Zsa Zsa Gabor
Zsa Zsa Gabor was a Hungarian-American actress and socialite. Her sisters were Magda Gabor. Gabor began her stage career in Vienna and was crowned Miss Hungary in 1936, she emigrated from Hungary to the United States in 1941. Becoming a sought-after actress with "European flair and style", she was considered to have a personality that "exuded charm and grace", her first film role was a supporting role in Lovely to Look At. She acted in We're Not Married! and played one of her few leading roles in the John Huston-directed film, Moulin Rouge. Huston would describe her as a "creditable" actress. Outside her acting career, Gabor was known for her extravagant Hollywood lifestyle, her glamorous personality, her many marriages. In total, Gabor had nine husbands, including actor George Sanders, she once stated, "I have always liked men. But I like a mannish man, a man who knows how to talk to and treat a woman—not just a man with muscles." Zsa Zsa Gabor was born Sári Gábor on February 6, 1917 in Budapest, Hungary part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The middle of three daughters, her parents were Vilmos, a soldier, Jolie Gabor. Her parents were both of Jewish ancestry. While her mother escaped Hungary during the same time period of the Nazi occupation of Budapest, Gabor left the country in 1941, three years prior to the takeover. Gabor's elder sister, Magda became an American socialite and her younger sister, became an American actress and businesswoman; the Gabor sisters were first cousins of wife of California Congressman Tom Lantos. According to Gabor, she was discovered by operatic tenor Richard Tauber on a trip to Vienna in 1934, following her time as a student at a Swiss boarding school. Tauber invited Gabor to sing the soubrette role in his new operetta, Der singende Traum, at the Theater an der Wien; this would mark her first stage appearance. In 1936, she was crowned Miss Hungary. In 1944, she co-wrote a novel with writer Victoria Wolf entitled Every Man For Himself. According to Gabor, the fictional story was derived, from Gabor's life experiences.
The book was subsequently bought by an American magazine. In 1949, Gabor declined an offer to play the leading role in a film version of the classic book Lady Chatterley's Lover. According to an article written for the Cedar Rapids Gazette in 1949, she turned down the role of Lady Chatterley due to the story's controversial theme, her more serious film acting credits include Moulin Rouge, Lovely to Look At and We're Not Married!, all from 1952, 1953's Lili. In 1958, she ran the gamut of moviemaking, from Touch of Evil to the camp oddity Queen of Outer Space, she appeared in such films as Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood and Frankenstein's Great Aunt Tillie. She did cameos for A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, The Beverly Hillbillies and A Very Brady Sequel and voiced a character in the animated Happily Ever After, she was a regular guest on television shows, appearing with Milton Berle, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, Howard Stern, David Frost, Arsenio Hall, Phil Donahue, Joan Rivers.
She was a guest on the Bob Hope specials, the Dean Martin Roasts, Hollywood Squares, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, It's Garry Shandling's Show. In 1968, she appeared in the role of Minerva on an episode of Batman, becoming the show's final "special guest villain" when it was cancelled soon after, she appeared on the Late Night show where she told host David Letterman about her blind date with Henry Kissinger, arranged by Richard Nixon. Author Gerold Frank, who helped Gabor write her autobiography in 1960, described his impressions of her: Zsa Zsa is unique. She's a woman from the court of Louis XV who has somehow managed to live in the 20th century, undamaged by the PTA... She says she wants to be all the Pompadours and Du Barrys of history rolled into one, but she says, "I always goof. I pay all my own bills.... I want to choose the man. I do not permit men to choose me." In his autobiography, television host Merv Griffin, known to spend time with Gabor's younger sister Eva wrote of the Gabor sisters' initial presence in New York and Hollywood: "All these years it's hard to describe the phenomenon of the three glamorous Gabor girls and their ubiquitous mother.
