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Four-seam fastball

A four-seam fastball called a rising fastball, a four-seamer, or a cross-seam fastball, is a pitch in baseball. It is a member of the fastball family of pitches and is the hardest ball thrown by a pitcher; the name of the pitch derives from the fact that with every rotation of the ball as it is thrown, four seams come into view. A few pitchers at the major league level can sometimes reach a pitch speed of up to 100 mph, it is compared with the two-seam fastball. The four-seam fastball is designed purely for velocity; the ball is gripped with the index and middle fingers set on or across a line of the "horseshoe" seam that faces outward, i.e. away from the pitcher's body. The thumb is placed directly underneath the ball; the four-seam fastball is thrown with a straight overhead swing of the throwing arm. The ball leaves the thumb at the top of the throwing motion as the index and middle fingers play their grip on the "top" seam to roll it down the "back" of the ball, which imparts backspin to the ball that lasts the distance of the pitch.

The backspin affects the exchange of momentum between ball and surrounding air such that a lifting force called the Magnus effect offsets the downward pull of gravity on the ball. Further, backspin combined with the steady rotation of four seams in alignment with the direction of the pitch stabilizes the ball's flight-path. A successful four-seam fastball overpowers the batter with velocity zipping through the strike zone before the batter can timely commit to swing; the faster a four-seamer pitch is thrown, the more effective it will be. It is difficult for a batter to get "around on" the pitch—to swing the bat around to meet the ball—because they must swing early to "catch up" to the speedy pitch. One of the most dramatic and frequent tableaus in baseball is that of a frustrated batter helplessly swinging "empty" on a fastball that has passed the hitting zone, has made the catcher's mitt. Conversely, because the four-seamer doesn't break, it is quite hittable by the quick, "good-eye" batter who can "see" where the pitch will arrive.

Moreover, its extreme velocity helps experienced batters to hit it hard. Further, a fastball's effectiveness decreases if it is not thrown, i.e. if the pitch is not under control. Due to its straight and level flight an errant fastball will not fool many batters as to its direction; as a pitcher's fastball loses "heat", more batters will have sufficient time to read and hit the pitch. Pitching or throwing a fastball "comes naturally" to most athletes who throw baseballs; the fastball is one of the first pitches taught to young pitchers. It requires little unnatural motion of the arm, elbow or shoulders, the ball comes off the fingers when the pitch is completed as it is intended to be thrown; the fastball is the most common of pitches, as all pitchers throw a fastball as part of their standard repertoire. Scientific studies have shown that the four-seam and two-seam fastballs have the same flight paths and speeds, but a batter perceives a difference between them; the perceived difference is due to flicker fusion threshold, defined as the frequency that a flashing light appears "steady" to the human eye.

For example, for a series of flashed still-pictures to appear steady, the frequency of flashing has to be at a rate greater than the flicker fusion threshold, which for humans is about 60 Hz, or 60 cycles per second. A major league pitcher throws a baseball with a spin of around 20 rotations per second. With each rotation, a four-seam fastball presents four seams crossing the vision of the batter, producing a flicker rate of 80 Hz, which results in the batter not perceiving any features on the ball and having fewer visual cues than with the two-seamer to track it. Thus, the batter perceives the four-seam fastball as faster and higher than a two-seam fastball. Four-seam fastball is the most preferred throws for fielding as it is the fastest and has no stray lateral movement in the air

Australian Girls Own Gallery (aGOG)

The Australian Girls Own Gallery was a commercial gallery that operated in Leichhardt Street, Kingston in Canberra from 1989 to 1998. The gallery was operated by former National Gallery of Australia curator Helen Maxwell; the gallery was significant. Maxwell started the gallery because she felt as that there was a bias against women artists within the art world and she'felt that women didn't get enough of a voice'; the first exhibition at aGOG was Les femmes formidables 1 which ran from 16 March – 19 April 1989 and featured the work of five female artists: Banduk Marika, Barbara Hanrahan, Joyce Allen, Lidia Groblika and Kate Lohse. Art historian and art critic Sasha Grishin noted that the represented artists'form an important cross-section of contemporary women printmakers in Australia'.aGOG would exhibit several group and solo shows each year. Represented artists included: Vivienne Binns, Pam Debenham, Judy Horacek, Marie McMahon, Patsy Payne, Mitzi Shearer, Ruth Waller, Judy Watson. After closing aGOG in 1998, Maxwell went on to open Helen Maxwell Gallery in Braddon, which represented both male and female artists and was closed in 2010.

Francesca Rendle-Short. "The Story of Australian Girls Own Gallery and Helen Maxwell". Art Monthly Australia. Pp. 16–17

Pustec (municipality)

Pustec Municipality known as Liqenas Commune from 1973 to 2013, is a municipality in the Korçë County of Albania. The population at the 2011 census was 3,290, in a total area of 243.60 km2. It consists of nine villages, comprising the areas along the Albanian, southwestern shore of Lake Prespa, it is part of the so-called Mala Prespa area, home to a large part of the local ethnic Macedonian minority of Albania. Albanian and Macedonian are official languages of the municipality; the village of Cerje was first mentioned in documents from 14th century. The names of other villages were found in more modern documents. According to a 1900 ethnographic survey, the numbers of inhabitants at the time was 1,830; the "La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne" survey by Dimitar Mishev from 1905 shows that the local Christian inhabitants were divided between Bulgarian Exarchate and Patriarchate of Constantinople. On 18 March 2013, the Albanian government changed the official name of the municipality, from the Albanian Liqenas to the Macedonian Pustec.

The municipality contains nine villages. Cerja Dolna Gorica Glloboçeni Gorna Gorica Leska Pustec Shulin Tuminec Zrnovsko According to the 2011 census, 97% of the municipality's residents were ethnic Macedonians and 96% were Orthodox Christians; each of the nine villages in the municipality has an elementary school. Gorna Gorice has an 8-year school, while Pustec has both a secondary school. North Macedonia, Novaci Municipality Mala Prespa Macedonians in Albania