Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
Amaravati is the de facto capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The planned city is located on the southern banks of the Krishna river in Guntur district, within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, being built on a 217 sq km riverfront designed to have 51% of green spaces and 10% of water bodies; the word "Amaravati" derives from the historical Amaravathi village, the ancient capital of the Satavahana dynasty. The foundation stone was laid on 22 October 2015, at Uddandarayunipalem area by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi; the metropolitan area of Guntur and Vijayawada are the major conurbations of Amaravati. Amaravati is being constructed to serve as the new capital city of Andhra Pradesh, after Telangana was split off as a separate state in 2014; the former capital city, Hyderabad, is now located inside Telangana. A new capital city had to be either assigned or constructed on the remaining territory of Andhra Pradesh and Amaravati was chosen as that. For a transitional period of no more than 10 years, Hyderabad could continue to serve as the residence of Andhra Pradesh's official state institutions.
As of October 2016, the majority of departments and officials of the Andhra Pradesh State Government are now functioning from interim facilities located in the Velagapudi area of Amaravati, with only a skeleton staff remaining behind in Hyderabad. Since April 2016, the office of the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh started its operations from Velagapudi; the Andhra Pradesh Legislature remained in Hyderabad until March 2017, when it relocated to newly constructed interim legislative buildings in Velagapudi. The word Amaravati translates as the place for immortals, it was called Dhanyakataka. The present capital area has its own historical significance of having recorded its first legislation 2,200 years ago; the present-day capital region includes the ancient Amaravati. The area has been ruled by the Mauryas, Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Telugu Cholas, Delhi Sultanate, Musunuri Nayaks, Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda and Mughal Empire successively before the founding of the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1724.
It was ceded to France in 1750 but was captured by England in 1759. Guntur returned to the Nizamate in 1768 but was ceded to England again in 1788, it was occupied by Hyder Ali. It was ruled by Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu, it was part of Madras Presidency during the British colonial period. As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, Hyderabad became the capital of the newly formed state of Telangana, post bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh. However, Hyderabad would remain as the joint capital of both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. Hence, Amaravati is being built to serve as the capital of Andhra Pradesh; the foundation for the city was laid at Uddandarayunipalem on 22 October 2015. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. Naidu stated. Among the innovative features on the drawing board are navigation canals around the city and connecting an island in the river Krishna and moreover government has envisaged an investment needed of USD 2-4 trillion for the development of the greenfield capital cityAmaravati, being built on a 217 sq km open field in Guntur district, is being designed to have 51% of green spaces and 10% of water bodies, with a plan to house some of the most iconic buildings there.
The city is being modelled on Singapore, with the masterplan being prepared by two Singapore government-appointed consultants. Other international consultants and architects will be roped in to give it an international flavour; the city is being built on the banks of the Krishna River. The city will be 40 kilometres south-west of Vijayawada and 32 kilometres north of Guntur. Amaravati is an Urban Notified Area and its urban development and planning activities are undertaken by the Amaravati Development Corporation Limited and Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority; the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat at Velagapudi is the administrative block for the employees of the state government. The APCRDA has its jurisdiction over the city and is the conurbation covering Andhra Pradesh Capital Region; the capital city is spread over an area of 217.23 km2, will comprise villages from three mandals viz. Mangalagiri and Tadepalle; the seed capital is spread over an area of 16.94 km2. The table below lists the identified villages and hamlets under their respective mandals, which became a part of the capital city.
Notes: M – municipality The names in brackets are the hamlet villages of the respective settlement. The residents of Amaravati are Telugu speaking people. Telugu is the official language of the city. Hindus form a large majority. There are Muslim and Buddhist communities. There is the iconic Amaralingeswara Swamy Temple, the Amaravati Mahachaitya in the Amaravati heritage complex; the State government has initiated the Singapore-based Ascendas-Singbridge and Sembcorp Development consortium for the capital city construction. The new capital city’s infrastructure will be developed in 7–8 years in phases, at an estimated cost of ₹33,000 crore. ₹7,500 crore f
Supreme Court of Singapore
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Singapore is one of the two tiers of the court system in Singapore, the other tier being the State Courts. The Supreme Court consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court and hears both civil and criminal matters; the Court of Appeal hears both criminal appeals from the High Court. The Court of Appeal may decide a point of law reserved for its decision by the High Court, as well as any point of law of public interest arising in the course of an appeal from a subordinate court to the High Court, reserved by the High Court for the decision of the Court of Appeal; the High Court's jurisdiction is as follows: a civil case is commenced in the High Court if the subject matter of the claim exceeds S$250,000. Probate matters are dealt with in the High Court if the value of the estate exceeds S$3 million or if the case involves the resealing of a foreign grant. In addition, ancillary matters in family proceedings involving assets of S$1.5 million or above are heard in the High Court.
