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Found object

Found object is a loan translation from the French objet trouvé, describing art created from undisguised, but modified, objects or products that are not considered materials from which art is made because they have a non-art function. Pablo Picasso first publicly utilized the idea when he pasted a printed image of chair caning onto his painting titled Still Life with Chair Caning. Marcel Duchamp is thought to have perfected the concept several years when he made a series of ready-mades, consisting of unaltered everyday objects selected by Duchamp and designated as art; the most famous example is Fountain, a standard urinal purchased from a hardware store and displayed on a pedestal, resting on its side. In its strictest sense the term "ready-made" is applied to works produced by Marcel Duchamp, who borrowed the term from the clothing industry while living in New York, to works dating from 1913 to 1921. Found objects derive their identity as art from the designation placed upon them by the artist and from the social history that comes with the object.

This may be indicated by either its anonymous wear and tear or by its recognizability as a consumer icon. The context into which it is placed is a relevant factor; the idea of dignifying commonplace objects in this way was a shocking challenge to the accepted distinction between what was considered art as opposed to not art. Although it may now be accepted in the art world as a viable practice, it continues to arouse questioning, as with the Tate Gallery's Turner Prize exhibition of Tracey Emin's My Bed, which consisted of a transposition of her unmade and disheveled bed, surrounded by shed clothing and other bedroom detritus, directly from her bedroom to the Tate. In this sense the artist gives the audience a stage to contemplate an object; as such, found objects can prompt philosophical reflection in the observer ranging from disgust to indifference to nostalgia to empathy. As an art form, found objects tend to include the artist's output—at the least an idea about it, i.e. the artist's designation of the object as art—which is nearly always reinforced with a title.

There is some degree of modification of the found object, although not always to the extent that it cannot be recognized, as is the case with ready-mades. Recent critical theory, would argue that the mere designation and relocation of any object, ready-mades included, constitutes a modification of the object because it changes our perception of its utility, its lifespan, or its status. Marcel Duchamp coined the term ready-made in 1915 to describe a common object, selected and not materially altered in any way. Duchamp assembled Bicycle Wheel in 1913 by attaching a common front wheel and fork to the seat of a common stool; this was not long after his Nude Descending a Staircase was attracting the attention of critics at the International Exhibition of Modern Art. In 1917, Fountain, a urinal signed with the pseudonym "R. Mutt", attributed to Duchamp, confounded the art world. In the same year, Duchamp indicated in a letter to his sister, Suzanne Duchamp, that a female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work.

As he writes: "One of my female friends who had adopted the pseudonym Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture." Irene Gammel argues that the piece is more in line with the scatological aesthetics of Duchamp's friend, the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, than Duchamp's. The other possible, more probable, "female friend" is Louise Norton, who contributed an essay to The Blind Man discussing Fountain. Norton, who had separated from her husband, was living at the time in an apartment owned by her parents at 110 West 88th Street in New York City, this address is discernible on the paper entry ticket attached to the object, as seen in Stieglitz's photograph. Research by Rhonda Roland Shearer indicates. Exhaustive research of mundane items like snow shovels and bottle racks in use at the time failed to reveal identical matches; the urinal, upon close inspection, is non-functional. However, there are accounts of Walter Arensberg and Joseph Stella being with Duchamp when he purchased the original Fountain at J. L. Mott Iron Works.

The use of found objects was taken up by the Dada movement, being used by Man Ray and Francis Picabia who combined it with traditional art by sticking combs onto a painting to represent hair. A well-known work by Man Ray is Gift, an iron with nails sticking out from its flat underside, thus rendering it useless. Jose de Creeft began making large-scale assemblages in Paris, such as Picador, made of scrap metal and other materials; the combination of several found. Another such example is Marcel Duchamp's Why Not Sneeze, Rose Sélavy?, consisting of a small birdcage containing a thermometer, 151 marble cubes resembling sugar cubes. By the time of the Surrealist Exhibition of Objects in 1936 a whole range of sub-classifications had been devised—including found objects, ready-made objects, perturbed objects, mathematical objects, natural objects, interpreted natural objects, incorporated natural objects, Oceanic objects, American objects and Surrealist objects. At this time Surrealist leader, André Breton, defined ready-mades as "manufactured objects raised to the dignity of works of art through the choice of the artist".

