A yếm is a traditional Vietnamese bodice used as an undergarment, once worn by Vietnamese women across all classes. There exists a modern variant called the áo yếm, but the historical garment was called a yếm, it was most worn underneath a blouse or overcoat, for modesty's sake. It is a simple garment with many variations from its basic form, a simple diamond or square-cut piece of cloth draped over a woman's chest with strings to tie at the neck and back; the yếm originated from the Chinese dudou, a variant of similar undergarments used in China since antiquity whose use spread under the Ming and Qing dynasties. It became popular in northern Vietnam. Unlike other Vietnamese clothing that helped to segregate the classes, the unseen yếm were worn as an undergarment by Vietnamese women of all walks of life, from peasant women toiling in the fields to imperial consorts, it is an integral part of the áo tứ thân costume, which it is worn underneath. The skirt, worn with the yếm is called váy đụp. Chinese-style clothing, forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn dynasty took the place of the yếm and skirt.
Trousers have been adopted by White Hmong. The trousers replaced the traditional skirts of the females of the White Hmong; the tunics and trouser clothing of the Han Chinese on the Ming tradition was worn by the Vietnamese. The áo dài was created when tucks, which were close fitting and compact, were added in the 1920s to this Chinese style. Trousers and tunics on the Chinese pattern in 1774 were ordered by Nguyễn Phúc Khoát to replace the sarong-like traditional clothing. Chinese clothing in the form of trousers and tunic were mandated by the Vietnamese Nguyễn government; as late as the 1920s in Vietnam's north area in isolated hamlets skirts were still worn. Chinese Ming-, Tang-, Han-style clothing was ordered to be adopted by Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by the Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát. Pants were mandated by the Nguyễn in 1744 and the cheongsam inspired the áo dài. Chinese clothing started influencing Vietnamese dress during the Lý dynasty; the current áo dài was introduced by the Nguyễn Lords.
While it was worn across classes, the material and colors used to make yếm varied based upon the person's social status and the occasion. Commoner women wore yếm in simple blacks and whites for day to day use, whereas during special occasions they could opt for more festive, brighter colors such as red and pink. Indeed, much of Vietnamese poetry has been dedicated to the beauty of women in their vermilion bodices. While the bottom of the yếm are v-shaped, there were different styles for the top of the garment which covered the neck, the most common two variations being the rounded neck or the v-shaped neck style; some types of yếm have a little pocket within, where women used to store a little musk or perfume. As Westernization reached Vietnam, by the 20th century women abandoned yếm for the Western bra. Fashion designers, in their constant quest to revitalize interest in traditional costumes - as well as reinvent them - have created many new collections of yếm; the modernized form of the garment is different and is called "áo yếm" rather than "yếm", the latter referring to the historical garment.
Áo yếm has proven to be quite popular with young women due to its similarity to the Western halterneck. Áo dài, Áo tứ thân, Áo giao lĩnh, Áo bà ba Vietnamese clothing Culture and History of Vietnam Chinese History History Vietnamese Traditional Costumes and Fashion quehuong The'yếm', a Vietnamese garment replaced during westernization
A dudou—also known by other names—is a traditional Chinese form of the bodice worn as an undershirt with medicinal properties. With the opening of China, it is sometimes encountered in Western and modern Chinese fashion as a sleeveless and backless halter-top blouse. In Ancient Chinese, 兜 referred to a kind of hood. By the time of the development of the dudou, it had taken on extended senses of encasing or enwrapping something as in a hood, scarf, or loose parcel. Dùdōu may thus be understood as Chinese for "belly wrap" or "cover", referring to its early use to flatten the breasts and, within traditional Chinese medicine, to preserve stomach qi. Using the same characters, it is known as a doudu or doudou; the latter form is diminutive and is used for the dudous worn by Chinese children. Its various Chinese names are left untranslated in English. In Chinese sources, the dudou is sometimes mistranslated as a "bellyband", which more refers to a variety of other devices including a horse's harness and a compression garment used by expectant mothers.