Criminal cases involving offences which carry the death penalty and those punishable with imprisonment for a term exceeding ten years, are prosecuted in the High Court. Non-bailable offences are tried in the High Court; as a rule of thumb, the High Court in Singapore has inherent jurisdiction to try all matters within Singapore. The earliest predecessor of the Supreme Court was the Court of Judicature of Prince of Wales' Island and Malacca, established by the Second Charter of Justice, issued by the Crown as letters patent dated 27 November 1826; the Court was presided over by the Governor of the Straits Settlements and Resident Councillor of the settlement where the court was to be held, another judge called the Recorder. The Third Charter of Justice of 12 August 1855 reorganized the Court, providing the Straits Settlements with two Recorders, one for Prince of Wales' Island and the other for Singapore and Malacca. Following the reconstitution of the Straits Settlements as a Crown colony with effect from 1 April 1867, the Court of Judicature was replaced by the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements.
The Governor and Resident Councillors ceased to be judges of the Court. Further changes to the Court's constitution were made in 1873, it now consisted of two divisions – the Chief Justice and the Senior Puisne Judge formed the Singapore and Malacca division of the Court, while the Judge of Penang and the Junior Puisne Judge formed the Penang division. The Supreme Court received jurisdiction to sit as a Court of Appeal in civil matters. In 1878 the jurisdiction and residence of judges was made more flexible, thus impliedly abolishing the geographical division of the Supreme Court. Appeals from decisions of the Supreme Court lay first to the Court of Appeal and to the Queen-in-Council, the latter appeals being heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council; as a result of legislation passed in 1885, the Supreme Court consisted of the Chief Justice and three puisne judges. The Court was altered in 1907, it now had two divisions, one exercising original civil and criminal jurisdiction and the other appellate civil and criminal jurisdiction.
During the Japanese occupation of Singapore, all the courts that had operated under the British were replaced by new courts established by the Japanese Military Administration. The Syonan Koto-Hoin was formed on 29 May 1942. Following the end of World War II, the courts that had existed before the war were restored. There was no change in the judicial system when the Straits Settlements were dissolved in 1946, Singapore became a crown colony in its own right, except that the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements became known as the Supreme Court of Singapore. Singapore gained independence from the United Kingdom through merger with Malaysia in 1963; the judicial power of Malaysia was vested in a Federal Court, a High Court in Malaya, a High Court in Borneo, a High Court in Singapore. Appeals lay from the High Court in Singapore to the Federal Court in Kuala Lumpur, to the Privy Council; the merger did not last: in 1965 Singapore left the Federation of Malaysia and became an independent republic.
However, the High Court remained part of the Federal Court structure until 1969, when Singapore enacted the Supreme Court of Judicature Act to regularize the judicial system. Coming into force on 9 January 1970, the Act declared that the Supreme Court of Singapore now consisted of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeal and the High Court; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council remained Singapore's highest appellate court until a permanent Court of Appeal for both civil and criminal appeals was established. Appeals to the Privy Council were abolished in 1994; the first woman to serve as a supreme court justice is Lai Siu Chiu, sworn in on 30 April 1994. Article 93 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore vests the judicial power of Singapore in the Supreme Court and the Subordinate Courts; the Chief Justice is the head of the judiciary. The Supreme Court is a superior court of record, it is superior in the sense that its jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases is unlimited compared to the Subordinate Courts, it hears appeals from these courts.
As a court of record, it keeps a perpetual record of its proceedings. The Court of Appeal is the upper division of the lower one being the High Court; the Supreme Court Bench consists of the Chief Justice, the Judges of Appeal, Judges and Judicial Commissioners of the High Court. All members of the Bench ar
Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar; the site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and contained the King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, the square did not open until 1844; the 169-foot Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999; the square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday in 1887, the culmination of the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, campaigns against climate change.
A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve, it was well known for its feral pigeons until their removals in the early 21st century. The square is named after the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, southwest Spain, although it was not named as such until 1835; the name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar or Taraf al-Gharb. Trafalgar Square is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown and managed by the Greater London Authority, while Westminster City Council owns the roads around the square, including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace; the square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square form part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London.
The square was surrounded by a one-way traffic system, but works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic. Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939 and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer. At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson, who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar. Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east. On the east is South Africa House, facing it across the square is Canada House. To the south west is The Mall, which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east. Charing Cross Road passes between the church. London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square; the lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line, rerouted to Westminster in 1999.
Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle and Bakerloo lines, Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines. London bus routes 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453 pass through Trafalgar Square. A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital. Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial. Among the findings were the remains of cave lion, straight-tusked elephant and hippopotamus; the site of Trafalgar Square has been a significant location since the 13th century. During Edward I's reign, the area was the site of the King's Mews, running north from the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall coming north from Westminster. From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand; the name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting.