They burst onto the society pages and into the gossip columns so and with such force, it was as if they'd been dropped out of the sky."In 1973 she was the guest roastee on the Dean Martin Roast show, in 1998, film historian Neal Gabler called her kind of celebrity "The Zsa Zsa Factor". Gabor was married nine times, she was divorced seven times, one marriage was annulled. "All in all — I love being married", she wrote in her autobiography. "I love the companionship, I love cooking for a man, spending all my time with a man. Of course I love being in love — but it is marriage that fulfills me, but not in every case." Her husbands, in chronological order, were: Burhan Asaf Belge Conrad Hilton "Conrad's decision to change my name from Zsa Zsa to Georgia symbolized everything my marriage to him would become. My Hungarian roots were to be ripped out and my background ignored.... I soon discovered. My own needs were ignored: I belonged to Conrad." George Sanders (April 2, 1949 – April 2, 1954.
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is an American talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the Tonight Show franchise from October 1, 1962 through May 22, 1992. It aired during late-night. For its first decade, Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show was based at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, with some episodes recorded at NBC-TV's West Coast studios in Burbank, California. In 2002, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was ranked No. 12 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, in 2013 it was ranked No. 22 on their list of 60 Best Series. Johnny Carson's Tonight Show established the modern format of the late-night talk show: a monologue sprinkled with a rapid-fire series of 16 to 22 one-liners was followed by sketch comedy moving on to guest interviews and performances by musicians and stand-up comedians. During the early years of Carson's tenure, his guests included politicians such as former U. S. Vice President Richard M. Nixon, former U. S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, but by 1970, Carson interviewed as guests people that had a book, television show, or stage performance to promote.
Other regulars were selected for their entertainment or information value, in contrast to those who offered more cerebral conversation. Carson's preference for access to Hollywood stars caused the show's move to the West Coast on May 1, 1972; when asked about intellectual conversation on The Tonight Show and his staff invariably cited "Carl Sagan, Paul Ehrlich, Margaret Mead, Gore Vidal, Shana Alexander, Madalyn Murray O'Hair" as guests. Family therapist Carlfred Broderick appeared on the show ten times, psychologist Joyce Brothers was one of Carson's most frequent guests. Carson, in general, did not feature prop comedy acts. Carson never socialized with guests before or after the show. Unlike his avuncular counterparts Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, Dick Cavett, Carson was a comparatively "cool" host who only laughed when genuinely amused and abruptly cut short monotonous or embarrassingly inept interviewees. Mort Sahl recalled, "The producer crouches just off camera and holds up a card that says,'Go to commercial.'
So Carson goes to a commercial and the whole team rushes up to his desk to discuss what had gone wrong, like a pit stop at Le Mans." Actor Robert Blake once compared being interviewed by Carson to "facing the death squad" or "Broadway on opening night." The publicity value of appearing on The Tonight Show was so great, that most guests were willing to subject themselves to the risk. The show's announcer and Carson's sidekick was Ed McMahon, who from the first show would introduce Carson with a drawn-out "Heeeeeeeeere's Johnny!". The catchphrase was heard nightly for 30 years, ranked top of the TV Land poll of U. S. TV catchphrases and quotes in 2006. McMahon, who held the same role in Carson's ABC game show Who Do You Trust? for five years would remain standing to the side as Carson did his monologue, laughing at his jokes join him at the guest chair when Carson moved to his desk. The two would interact in a comic spot for a short while before the first guest was introduced. McMahon stated in a 1978 profile of Carson in The New Yorker that "the'Tonight Show' is my staple diet, my meat and potatoes—I'm realistic enough to know that everything else stems from that".
After a 1965 incident in which he ruined Carson's joke on the air McMahon was careful to, as he said, "never to go where's going". He wrote in his 1998 autobiography: My role on the show never was defined. I did. I was there when he needed me, when he didn't I moved down the couch and kept quiet.... I did the audience warm-up, I did commercials, for a brief period I co-hosted the first fifteen minutes of the show... and I performed in many sketches. On our thirteenth-anniversary show Johnny and I were talking at his desk and he said, "Thirteen years is a long time." He paused long enough for me to recognize my cue, so I asked, "How long is it?" "That's why you're here," he said summing up my primary role on the show perfectly... I had to support him, I had to help him get to the punch line, but while doing it I had to make it look as if I wasn't doing anything at all; the better I did it, the less it appeared as if I was doing it.... If I was going to play second fiddle, I wanted to be the Heifetz of second fiddlers....