In the 1960s found objects were present in both the Fluxus

St. Andrew's Church, Kraków

The Church of St. Andrew in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland located at Grodzka Street, is a historical Romanesque church built between 1079 and 1098 by a medieval Polish statesman Palatine Sieciech, it is a rare surviving example of the European fortress church used for defensive purposes. Built in Romanesque style, it is one of the oldest buildings in Kraków and one of the best-preserved Romanesque buildings in Poland, it was the only church in Kraków to withstand the Mongol attack of 1241. Along the lower part of the broader section of its façade are small openings that served as defensive windows at a time when the church was a place of refuge from military assaults. From 1320 it was used by the Religious Order of Poor Clares; the building has been renovated many times. The present Baroque interiors have decorations by Baltazar Fontana, paintings by Karol Dankwart and gilded altars; the Baroque domes atop the octagonal towers were added in 1639. The church is the best preserved example of early Romanesque architecture in the city of Kraków and in Poland.

The massive building was constructed from stone blocks towards the end of the 11th century, fulfilled important defensive functions. The two octagonal looking towers, with the doubled arcade windows are perfect examples and characteristic of Romanesque architecture, they extend high over the body of the church. The apse decorated with a modest arcade freeze and numerous details maintain the same character; the structure was expanded and strengthened up until the mid-12th century. The church withstood the Tatar-Mongol raid of 1241, providing shelter for the majority of residents and inhabitants of the city. At that time, it was – quite rightly – called “the lower castle” to be distinguished from the nearby “upper” standing on top of the Wawel Hill, it was sometimes referred to as the second church of Kraków after the Wawel Cathedral. In 1320, the church was entrusted to the Order of Poor Clares, whose convent was built south of the church; the brick, Gothic oratorio that today plays the role of the sacristy dates back to that period.

The baroque decoration of the interior, with rich stucco decoration by Italian painter and architect Baldassare "Baltazar" Fontana, comes from the refurbishment that took place after 1700, while the construction of the high altar, attributed to Francesco Placidi was initiated in the upcoming years. Attention is drawn to the pulpit in the shape of a boat, the musical choir with 18th-century organ in the chancel, decorated in the rococo manner; the baroque steeples added in 1639 contrast with the severity of the Romanesque form of the church. St. Andrew's Church in Kraków. Virtual reconstruction "Kościół św. Andrzeja w Krakowie." Short history and photographs Media related to Saint Andrew church in Kraków at Wikimedia Commons

Mutio Vitelleschi

Rev. Mutio Vitelleschi, S. J. was the sixth Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was the son of a noble Roman family. Although he was destined for a general ecclesiastical career, a growing desire to enter the Society of Jesus culminated in his taking private vows to enter the novitiate, his parents opposed this because of the promise not to seek ecclesiastical office or status that Jesuits make. However he was able to receive permission from Pope Gregory XIII, a strong supporter of the Jesuits, a concession to enter the novitiate against his family's will. Vitelleschi taught logic in 1588–1589, natural philosophy in 1589–1590, metaphysics in 1590–15891, his lectures on natural philosophy include Physics, De caelo, De generatione, Meteorology. After entering the novitiate on 15 August 1583, he taught in the Roman College, was appointed rector of the English College, enjoying two stints, he was Provincial of the Neapolitan Province, the Roman Province. Apart from his fame as a good teacher and orator, the only historical details that we have from these times are a sermon that he delivered to Pope Gregory, on Good Friday in 1590, on the passion of Christ.

He is portrayed positively as a minor figure in the fictional 1632 series known as the 1632-verse or Ring of Fire series, an alternate history book series, created co-written, coordinated by historian Eric Flint. Wallace, William A. Galileo's Early Notebooks: The Physical Questions, pp. 18–19. Muzio Vitelleschi in the Historical Archives of the Pontifical Gregorian University

