canada due to Western alienation; the successful Social Credit Party of Canada won seats in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, but fell into obscurity by the 1970s. The