The oddity arises from the similarity of the dudou's purpose with the Japanese haramaki. In the 19th century, it was translated or glossed as a Chinese "stomacher" or "corset"; the dudou is sometimes translated or glossed as an "apron" or "bib" owing to its similar appearance. The dudou's original development is sometimes credited to Yang Yuhuan, the curvy consort of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang still remembered as one of China's Four Beauties, at that time, dudou was called hezi，but the importance of the stomach as the origin of the body's blood and qi in traditional Chinese medicine has meant that variations of the undershirt are found as early as the Qin's tunic-like xièyī; the dudou proper was popularized under the Ming dynasty beginning in the mid-1300s around the time of the Black Death. Versions of it were worn by female babies in medieval China until age three; the medicinal aspect of the dudou was underscored by its common incorporation of small pockets to hold snatches of ginger, musk, or other herbs intended to boost the stomach's qi.
Its red form is held to ward off evil spirits in Chinese folk religions. The dudou inspired similar fashions elsewhere in East Asia, including the Vietnamese yem and the Japanese haragake. Within China, it has remained a traditional item of Chinese clothing in traditional wedding attire. However, the dudou fell out of favor towards the end of the Qing as part of the drive to modernize the country, displaced by European-style corsets and bras. After a decade of public debate, the use of dudous for flattening breasts was formally outlawed, beginning in Guangdong in 1927; this change in fashion has sometimes been linked to the rise in breast cancer occurring around the same time. Dudous first became an object of Western fashion in the year 2000, when variations of the Chinese design appeared in the spring collections of Versace and Miu Miu, it has since become a mainstay of some Chinese-influenced fashion designers. This development inspired some Chinese women, including Zhang Ziyi, to begin wearing the dudou as an article of outerwear, although many older Chinese remain disapproving of this development.
The typical design of a dudou consists of a single rectangular, diamond-shaped piece of fabric which covers the breasts and belly, tied to the neck and waist with attached strings. It is thus a form of halter top. Richer women use silk brocade while the poor make do with cotton. Popular colors are red and green and they are embroidered with flowers, butterflies, or Mandarin ducks. Popular designs included bats, peaches and virtuous expressions. Under the Ming and Qing, dudous were items of underwear and were used to flatten women's breasts, similar to a gentle corset. Wealthier families used silver, or gold chains instead of silk thread; the first dudous were simple rectangles, but by the Qing they had been turned to form a diamond shape, exposing more of the shoulders. Some variants have a collar, lowered around the head. Western-influenced dudous may be made including leather or transparent cloth. Sleeveless shirt Halter top, its Western outerwear equivalent Camisole and bodice, its Western undershirt equivalents Haramaki, its Japanese medicinal equivalent Yếm, its Vietnamese equivalent History of bras "肚兜", "兜肚", "兜子", "裹肚" on Baidu Baike "肚兜" on Baike.com
The thong is a garment worn as either underwear or as a swimsuit in some countries. It may be worn for traditional ceremonies or competitions. Viewed from the front, the thong resembles a bikini bottom, but at the back the material is reduced to a minimum. Thongs are always designed to cover the genitals and perineum and leave part or most of the buttocks uncovered; the back of the garment consists of a thin waistband and a thin strip of material, designed to be worn between the buttocks, that connects the middle of the waistband with the bottom front of the garment. It is used as a descriptive term in other types of garment, such as a bodysuit, leotard or one-piece swimsuit in the context "thong backed". One type of thong is the G-string; the two terms G-string and thong are used interchangeably. Thongs come in a variety of styles depending on the thickness, material or type of the rear portion of fabric and are available for both men and women throughout most of the world; the origin of the word thong in the English language is from Old English thwong, a flexible leather cord.
Many languages borrow the English word string to refer to this type of underwear without the G. Another common name is tanga in the German Tanga. A frequent metaphor in Brazil, is dental floss. In Lithuanian it is "siaurikės", in Italian "perizoma" or "tanga", in Turkish "ipli külot", in Bulgarian as "prashka", which means a slingshot. In Israel the thong the G-string, is called Khutini, from the word Khut, which means String. In Iran, it is called "Shortbandi" in which "short" means "briefs" and "bandi" means "with a string". A Puerto Rican Spanish slang term, used by Reggaeton artists, is gistro. Australians colloquially refer to the G-string as a g-banger or banger; some names for the thong reference the bareness of the buttocks, as seen in the Spanish word colaless, in other names the "T"-like shape of the back is highlighted. In Chinese, the T-back is called dingziku which means 丁 character pants. In Korean, it is called 티팬티. However, there are several usages of the term T-back in English as well.