Mingus at Monterey

Mingus at Monterey is a live album by jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus recorded in 1964 at the Monterey Jazz Festival and released on Mingus's short-lived mail-order Jazz Workshop label but subsequently released on other labels. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow awarded the album 4½ stars stating "One of the highpoints of Charles Mingus's career was his appearance at the 1964 Monterey Jazz Festival... it showcases the bassist/composer/bandleader at the peak of his powers". All compositions by Charles Mingus except as indicated"Duke Ellington Medley: I've Got It Bad" - 4:14 "Duke Ellington Medley: In a Sentimental Mood" - 1:46 "Duke Ellington Medley: All Too Soon" - 1:53 "Duke Ellington Medley: Mood Indigo" - 0:59 "Duke Ellington Medley: Sophisticated Lady" - 1:46 "Duke Ellington Medley: A Train" - 13:54 "Orange Was the Color of Her Dress, Then Blue Silk" - 13:04 "Meditations on Integration" - 22:48Recorded at the Monterey Jazz Festival in California on September 20, 1964 Charles Mingus - bass, piano Lonnie Hillyer - trumpet Charles McPherson - alto saxophone Jaki Byard - piano Dannie Richmond - drums Bobby Bryant, Melvin Moore - trumpet Lou Blackburn - trombone Red Callender - tuba Buddy Collette - flute, alto saxophone Jack Nimitz - bass clarinet, baritone saxophone John Handy - tenor saxophone

Real Audiencia of Santiago

The Royal Audiencia of Santiago was an Audiencia Real or royal law court that functioned in Santiago de Chile during the Spanish colonial period. This body heard both criminal cases, it was founded during the 17th century and abolished in 1818. Law XII of Title XV of Book II of the Recopilación de Leyes de las Indias of 1680—which reproduces Philip IV's decree of February 17, 1609—describes the limits and functions of the Audiencia. In the city of Santiago de Chile shall reside another Royal Audiencia and Chancellery of ours, with a president-governor-captain general, and we order that said president-governor-captain general govern and administer its government in all matters and by all means, that said Audiencia, nor any other minister interfere in this, except our Viceroy of Peru, in the cases, which comply with the laws in this book and as permitted by our orders, that said president do not intervene in matters of justice, leave the oidores to decree in them and that all sign that which they decree, sentence or dispatch.

The Province of Cuyo was transferred to the Audiencia of Buenos Aires, when the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in the late eighteenth century. The Audiencia continued to function after the establishment of the First Government Junta of the Kingdom of Chile on September 18, 1810, until the Figueroa mutiny of April 1, 1811. In fact, its Regent, Fernando Márquez de la Plata, was elected as one of the junta's members; the Figueroa uprising provided a reason to dissolve the Audiencia, seen by many as a bastion of royalism, it was replaced by a Tribunal de Apelaciones or Appeals Court. With the temporary return of royalists to power after the Battle of Rancagua, the body was reconstituted by the new Governor-Captain General, Mariano Osorio, it functioned until 1818, when it was shut down by the independent government of Bernardo O'Higgins, again replaced by a new appeals court, this time called the Cámara de Apelaciones. This was in turn the ancestor of today's Chilean Appeals Court in Santiago.

Barrientos Grandon, Javier: «Las reformas de Carlos III y la Real Audiencia de Santiago», en Temas de Derecho de la Universidad Gabriela Mistral, Nº 2. P. 23-46 Barrientos Grandon, Javier: «La Real Audiencia de Concepción », en Revista de estudios histórico-jurídicos de la Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, vol. 1992-1993, Nº 15. P. 131-178 Barrientos Grandon, Javier, La Real Audiencia de Chile. La institución y sus hombres Madrid: Fundación Histórica Tavera. CD-ROM, Nuevas Aportaciones a la Historia Jurídica de Iberoamérica. Barrientos Grandon, Javier: «La creación de la Real Audiencia de Santiago de Chile y sus ministros fundadores: Sobre la formación de familias en la judicatura chilena», en Revista de estudios histórico-jurídicos de la Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Nº 25. P. 233-338 Muñoz Feliu, Raúl, La real audiencia de Chile, Santiago de Chile. Tesis de licenciatura. Valenzuela, Jaime: «Conflicto y equilibrios simbólicos ante un nuevo actor político: la Real Audiencia en Santiago desde 1609», en Cuadernos de Historia de la Universidad de Chile, Nº 18.