The most difficult thing for me to learn how to do was just sit there with my mouth closed. Many nights I'd be listening to Johnny and in my mind I'd reach the same ad lib. I'd have to bite my tongue not to say it out loud. I had to m
Match Game is an American television panel game show that premiered on NBC in 1962 and was revived several times over the course of the next few decades. The game featured contestants trying to come up with answers to fill-in-the-blank questions that are formed as humorous double entendres, the object being to match answers given by celebrity panelists; the Match Game in its original version ran on NBC's daytime lineup from 1962 until 1969. The show returned with a changed format in 1973 on CBS and became a major success, with an expanded panel, larger cash payouts, emphasis on humor; the CBS series, referred to on air as Match Game 73 to start and updated every new year, ran until 1979 on CBS, at which point it moved to first-run syndication and ran for three more seasons, ending in 1982. Concurrently with the weekday run, from 1975 to 1981, a once-a-week fringe time version, Match Game PM, was offered in syndication for airing just before prime time hours. Match Game returned to NBC in 1983 as part of a sixty-minute hybrid series with Hollywood Squares saw a daytime run on ABC in 1990 and another for syndication in 1998.
It returned to ABC in a weekly prime time edition on June 26, 2016, running as an off-season replacement series. All of these revivals used the 1970s format with varying modifications; the series was a production of Mark Goodson/Bill Todman Productions, along with its successor companies, has been franchised around the world under the name Blankety Blanks. In 2013, TV Guide ranked the 1973–79 CBS version of Match Game as No. 4 on its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever. It was twice nominated for the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Game Show, in 1976 and 1977; the Match Game premiered on December 31, 1962. Gene Rayburn was Johnny Olson served as announcer; the show was taped in Studio 8H at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, NBC's largest New York studio, which since 1975 has housed Saturday Night Live, among other shows. A team scored 25 points if two teammates matched answers or 50 points if all three contestants matched; the first team to score 100 points won $100 and played the audience match, which featured three survey questions.
Each contestant who agreed with the most popular answer to a question earned the team $50, for a possible total of $450. The questions used in the game were pedestrian in nature: "Name a kind of muffin," "Write down one of the words to'Row, Row Your Boat' other than'Row,"Your,' or'Boat,'" or "John loves his _____." The humor in the original series came from the panelists' reactions to the other answers. In 1963, NBC cancelled the series with six weeks left to be recorded. Question writer Dick DeBartolo came up with a funnier set of questions, like "Mary likes to pour gravy all over John's _____," and submitted it to Mark Goodson. With the knowledge that the show couldn't be cancelled again, Goodson gave the go-ahead for the more risqué-sounding questions – a decision that caused a significant boost in ratings and an "un-cancellation" by NBC; the Match Game won its time slot from 1963 to 1966 and again from April 1967 to July 1968, with its ratings allowing it to finish third among all network daytime games for the 1963–64 and 1967–68 seasons.
NBC occasionally used special episodes of the series as a gap-filling program in prime time if one of its movies had an irregular time slot. Although the series still did well in the ratings, it was cancelled in 1969 along with other games in a major daytime programming overhaul, being replaced by Letters to Laugh-In which, although a spin-off of the popular prime time series Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, ended in just three months, on December 26; the Match Game continued through September 26, 1969, on NBC for 1,760 episodes, airing at 4:00 p.m. Eastern, running 25 minutes due to a five minute newscast slot. Since Olson split time between New York and Miami to announce The Jackie Gleason Show, one of the network's New York staff announcers filled in for Olson when he could not attend a broadcast. On March 27, 1967, the show added a "telephone match" game, in which a home viewer and a studio audience member attempted to match a simple fill-in-the-blank question, similar to the 1970s' "head-to-head match".