After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace. After 1732, the King's Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent, its site is occupied by the National Gallery. In 1826 the Commissioners of H. M. Woods and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, as far east as St Martin's Lane, his plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy. The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields; the Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after. Nash died; the square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830.
Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the Fre
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate and research-based public university specialising in science, engineering and management. Cranfield was founded as the College of Aeronautics in 1946. Through the 1950s and 1960s, the development of many aspects of aircraft research and design led to considerable growth and diversification into other areas such as manufacturing and management. In 1967, the Cranfield School of Management was founded. In 1969, the College of Aeronautics became The Cranfield Institute of Technology incorporated by Royal Charter and gained degree awarding powers and became a university in its own right. In 1993, it adopted its current name. Cranfield University has two campuses: the main campus is at Cranfield and the second is at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom at Shrivenham, southwest Oxfordshire; the main campus is unique in the United Kingdom and Europe for having a semi-operational airport on campus. Cranfield University operates the airport; the airport facilities are used by Cranfield University's own aircraft in the course of aerospace teaching and research.
Cranfield University's motto,'post nubes lux', means'after clouds light'. It is depicted on the Cranfield University coat of arms, introduced when the University was awarded its Royal Charter. Cranfield University was formed in 1946 as the College of Aeronautics, on the Royal Air Force base of RAF Cranfield. A major role was played in the development of the college by Roxbee Cox Lord Kings Norton, appointed to be the first governor of the college in 1945 and served as vice-chair and chair of the board, he led the drive for the college to diversify, with the Cranfield University School of Management being established in 1967, petitioned for a royal charter and degree awarding powers. When these were granted in 1969, he became the first chancellor of the Cranfield Institute of Technology, serving until 1997; the Cranfield Institute of Technology was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1969, giving the institution its own degree-awarding powers and making it a full university in its own right. In 1975 the National College of Agricultural Engineering, founded in 1963 at Silsoe, was merged with Cranfield and run as Silsoe College.
An academic partnership with the Royal Military College of Science at Shrivenham was formed in 1984. RMCS, whose roots can be traced back to 1772, is now a part of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom and now forms the Defence College of Management and Technology, known as'DCMT' and from 2009 as "Cranfield Defence and Security". RMCS became wholly postgraduate in c.2007 with undergraduate courses moved elsewhere. In 1993 the institution's Royal Charter was amended changing its name to Cranfield University. A decade in 2003, Cranfield became wholly postgraduate and the Shrivenham site admitted its last undergraduates. In 2009 Silsoe College was closed and its activities were relocated to the main campus at Cranfield. Cranfield campus is 50 miles north of central London and adjacent to the village of Cranfield, Bedfordshire; the nearest large towns are Milton Keynes and Bedford, the centres of which are both about 8 miles away. Cambridge is about 30 miles east. Shrivenham is about 73 miles west of London, adjacent to Shrivenham village, 7 miles from the centre of the nearest town and around 23 miles from Oxford.
The Cranfield campus sits within the Cambridge – Milton Keynes – Oxford corridor where there are plans to link these cities and stimulate economic growth. There are plans for a tram system between Milton Keynes and Cranfield University, although this is still at an early planning stage. There are a number of companies located on the Cranfield University Technology Park ranging from large international companies to small start-ups. Major companies on the park include: The Nissan Technical Centre Europe, which designs and develops cars for the European market; the NTC Europe facility occupies 19,700 square metres of the Technology Park, representing an investment of £46m by Nissan. Innovation Centre: the Technology Park is the location for a large number of smaller companies. Prior to 2016: Trafficmaster plc occupied a 10-acre site for its European Headquarters. A leading company in telematics, Trafficmaster's advanced technology enables cars and roads to be used more efficiently; the academic schools are: School of Aerospace and Manufacturing, known as SATM, incorporating the original College of Aeronautics, has a wide range of experimental research facilities for masters and doctoral students and commercial clients.
1969–1997: Harold Roxbee Cox, Lord Kings Norton 1998–2010: Richard Vincent, Lord Vincent of Coleshill 2010–present: Baroness Young of Old Scone 1970–1989: Henry Chilver, Lord Chilver 1989–2006: Frank Robinson Hartley 2006–2013: Sir John O'Reilly 2013–present: Sir Peter Gregson Cranfield University’s specialist areas of focus, or Cranfield themes, aims to bring a range of academic disciplines together in order to tackle the grand challenges facing the world within a range of industrial and commercial sectors. These are Water, Agrifood and Power, Manufacturing, Transport Systems and Security and Business/Management. Within Cranfield University’s postgraduate environment, the academic disciplines work together, blending as they do in the commercial