According to the Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, "The G-string, or thong, a panty front with a half- to one-inch strip of fabric at the back that sits between the buttocks", Knickers: a Brief History says: "Minor tweaks to the cut earned these skimpy panties different titles—from the thong, which has a one-inch strip of fabric down the back, to a G-string, which, as the name equivalent of Spanish suggests, is more like a string of fabric akin between the teeth." Striptease: the Untold History of the Girlie Show says: "The thong an undergarment derived from the stripper's G-string", according to Americanisms: the Illustrated Book of Words Made in the USA a G-string is "a thong panty consisting of a small triangular piece of fabric supported by two elastic straps. Attributed to strippers circa 1936"; the Heinemann English Dictionary defines "thong" as "a pair of underpants or swimming costume in a skimpy style like a G-string". The thong, like its probable predecessor the loincloth, is believed to be one of the earliest forms of human clothing and is thought to have been worn or by men.
It is thought the thong was originally developed to protect, support, or hide the male genitals. The loincloth is the earliest form of clothing used by mankind, having originated in the warmer climates of sub-Saharan Africa where clothing was first worn nearly 75,000 years ago. Many tribal peoples, such as some of the Khoisan people of southern Africa, wore thongs for many centuries. Much like the Japanese fundoshi, these early garments were made with the male genitalia in mind. According to some fashion historians, the first public appearance of the thong in the United States was at the 1939 New York World's Fair; this resulted from Fiorello LaGuardia, the Mayor of New York City, ordering the city's nude dancers to cover themselves. Jacques Heim's and Louis Réard's original bikini from 1946 had a culotte with a thong back. Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich, who in the mid-1960s created the first topless swimsuit, which he called the monokini, is credited with introducing the modern thong in 1974 when he designed a thong bikini in response to a ban on nude sunbathing by the Los Angeles City Council.
Attitudes toward the wearing of g-strings vary geographically and across societies, as is usual with revealing clothing. Prior to its entrance into mainstream fashion, g-strings were worn by exotic dancers. In the modern Western world, g-strings are more marketed towards females but are worn by both sexes. During the 1980s, thongs were worn on stage by pop stars such as Madonna. By the late-1980s, the style had made its way into most of the Western world. In the 1990s, the thong began to gain wider acceptance and popularity in the United States
A unitard is a skintight, one-piece garment with long legs and sometimes long sleeves stopping at the wrists and ankles. It differs from a leotard; the garment can be considered a combination of tights. The unitard is the wrestling singlet minus the tights, although some wrestlers do wear tights in order to further accentuate their uniform and codpiece. Unitards are worn by acrobats, dancers, equestrian vaulters, circus performers, amateur wrestlers, as well as others who require overall body coverage without impeding flexibility, they come in a variety of colors. Superheroes in comics, ads, TV shows and films are depicted wearing unitards; the members of the rock band Queen were known for wearing unitards during their concerts in the late 1970s. In 1985, Anne White's decision to wear a white unitard for the first two sets of a match in the Women's Singles Championship at Wimbledon was reported. Bodystocking Bodysuit Catsuit Jumpsuit Romper suit Swimsuit Zentai
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary. The word "Social" derives from the Latin word socii, it is derived from the Italian Socii states, historical allies of the Roman Republic. In the absence of agreement about its meaning, the term "social" is used in many different senses and regarded as a concept, referring among other things to: Attitudes, orientations, or behaviors which take the interests, intentions, or needs of other people into account has played some role in defining the idea or the principle. For instance terms like social realism, social justice, social constructivism, social psychology, social anarchism and social capital imply that there is some social process involved or considered, a process, not there in regular, "non-social" realism, constructivism, anarchism, or capital; the adjective "social" is used in politics, although its meaning in a context depends on, using it.