A successful match won a jackpot, which increased by $100 per day until won. Few episodes of the 1960s The Match Game survive. In the early 1970s, CBS vice president Fred Silverman began overhauling the network's programming as part of what has colloquially become known as the rural purge; as part of this overhaul, the network reintroduced game shows beginning in 1972. One of the first new offerings was The New Price Is Right, a radically overhauled version of the 1950s game show The Price Is Right; the success of The New Price Is Right prompted Silverman to commission more game shows. In the summer of 1973, Mark Goodson and Bill Todman took a similar approach in adapting The Match Game by reworking the show, moving it to Los Angeles, adding more celebriti
Lucille Désirée Ball was an American actress, model, entertainment studio executive and producer. She was the star of the self-produced sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy, Life with Lucy, as well as comedy television specials aired under the title The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour. Ball's career began in 1929. Shortly thereafter, she began her performing career on Broadway using the stage names Diane Belmont and Dianne Belmont, she appeared in several minor film roles in the 1930s and 1940s as a contract player for RKO Radio Pictures, being cast as a chorus girl or in similar roles. During this time, she met Cuban bandleader Desi Arnaz, the two eloped in November 1940. In the 1950s, Ball ventured into television. In 1951, she and Arnaz created the sitcom I Love Lucy, a series that became one of the most beloved programs in television history; the same year, Ball gave birth to their first child, Lucie Arnaz, followed by Desi Arnaz Jr. in 1953. Ball and Arnaz divorced in May 1960, she married comedian Gary Morton in 1961.
Following the end of I Love Lucy, Ball would go on to appear in a Broadway musical, for a year from 1960 to 1961, although the show received lukewarm reviews and had to be shut down permanently when Ball became ill for a brief time. After Wildcat, Ball reunited with I Love Lucy co-star Vivian Vance for the aforementioned Lucy Show, which Vance departed in 1965 but, to continue for three years with longtime friend of Ball's Gale Gordon who had a recurring role on the program. In 1962, Ball became the first woman to run a major television studio, Desilu Productions, which produced many popular television series, including Mission: Impossible and Star Trek. Ball did not back away from acting completely. In 1985, Ball took on a dramatic role in Stone Pillow; the next year she starred in Life with Lucy. She appeared in film and television roles for the rest of her career until her death in April 1989 from an abdominal aortic dissection at the age of 77. Ball was nominated for 13 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning four times.
In 1960, she received two stars for her work in television on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1977, Ball was among the first recipients of the Women in Film Crystal Award, she was the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1979, was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1984, received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Kennedy Center Honors in 1986, the Governors Award from the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in 1989. Born at 69 Stewart Avenue, New York, Lucille Désirée Ball was the daughter of Henry Durrell Ball and Désirée "DeDe" Evelyn Ball, her family lived in Wyandotte, for a time. She sometimes claimed that she had been born in Butte, where her grandparents had lived. A number of magazines reported inaccurately that she had decided that Montana was a more romantic place to be born than New York and repeated a fantasy of a "western childhood"; however her father had moved the family to Anaconda for his work, where they lived among other places. Her family belonged to the Baptist church.
Her ancestors were English, but a few were Scottish and Irish. Some were among the earliest settlers in the Thirteen Colonies, including Elder John Crandall of Westerly, Rhode Island, Edmund Rice, an early emigrant from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In February 1915, when Lucille was three years old, her 27-year-old father died of typhoid fever. Henry Ball was a lineman for Bell Telephone Company and was transferred; the family had moved from Jamestown to Anaconda, to Trenton, New Jersey. At the time of Henry's death, DeDe Ball was pregnant with Frederick. Ball recalled little from the day her father died, but remembered a bird getting trapped in the house. From that day forward, she suffered from ornithophobia. After Ball's father died, her mother returned to New York. Ball and her brother, Fred Henry Ball, were raised by their mother and maternal grandparents in Celoron, New York, a summer resort village on Lake Chautauqua, 2.5 miles west of downtown Jamestown. Lucy loved one of the best amusement areas in the United States at that time.
Its boardwalk had a ramp to the lake that served as a children's slide, the Pier Ballroom, a roller-coaster, a bandstand, a stage where vaudeville concerts and regular theatrical shows were presented which made Celoron Park a popular resort. Four years after Henry Ball's death, DeDe Ball married Edward Peterson. While her mother and stepfather looked for work in another city, Peterson's parents cared for her and her brother. Ball's stepgrandparents were a puritanical Swedish couple who banished all mirrors from the house except one over the bathroom sink; when the young Ball was caught admiring herself in it, she was chastised for being vain. This period of time affected Ball so that, in life, she said that it lasted seven or eight years. Peterson was a Shriner; when his organization needed female entertainers for the chorus line of their next show, he encouraged his 12-year-old stepdaughter to audition. While Ball was onstage, she realized performing was a great way to gain recognition, her appetite for recognition was awakened at an early age.
