International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
A coprolite is fossilized feces. Coprolites are classified as trace fossils as opposed to body fossils, as they give evidence for the animal's behaviour rather than morphology; the name is derived from the Greek words κόπρος and λίθος. They were first described by William Buckland in 1829. Prior to this they were known as "fossil fir cones" and "bezoar stones", they serve a valuable purpose in paleontology because they provide direct evidence of the predation and diet of extinct organisms. Coprolites may range in size from a few millimetres to over 60 centimetres. Coprolites, distinct from paleofaeces, are fossilized animal dung. Like other fossils, coprolites have had much of their original composition replaced by mineral deposits such as silicates and calcium carbonates. Paleofaeces, on the other hand, retain much of their original organic composition and can be reconstituted to determine their original chemical properties, though in practice the term coprolite is used for ancient human faecal material in archaeological contexts.
In the same context, there are the urolites, erosions caused by evacuation of liquid wastes and nonliquid urinary secretions. The fossil hunter Mary Anning noticed as early as 1824 that "bezoar stones" were found in the abdominal region of ichthyosaur skeletons found in the Lias formation at Lyme Regis, she noted that if such stones were broken open they contained fossilized fish bones and scales as well as sometimes bones from smaller ichthyosaurs. It was these observations by Anning that led the geologist William Buckland to propose in 1829 that the stones were fossilized feces and name them coprolites. Buckland suspected that the spiral markings on the fossils indicated that ichthyosaurs had spiral ridges in their intestines similar to those of modern sharks, that some of these coprolites were black with ink from swallowed belemnites. By examining coprolites, paleontologists are able to find information about the diet of the animal, such as whether it was a herbivorous or carnivorous, the taphonomy of the coprolites, although the producer is identified unambiguously with more ancient examples.
In some instances, knowledge about the anatomy of animal digestive tracts can be helpful in assigning a coprolite to the animal that produced it, one example being the finding that the Triassic dinosauriform Silesaurus may have been an insectivore, a suggestion, based on the beak-like jaws of the animal and the high density of beetle remains found in associated coprolites. Further, coprolites can be analyzed for certain minerals that are known to exist in trace amounts in certain species of plant that can still be detected millions of years later. In another example, the existence of human proteins in coprolites can be used to pinpoint the existence of cannibalistic behavior in an ancient culture. Parasite remains found in human and animal coprolites have shed new light on questions of human migratory patterns, the diseases which plagued ancient civilizations, animal domestication practices in the past. Organic molecules found in fossil faecal matter can be very informative about the producer of the coprolite, its diet, or the paleoenvironment where it was deposited.
The application of the faecal biomarker approach in archaeological sites has provided groundbreaking evidence in key questions such as the peopling of the Americas, the Neanderthal diet, the origin of the domestication of animals. The recognition of coprolites is aided by their structural patterns, such as spiral or annular markings, by their content, such as undigested food fragments, by associated fossil remains; the smallest coprolites are difficult to distinguish from inorganic pellets or from eggs. Most coprolites are composed chiefly of calcium phosphate, along with minor quantities of organic matter. By analyzing coprolites, it is possible to infer the diet of the animal. Coprolites have been recorded in deposits ranging in age from the Cambrian period to recent times and are found worldwide; some of them are useful as index fossils, such as Favreina from the Jurassic period of Haute-Savoie in France. Some marine deposits contain a high proportion of fecal remains. However, animal excrement is fragmented and destroyed, so has little chance of becoming fossilized.
In 1842 the Rev John Stevens Henslow, a professor of Botany at St John's College, discovered coprolites just outside Felixstowe in Suffolk in the villages of Trimley St Martin and Kirton and investigated their composition. Realising their potential as a source of available phosphate once they had been treated with sulphuric acid, he patented an extraction process and set about finding new sources. Soon, coprolites were being mined on an industrial scale for use as fertiliser due to their high phosphate content; the major area of extraction occurred over the east of England, centred on Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely with its refining being carried out in Ipswich by the Fison Company. There is a Coprolite Street near Ipswich docks; the industry declined in the 1880s but was revived during the First World War to provide phosphates for munitions. A renewed interest in coprolite mining in the First World War extended the area of interest into parts of Buckinghamshire as far west as Woburn Sands.