In left-wing circles it is used to imply a liberal characteristic, while in right-wing circles it is used to imply a conservative characteristic. This adjective is used much more by those on the political left than by those on the political right. For these reasons, those seeking to avoid association with the left-right political debates seek to label their work with phrases that do not include the word "social". An example is quasi-empiricism in mathematics, sometimes labelled social constructivism by those who see it as an unwarranted intrusion of social considerations in mathematical practice. In the view of Karl Marx, human beings are intrinsically and by definition social beings who, beyond being "gregarious creatures", cannot survive and meet their needs other than through social co-operation and association, their social characteristics are therefore to a large extent an objectively given fact, stamped on them from birth and affirmed by socialization processes. By contrast, the sociologist Max Weber for example defines human action as "social" if, by virtue of the subjective meanings attached to the action by individuals, it "takes account of the behavior of others, is thereby oriented in its course".
The term "socialism", used from the 1830s onwards in France and the United Kingdom, was directly related to what was called the social question. In essence, early socialists contended that the emergence of competitive market societies did not create "liberty and fraternity" for all citizens, requiring the intervention of politics and social reform to tackle social problems and grievances; the term "socialist" was used interchangeably with "co-operative", "mutualist", "associationist" and "collectivist" in reference to the organization of economic enterprise socialists advocated, in contrast to the private enterprise and corporate organizational structures inherent to capitalism. The modern concept of socialism evolved in response to the development of industrial capitalism; the "social" in modern "socialism" came to refer to the specific perspective and understanding socialists had of the development of material, economic forces and determinants of human behavior in society. It denoted the perspective that human behavior is determined by a person's immediate social environment, that modes of social organization were not supernatural or metaphysical constructs but products of the social system and social environment, which were in turn products of the level of technology/mode of production, were therefore changing.
Social and economic systems were thus not the product of innate human nature, but of the underlying form of economic organization and level of technology in a given society, implying that human social relations and incentive-structures would change as social relations and social organization changes in response to improvements in technology and evolving material forces. This perspective formed the bulk of the foundation for Karl Marx's materialist conception of history. In contemporary society, "social" refers to the redistributive policies of the government which aim to apply resources in the public interest, for example. Policy concerns include the problems of social exclusion and social cohesion. Here, "social" contrasts with "private" and to the distinction between the public and the private spheres, where ownership relations define access to resources and attention; the social domain is also contrasted with that of physical nature, but in sociobiology analogies are drawn between humans and other living species in order to explain social behavior in terms of biological factors.
The term "social" is added in various other academic sub-disciplines such as social geography, social psychology, social anthropology, social philosophy, social ontology, social statistics and social choice theory in mathematics. Social media Sociology Social network Social neuroscience Social psychology Social skills Social support Social undermining Social Work Dolwick, JS. 2009. The'Social' and Beyond: Introducing Actor Network Theory, article examining different meanings of the concept'social'
A bandeau is a garment comprising, in appearance, a strip of cloth. Today, the term most refers to a garment that wraps around a woman's breasts, it is part of a bikini in sports or swimwear, but is now accepted as the top part of formal wear when worn with pants or a skirt. It is narrower, it is strapless and off the shoulder. Bandeaus are made from elastic material to stop it from slipping down, or is tied or pinned at the back or front. In the first half of the 20th century, a "bandeau" was a narrow band worn by women to bind the hair, or as part of a head-dress; the bandeau emerged as the top part of a two-piece swimsuit during the 1940s. In the 1950s the bandeau incorporated foundation so as to structure the contours of the body, while still retaining a simple circle or band shape, emphasizing the bare midriff. Another variation of bandeau is a one-piece bandeau swimsuit that covers the mid-section of the body, its popularity in swimwear declined during the string bikini era, but it reappeared in the 1980s with Spandex and other stretch fabric blends.
Side stays, v-wire in the center front, O-rings, the twisted top are popular design elements. In modern sports and swimwear, a bandeau is a strapless garment worn around a woman's breasts, it may be fastened in the front or back or be sufficiently elastic so as not to need a fastener at all. A bandeau may come for extra support. A strapless bandeau, or tube top, was worn as casual wear and sports wear starting in the 1970s, is sometimes worn as part of a sportswear ensemble. Actress Halle Berry wore a bandeau with matching pants to the MTV Video Music Award, fueling the trend of wearing a bandeau top as an out-of-home dress. Miley Cyrus wore a bandeau top with cropped high waisted pants at the 2014 VMA Awards and Jourdan Dunn wore a bandeau top with a long skirt; the outfits consisted of a high waisted bottom, covering the navel. Wearing a bandeau to support a woman's breasts may date back to ancient Greece, where they were called apodesmos stēthodesmē, mastodesmos and mastodeton, all meaning "breast-band".