In 1927, her family suffered misfortune. Their house and furnishings were lost to settle a financial legal judgment after a neighborhood boy was accidentally shot and paralyzed by someone target shooting in their yard under the supervision of Ball's grandfather; the family subsequently moved i
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
Los Angeles Dodgers
The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. Established in 1883 in Brooklyn, New York, the team moved to Los Angeles before the 1958 season, they played for four seasons at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before moving to their current home of Dodger Stadium in 1962. The Dodgers as a franchise have won 23 National League pennants. 11 NL MVP award winners have played for the Dodgers. The team has produced 18 Rookie of the Year Award winners, twice as many as the next closest team, including four consecutive from 1979 to 1982 and five consecutive from 1992 to 1996. In the early 20th century, the team known as the Robins, won league pennants in 1916 and 1920, losing the World Series both times, first to Boston and Cleveland. In the 1930s, the team changed its name to the Dodgers, named after the Brooklyn pedestrians who dodged the streetcars in the city.
In 1941, the Dodgers captured their third National League pennant, only to lose to the New York Yankees. This marked the onset of the Dodgers–Yankees rivalry, as the Dodgers would face them in their next six World Series appearances. Led by Jackie Robinson, the first black Major League Baseball player of the modern era. Following the 1957 season the team left Brooklyn. In just their second season in Los Angeles, the Dodgers won their second World Series title, beating the Chicago White Sox in six games in 1959. Spearheaded by the dominant pitching style of Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale, the Dodgers captured three pennants in the 1960s and won two more World Series titles, sweeping the Yankees in four games in 1963, edging the Minnesota Twins in seven in 1965; the 1963 sweep was their second victory against the Yankees, their first against them as a Los Angeles team. The Dodgers won four more pennants in 1966, 1974, 1977 and 1978, but lost in each World Series appearance, they went on to win the World Series again in 1981, thanks in part to pitching sensation Fernando Valenzuela.
The early 1980s were affectionately dubbed "Fernandomania." In 1988, another pitching hero, Orel Hershiser, again led them to a World Series victory, aided by one of the most memorable home runs of all time, by their injured star outfielder Kirk Gibson coming off the bench to pinch hit with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning of game 1, in his only appearance of the series. The Dodgers won the pennant in 2017 and 2018, but lost the World Series to the Houston Astros and Boston Red Sox respectively; the Dodgers share a fierce rivalry with the San Francisco Giants, the oldest rivalry in baseball, dating back to when the two franchises played in New York City. Both teams moved west for the 1958 season; the Brooklyn Dodgers and Los Angeles Dodgers have collectively appeared in the World Series 20 times, while the New York Giants and San Francisco Giants have collectively appeared 20 times. The Giants have won two more World Series. Although the two franchises have enjoyed near equal success, the city rivalries are rather lopsided and in both cases, a team's championships have predated to the other's first one in that particular location.
When the two teams were based in New York, the Giants won five World Series championships, the Dodgers one. After the move to California, the Dodgers have won five in Los Angeles, the Giants have won three in San Francisco; the Dodgers were founded in 1883 as the Brooklyn Atlantics, taking the name of a defunct team that had played in Brooklyn before them. The team joined the American Association in 1884 and won the AA championship in 1889 before joining the National League in 1890, they promptly won the NL Championship their first year in the League. The team was known alternatively as the Bridegrooms, Superbas and Trolley Dodgers before becoming the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1930s. In Brooklyn, the Dodgers won the NL pennant several times and the World Series in 1955. After moving to Los Angeles, the team won National League pennants in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1974, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1988, 2017, 2018, with World Series championships in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1981 and 1988. In all, the Dodgers have appeared in 11 in Los Angeles.
