Forward (association football)

Forwards are the players on a football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include more than three forwards, or none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass, the latter variation requiring quicker pace and good movement. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.

The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number 9 – Everton's Dixie Dean, a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.

Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen and Sergio Aguero have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, such as Alan Shearer, an out and out striker, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10.

Other creative players who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are instead described as the "number 10," and operate as an attacking midfielder or advanced playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned in a free role, somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he or she is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe the playing role of his successor in the number 10 role at Juventus, Italian playmaker Roberto Baggio, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he or she is a prolific goalscorer. Although they are given "licence to roam," and either run forward, or drop further back in order to pick up the ball in deeper areas, giving them more time and space in possession, second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly in a supporting role as assist providers.

In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as


XEYTM-AM is a radio station in Teocelo, Veracruz. Known as XEYT-AM, the station is Mexico's oldest community radio station, a title it shares with XHFCE-FM in Huayacocotla; the history of XEYT/XEYTM is the longest of any community radio station in Mexico. The permit was issued to the Centro de Promoción Social y Cultural, A. C. in 1965, the station signed on with a power of 250 watts. Ceprososc held the station's permit until 1998; the station was small, with irregular transmissions of two to four hours a day and a narrow coverage area. By the late 1970s, the SCT was threatening to revoke XEYT's permit, which forced the station to seek support for its modernization. In 1980, Radio Teocelo signed an agreement with Fomento Cultural y Educativo, owners of what was known as XEJN-OC, underwent a series of significant upgrades in the decade that followed; the station's power was raised to one kilowatt. In 1998, Asociación Veracruzana de Comunicadores Populares, A. C. was formed to manage the station. It was the only citizen-owned radio station in Mexico from 1966 to 2005, when the Mexican government issued a series of permits to community radio stations.

The current permit for the station was issued in 2013 and resulted in the callsign change to XEYTM-AM. The station has offspring projects in television and a newspaper, Alta Voz; the station faces issues related to raising funds needed for the digitalization of the station. On April 29, 2016, the Federal Telecommunications Institute accredited Radio Teocelo as the second recognized community radio station in Mexico, transferring its permit to a social-community concession

1939–40 Birmingham F.C. season

During the 1939–40 season, Birmingham Football Club played three Second Division matches before the Football League season was abandoned because of the Second World War. The team had been relegated in 1938–39 after 18 consecutive seasons in the top tier. Regionally based competitions were organised so that football could continue while unnecessary travel was minimised. Birmingham played in the Midland Regional League, finishing fourth of eight teams, in the Football League War Cup, in which they lost to eventual winners West Ham United in the quarter final. After 18 consecutive seasons in the First Division, Birmingham were relegated at the end of the 1938–39 Football League campaign. Manager George Liddell resigned, returned to his former career as a schoolteacher. First-team coach Jack Bestall left the club. No successors were appointed. Trainer Billy Gibson's duties were extended to include coaching, Jack Foster chief scout at Portsmouth, was appointed to the corresponding role at Birmingham.

The directors stated that they were "prepared to accept Mr Foster's advice in all matters relating to players", but confirmed that they would act promptly if it became necessary to appoint a manager. During the previous season, 1500 new tip-up seats had been installed and the terracing in front of the grandstand renovated. Over the close season, the pitch was reseeded. Player departures included goalkeeper Frank Clack and half-backs Wally Halsall, Bob Meacock and Dai Richards. Birmingham began the 1939–40 Football League season in the Second Division, but the onset of the Second World War caused the League to be abandoned after three rounds of Second Division matches had been played, they fielded the same eleven for all three matches: Harry Hibbs, Cyril Trigg, Billy Hughes, James Bye, Arthur Turner, Ray Shaw, Jackie Brown, Don Dearson, Ted Duckhouse, Fred Harris and Tom Farrage. Farrage was killed in action in September 1944, serving as a private in the 10th Battalion, the Parachute Regiment during Operation Market Garden.

With two wins and a draw, they stood second behind Luton Town on goal average. When war was declared in September 1939, the government banned public gatherings until safety implications could be assessed. Most football grounds reopened soon afterwards those in built-up or strategically significant areas, but Birmingham's Chief Constable ordered the continued closure of St Andrew's because of its proximity to air-raid targets such as the BSA munitions factories. Birmingham were forced to play all their away fixtures first, when this became impossible, to play home fixtures on a neutral ground – the Windmill Ground at Leamington hosted two "home" matches; the matter was first raised in Parliament in November 1939, but the Home Secretary was unwilling to intervene in what he perceived as a local issue outside his jurisdiction. By March 1940, when St Andrew's had for some time been the only football ground in England still closed, the Chief Constable bowed to public pressure, a crowd of 13,241 witnessed Birmingham's first home game in more than six months, against Walsall in the Midland Regional League.

For a description of the playing formation, see formation #2–3–5. Players marked with an asterisk * were guests, not registered Birmingham players. General Matthews, Tony. Birmingham City: A Complete Record. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-010-9. Matthews, Tony. Birmingham City: The Complete Record. Derby: DB Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85983-853-2. Rollin, Jack. Soccer at War 1939–45. London: Headline. ISBN 978-0-7553-1431-7. Source for kit: "Birmingham City". Historical Football Kits. Dave & Matt Moor. Retrieved 20 February 2019. Specific