It consisted of a band of wool or linen, wrapped across the breasts and tied or pinned at the back. As a silhouette the bandeau was worn in Roman times. Archaeologist James Mellaart described the earliest bandeau-like costume in Çatalhöyük, Anatolia in the Chalcolithic era, where a mother goddess is depicted astride two leopards wearing a costume somewhat like a modern bandeau-style bikini. In the Greco-Roman world, women athletes wearing two-piece garments were depicted on urns and paintings dating back to 1400 BC. In the floor of Coronation of the Winner hall of Villa Romana del Casale, a Roman villa in Sicily that dates from the Diocletian period, mosaics depict young women dressed in bandeau-like garments participating in weightlifting, discus throwing, running ball games, but not swimming; the mosaic features ten maidens who have been anachronistically dubbed the "Bikini Girls". Other Roman archaeological finds depict the goddess Venus in a similar garment. In Pompeii, depictions of Venus wearing a bikini were discovered in the Casa della Venere, in the tablinum of the House of Julia Felix, in an atrium garden of Via Dell'Abbondanza.
In the 1920s the term was applied to a shaped brassiere of a soft fabric and delicate trimmings providing little support or shaping. The design was patented in 1916 in the United States by Edgar Guggenheim and resembled the contours and wrapping effects of the scultetus binder used in hospitals, it was sometimes made from an elastic material to flatten or suppress the breasts in the style of the period. When the "boyish" silhouette went out of fashion, the word "brassiere" or "bra" became the term for more shapely support garments; the term bandeau refers to the thin headband traditionally worn—until recently—underneath and supporting the veil by the nuns of many Catholic religious institutes. Together with the wimple and the white coif to which it would be attached, it was the common headdress of a respectable woman in Medieval and Renaissance Europe. In pre-Islamic Balinese culture, women who in daily life would go topless would wear a bandeau, called a sabuk, when visiting temples or attending important ceremonies.
Media related to Bandeau at Wikimedia Commons Celui d'Evy - Ceinture Bandeau Turban
A bodysuit or shorthand body is a one-piece form-fitting, and/or skin-tight garment that covers the torso and the crotch, sometimes, the legs and feet, cannot be used as a swimsuit. The style of a basic bodysuit is similar to a one-piece swimsuit and a leotard, though the materials may vary. A bodysuit, unlike a leotard, has snaps, hooks or velcro at the crotch. Thong or T-front thong bodysuits have the crotch opening moved up to the front to underbelly area to increase the wearer's comfort. A bodysuit may have varying shoulder strap and collar styles. Bodysuits can be made from a number of fabrics, including cotton, nylon, etc. In general, textile bodysuits include expandable fiber such as spandex for a better fit to the shape of the body. A bodysuit is worn with trousers or a skirt; the top, torso part may act as a top for the smooth line it gives or because it cannot become untucked from trousers or skirt. They may be worn by women as underwear, activewear, or foundation garments. Unlike a leotard, a bodysuit is not considered a form of athletic wear.
Onesies are bodysuits for younger children and some adults which help keep diapers in place. The purpose of the opening at the crotch is to facilitate access to a baby's diaper, or for a visit to the toilet. There are bodyshirts, like the counterpart to the bodysuit, they are loose-fitting garments that cover the whole torso, with sleeves in short to long lengths and crotch snaps; the difference is that they look like a shirt on the top portion of the garment, may have a different stretch fabric in the waist to the crotch area to make them fit better. The bodysuit was a progression from the leotard, it was presented in the United States after 1950 by fashion designer Claire McCardell. It was worn as a T-shirt; the first recognized bodysuit was worn by Bettie Page in the 1950s, was a trademark attire of the Playboy Bunnies from the 1960s, as well as of Wonder Woman in the animated series Super Friends as well as Lynda Carter's television series. Azzedine Alaia and Donna Karan helped make the bodysuit a fashion item for both men and women in the 1980s.
After a slowdown, it was resurrected as shaping underwear or lingerie, in the 2010s it reappeared as a blouse bodysuit and classic turtleneck bodysuit, as well as a part of evening wear