For most of the first half of the 20th century, no Major League Baseball team employed an African American player. Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play for a Major League Baseball team when he played his first major league game on April 15, 1947, as a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers; this was due to general manager Branch Rickey's efforts. The religious Rickey's motivation appears to have been moral, although business considerations were a factor. Rickey was a member of The Methodist Church, the antecedent denomination to The United Methodist Church of today, a strong advocate for social justice and active in the American Civil Rights Movement; this event was the harbinger of the integration of professional sports in the United States, the concomitant demise of the Negro Leagues, is regarded as a key moment in the history of the American Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was an exceptional player, a speed
North Hollywood, Los Angeles
North Hollywood is a neighborhood located in the east San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles. It is home to the NoHo Arts District and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, it has seven public and eight private schools. There is a recreation center; the neighborhood is an important transportation center. North Hollywood was established by the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company in 1887, it was first named Toluca before being renamed Lankershim in 1896 and North Hollywood in 1927. The 2000 U. S. census counted 77,848 residents in the 5.87-square-mile North Hollywood neighborhood—or 13,264 people per square mile, about an average population density for the city but among the highest for the county. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 87,241. In 2000 the median age for residents was 30, considered an average age for city and county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles. The breakdown was Latinos, 57.7%.
Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 46.4% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $42,791, considered average for the city but low for the county. The percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county. Renters occupied 75.4% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 24.6%. North Hollywood is bordered on the north on the northeast and east by Burbank. Toluca Lake borders North Hollywood on the southeast and south, Studio City abuts it on the southwest, it is flanked by Valley Glen on the west. It is not contiguous with Hollywood, being separated by other parts of the San Fernando Valley and the Hollywood Hills. North Hollywood displays a hot summer Mediterranean Climate North Hollywood was once part of the vast landholdings of the Mission San Fernando Rey de España, confiscated by the government during the Mexican period of rule.
A group of investors assembled as the San Fernando Farm Homestead Association purchased the southern half of the Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. The leading investor was Isaac Lankershim, a Northern California stockman and grain farmer, impressed by the Valley's wild oats and proposed to raise sheep on the property. In 1873, Isaac Lankershim's son and future son-in-law, James Boon Lankershim and Isaac Newton Van Nuys, moved to the San Ferndando Valley and took over management of the property. Van Nuys thought the property could profitably grow wheat using the dryland farming technique developed on the Great Plains and leased land from the Association to test his theories. In time, the Lankershim property, under its third name, the Los Angeles Farming and Milling Company, would become the world's largest wheat-growing empire. In October 1887, J. B. Lankershim and eight other developers organized the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, purchasing 12,000 acres north of the Cahuenga Pass from the Lankershim Farming and Milling Company.
Lankershim established a townsite which the residents named Toluca along the old road from Cahuenga Pass to San Fernando. On April 1, 1888, they offered ready-made small farms for sale planted with deep-rooted deciduous fruit and nut trees—mostly peaches, pears and walnuts—that could survive the rainless summers of the Valley by relying on the high water table along the Tujunga Wash rather than surface irrigation; the land boom of the 1880s went bust by the 1890s, but despite another brutal drought cycle in the late 1890s, the fruit and nut farmers remained solvent. The Toluca Fruit Growers Association was formed in 1894; the next year the Southern Pacific opened a branch line slanting northwest across the Valley to Chatsworth. The Chatsworth Limited made one freight stop a day at Toluca, though the depot bore the new name of Lankershim. With the post office across the street being called Toluca, controversy over the town's name continued, the local ranchers used to quip, "Ship the merchandise to Lankershim, but bill it to Toluca."
In 1896, under pressure from Lankershim, the post office at Toluca was renamed "Lankershim" after his father, although the new name of the town would not be recognized until 1905. By 1903, the area was known as "The Home of the Peach". In 1912, the area's major employer, the Bonner Fruit Company, was canning over a million tons of peaches and other fruits; when the Los Angeles Aqueduct opened in 1913, Valley farmers offered to buy the surplus water, but the federal legislation that enabled the construction of the aqueduct prohibited Los Angeles from selling the water outside of the city limits. At first, resistance to the real-estate development and downtown business interests of Los Angeles remained strong enough to keep the small farmers unified in opposition to annexation. However, the fruit packing company interests were taken over by the Los Angeles interests; the two conspired to decrease prices and mitigate the farmers' profit margins, making their continued existence tenuous. When droughts hit the valley again, rather than face foreclosure, the most vulnerable farmers agreed to mortgage their holdings to the fruit packing company and banks in Los Angeles for the immediate future and vote on annexation.
West Lankershim agreed to be annexed to the City of Los Angeles in 1919, Lankershim proper in 1923. Much of the promised water delivery was withheld, many of the ranchers one