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Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Act

The Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Act was a U. S. federal law, enacted as Title VIII of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The CLASS Act would have created a voluntary and public long-term care insurance option for employees, but in October 2011 the Obama administration announced it was unworkable and would be dropped; the CLASS Act was repealed January 1, 2013. Under the Act the Department of Health and Human Services was to set the terms prior to implementation, but determined the program was not viable and could not go into effect; the CLASS Act had been "a key priority" of the late Senator Edward "Ted" Kennedy. Most of the terms were to be developed by the Department of Health and Human Services over several years. However, certain terms were set in statute: Enrollees would have paid a monthly premium, through payroll deduction Enrollees would have been covered on a guaranteed-issue basis Enrollees would have been eligible for benefits after paying premiums for five years and having worked at least three of those years Enrollees would have received a lifetime cash benefit after meeting benefit eligibility criteria, based on the degree of impairment June 21, 2010: Required the Secretary to establish a Personal Care Attendants Workforce Academy Advisory Panel for the purpose of examining and advising the Secretary and Congress on workforce issues related to personal care attendants By January 1, 2011: Established the CLASS Program, as specified By January 1, 2011: Addressed infrastructure for personal care attendant workers By January 1, 2011: Required information on supplemental coverage from the CLASS program in the National Clearinghouse for Long-Term Care Information By January 1, 2012: Would have required the Secretary to establish an Eligibility Assessment System enter into agreements with the Protection and Advocacy System for each state.

By October 1, 2012: Would have required the Secretary to designate a benefit plan as the CLASS Independence Benefit Plan and publish such designation, along with details of the plan and the reasons for the Secretary’s selection, in a final rule to allow for a public comment period. Beginning January 1, 2014: Would have required the Secretary to submit an annual report to Congress on the CLASS program, as specified. According to Barbara Manard, a health economist with LeadingAge, the act would have created "a national insurance trust" with a potential "daily cash benefit on the order of about $50 to $75 a day, depending on your level of disability." The Congressional Budget Office estimated the program would have resulted in $2 Billion in Medicaid savings in the first ten years because of individuals receiving benefits under the CLASS Act that they could have received under Medicaid. Premium rates were to be determined by the Department of Health and Human Services with subsidies for low-income individuals and students.

Premium rates would have varied by issue age. The CLASS program contained an implicit redistribution tax to subsidize lower income and full-time student participants; the legislation did not set specific benefits. The Secretary of Health and Human Services was tasked with developing actuarially sound premiums and benefits. Many organizations, including the Congressional Budget Office, developed estimates of potential premiums and benefits: Benefits would have varied by severity of functional limitation, with the average being at least $50 per day; the benefit schedule could have been adjusted in future years by the Secretary. Employers would have auto-enrolled employees through payroll deduction, a negative election similar to some 401 plans. Tax treatment would have been the same as for tax-qualified long-term care plans. Participation would have been limited to employees at work, required a five-year vesting period prior to benefit eligibility; the CLASS program did not extend coverage to an employee’s family members.

It was not clear how non-working spouses could enroll in the program or receive benefits due to the requirement that the beneficiary must have had sufficient earnings to be credited with income quarters under the Social Security Act. The statute says, "No taxpayer funds shall be used for payment of benefits under a CLASS Independent Benefit Plan... the term ‘taxpayer funds’ means any Federal funds from a source other than premiums.... and any associated interest earnings." Administrative expenses, including advocacy and assistance counseling, were to be limited to three percent of premiums. On April 4, 2011 senators John Thune and Lindsey Graham introduced the Repeal the CLASS Entitlement Act citing the potential of it becoming a new entitlement program, it was predicted that enrollees requiring large medical payouts would be attracted to the plan, leading to the inability of the collected premiums to cover all costs. On July 19, 2011 the Senate so-called Gang of Six, a bipartisan group of senators proposed to repeal the CLASS act as part of a proposal for a balanced budget legislation.

On October 14, 2011, HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius announced that the Obama Administration would not attempt to implement the C. L. A. S. S. Act stating “I do not see a viable path forward for Class implementation at this time.” On January 1, 2013, the CLASS Act was repealed as part of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, known as the Fiscal Cliff Bill. This law contains a provision that repeals the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Act. Republican opponents of the plan called it "a financial gimmick" to manipulate the Congressional Budget Office deficit projections for the PPACA, while D