Bromalite Fecalith Fossil Fossils and the geological timescale Gastrolith Lloyds Bank coprolite Regurgitalith Spencer, P. K.. "The "coprolites" that aren't: the straight poop on specimens from the Miocene
Stingrays are a group of sea rays, which are cartilaginous fish related to sharks. Many species are endangered, they are classified in the suborder Myliobatoidei of the order Myliobatiformes and consist of eight families: Hexatrygonidae, Urolophidae, Dasyatidae, Potamotrygonidae and Myliobatidae. Stingrays are common in coastal subtropical marine waters throughout the world; some species, such as Dasyatis thetidis, are found in warmer temperate oceans, others, such as Plesiobatis daviesi, are found in the deep ocean. The river stingrays, a number of whiptail stingrays, are restricted to fresh water. Most myliobatoids are demersal, but some, such as the pelagic stingray and the eagle rays, are pelagic. There are about 220 known stingray species organized into 29 genera. Stingray species are progressively becoming threatened or vulnerable to extinction as the consequence of unregulated fishing; as of 2013, 45 species have been listed as vulnerable or endangered by the IUCN. The status of some other species is poorly leading to their being listed as data deficient.
The mouth of the stingray is located on the ventral side of the vertebrate. Stringrays exhibit euhyostyly jaw suspension, which means that the mandibular arch is only suspended by an articulation with the hyomandibula; this type of suspensions allows for the upper jaw to have high protrude outward. The teeth are modified placoid scales that are shed and replaced. In general, the teeth have a root implanted within the connective tissue and a visible portion of the tooth, is large and flat, allowing them to crush the bodies of hard shelled prey. Male stingrays display sexual dimorphism by developing cusp, or pointed ends, to some of their teeth. During mating season, some stingray species change their tooth morphology which returns to baseline during non-mating seasons. Stingrays can breathe through their spiracles; the respiratory system of stingrays is complicated by having two separate ways to take in water to utilize the oxygen. Most of the time stingrays take in water using their mouth and send the water through the gills for gas exchange.
This is efficient, but the mouth cannot be used when hunting because the stingrays bury themselves in the ocean sediment and wait for prey to swim by. So the stingray switches to using its spiracles. With the spiracles, they can draw water free from sediment directly into their gills for gas exchange; these alternate ventilation organs are less efficient than the mouth, since spiracles are unable to pull the same volume of water. However, it is enough when the stingray is waiting to ambush its prey; the flattened bodies of stingrays allow them to conceal themselves in their environments. Stingrays do this by hiding beneath it; because their eyes are on top of their bodies and their mouths on the undersides, stingrays cannot see their prey after capture. Stingrays settle on the bottom while feeding leaving only their eyes and tails visible. Coral reefs are favorite feeding grounds and are shared with sharks during high tide. During the breeding season, males of various stingray species such as Urolophus halleri, may rely on their ampullae of Lorenzini to sense certain electrical signals given off by mature females before potential copulation.
When a male is courting a female, he follows her biting at her pectoral disc. He places one of his two claspers into her valve. Reproductive ray behaviors are associated with their behavioral endocrinology, for example, in species such as Dasyatis sabina, social groups are formed first the sexes display complex courtship behaviors that end in pair copulation, similar to the species Urolophus halleri. Furthermore, their mating period is one of the longest recorded in elasmobranch fish. Individuals are known to mate for 7 months. During this time, the male stingrays experience increased levels of androgen hormones, linked to its prolonged mating periods; the behavior expressed among males and females during specific parts of this period involves aggressive social interactions. The males trail females with their snout near the female vent proceed to bite the female on her fins and her body. Although this mating behavior is similar to the species Urolophus halleri, differences can be seen in the particular actions of Dasyatis sabina.
Seasonal elevated levels of serum androgens coincide with the expressed aggressive behavior, which led to the proposal that androgen steroids start and maintain aggressive sexual behaviors in the male rays for this species which drives the prolonged mating season. Concise elevations of serum androgens in females has been connected to increased aggression and improvement in mate choice; when their androgen steroid levels are elevated, they are able to improve their mate choice by fleeing from tenacious males when undergoing ovulation succeeding impregnation. This ability affects the paternity of their offspring by refusing less qualified mates. Stingrays are ovoviviparous, bearing live young in "litters" of five to 13. During this period, the female’s behavior transitions to support of her future offspring. Females hold the embryos in the womb without a placenta. Instead, the embryos absorb nutrients from a yolk sac, after the sac is depleted, the mother p
Icaronycteris is an extinct genus of microchiropteran bat that lived in the early Eocene 52.2 million years ago, making it the earliest known definitive bat. Four exceptionally preserved specimens, among the best preserved bat fossils, are known from the Green River Formation of North America. There is only one described species of bat in the genus, I. index, although fragmentary material from France has been tentatively placed within Icaronycteris as the second species I. menui. I. Sigei is based on lower teeth found in Western India. Icaronycteris had a wingspan of 37 centimetres, it resembled modern bats, but had some primitive traits. The tail was much longer and not connected to the hind legs with a skin membrane, the first wing finger bore a claw and the body was more flexible, it had a full set of unspecialised teeth, similar to those of a modern shrew. Its anatomy suggests that, like modern bats, Icaronycteris slept while hanging upside down, holding onto a tree branch or stone ridge with its hind legs.
According to Simmons & Geisler 1998, Icaronycteris is the first genus, followed by Archaeonycteris and Palaeochiropteryx, in a series leading to extant microchiropteran bats. Onychonycteris Australonycteris Protictis
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months, dry summer climate or, where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months. Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth. A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter.
Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, mango, pistachio and avocado are grown within the subtropics; the tropics have been defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at latitudes 23.45° north and south, respectively. According to the American Meteorological Society, the poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at latitudes 35° north and south, respectively. Several methods have been used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a mean temperature greater than 10 °C and at least one month with a mean temperature under 18 °C. German climatologists Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen defined Warm temperate zones as plain and hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month between 2 °C and 13 °C in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6 °C and 13 °C in the Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic and continental climates.
According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone, subdivided into seven smaller areas. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into two parts: Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into three parts: high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six climate zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone; the upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As the air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge. Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics; this regime is known as an arid subtropical climate, located in areas adjacent to powerful cold ocean currents. Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of southern Africa, the south of the Canary Islands and the coasts of Peru and Chile; the humid subtropical climate is located on the western side of the subtropical high. Here, unstable tropical airmasses in summer bring convective overturning and frequent tropical downpours, summer is the season of peak annual rainfall. In the winter the monsoon retreats, the drier trade winds bring more stable airmass and dry weather, frequent sunny skies. Areas that have this type of subtropical climate include Australia, Southeast Asia, parts of South America, the deep south of the United States. In areas bounded by warm ocean like the southeastern United States and East Asia, tropical cyclones can contribute to local rainfall within the subtropics.
Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons. The Mediterranean climate is a subtropical climate with a wet season in winter and a dry season in the summer. Regions with this type of climate include the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia around the Perth area, parts of the west coast of South American around Santiago, the coastal areas of western Mexico, coastal California in the United States; these climates do not see hard frosts or snow, which allows plants such as palms and citrus to flourish. As one moves toward the tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears, while at the poleward threshold of the subtropics the winters become cooler; some crops which have been traditionally farmed in tropical climates, such as mango and avocado, are cultivated in the subtropics. Pest control of the crops is less difficult than within the tropics, due to the cooler winters. Tree ferns are grown within subtropical areas within the subtropics and within topography within the tropics.
Dracaena and yucca can grow within the subtropics. Tre
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Lincoln County, Wyoming
Lincoln County is a county in the U. S. state of Wyoming. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 18,106, its county seat is Kemmerer. Its western border abuts the east border of the state of Utah. Lincoln County was created February 1911, with land detached from Uinta County, its government was organized in 1913. The county was named for sixteenth president of the United States. In 1921, portions of Lincoln County were annexed to create Sublette County and Teton County, leaving Lincoln County with its present borders. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,095 square miles, of which 4,076 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 14,573 people, 5,266 households, 3,949 families in the county. The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 6,831 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.15% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.71% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races.
2.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.0 % were of 14.6 % German, 9.5 % American and 6.1 % Irish ancestry. There were 5,266 households out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.23. The county population contained 30.9% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.3 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,794, the median income for a family was $44,919. Males had a median income of $37,353 versus $20,928 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,533. About 6.4% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 18,106 people, 6,861 households, 4,957 families in the county; the population density was 4.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,946 housing units at an average density of 2.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.4% white, 0.8% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 2.0% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.7% were English, 20.1% were American, 19.2% were German, 7.5% were Irish, 5.0% were Italian. Of the 6,861 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.2% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families, 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 37.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,794 and the median income for a family was $65,347. Males had a median income of $49,087 versus $30,539 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,421. About 4.6% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2014 American Community Survey, the largest ancestries/ethnicities in Lincoln County, Wyoming were: 27.3% were of English ancestry 17.9% were of German ancestry 10.6% were of "American" ancestry 7.5% were of Irish ancestry 4.2% were of Italian ancestry. There are two school districts in the county, Lincoln County School District Number 1, which includes Kemmerer High School, Lincoln County School District Number 2, which includes Star Valley High School. Kemmerer Lincoln County voters are reliably Republican.
In only one national election since 1948 has the county selected the Democratic Party nominee. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Wyoming Star Valley Wyoming in Lincoln County