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Four Corners

The Four Corners is a region of the United States consisting of the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, northwestern corner of New Mexico. The Four Corners area is named after the quadripoint at the intersection of 37° north latitude with 109° 03' west longitude, where the boundaries of the four states meet, are marked by the Four Corners Monument, it is the only location in the United States. Most of the Four Corners region belongs to semi-autonomous Native American nations, the largest of, the Navajo Nation, followed by Hopi and Zuni tribal reserves and nations; the Four Corners region is part of a larger region known as the Colorado Plateau and is rural and arid. In addition to the monument visited areas within Four Corners include Monument Valley, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument and Canyon de Chelly National Monument; the most populous city in the Four Corners region is Farmington, New Mexico, followed by Durango, Colorado.

The United States acquired the four corners region from Mexico after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. In 1863 Congress created the Arizona Territory from the western part of New Mexico Territory; the boundary was defined as a line running due south from the southwest corner of Colorado Territory, created in 1861. This was an unusual act of Congress, which always defined the boundaries of new territories as lines of latitude or longitude, or following rivers. By defining one boundary as starting at the corner of another, Congress ensured the eventual creation of four states meeting at a point, regardless of the inevitable errors of boundary surveying; the area was first surveyed by the U. S. Government in 1868 as part of an effort to make Colorado Territory into a state, the first of the Four Corners states formed; the first marker was placed at the spot in 1912. The first Navajo tribal government was established in 1923 to regulate an increasing number of oil exploration activities on Navajo land.

The Four Corners Monument is located at 36°59′56.3″N 109°02′42.6″W. The Four Corners is part of the high Colorado Plateau; this makes it a center for weather systems, which stabilize on the plateau proceed eastward through Colorado and into the central states. This weather system creates rain fall over the central United States. Federally protected areas in the Four Corners area include Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument. Mountain Ranges in the Four Corners include Sleeping Ute Mountains, Abajo Mountains, the Chuska Mountains. Six governments have jurisdictional boundaries at the Four Corners Monument: the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, as well as the tribal governments of the Navajo Nation and Ute Mountain Ute Tribe; the Four Corners Monument itself is administered by the Navajo Nation Department of Parks and Recreation. Other tribal nations within the Four Corners region include other Ute.

The Four Corners is home to the capital of the Navajo tribal government at Arizona. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribal headquarters are located at Colorado; the US federal government has a large presence in the area the Department of the Interior with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Department of Agriculture with the Forest Service. The Four Corners region is rural; the economic hub, largest city, only metropolitan area in the region is Farmington, New Mexico. The populated settlement closest to the center of Four Corners is Arizona. Other cities in the region include Durango in Colorado. Air service is available via the Durango-La Plata County Airport in Durango, Four Corners Regional Airport in Farmington, New Mexico, Cortez Municipal Airport in Cortez, Colorado. Interstate 40 passes along the southern edge of the Four Corners region; the primary U. S. Highways that directly serve the Four Corners include U. S. Route 64, U. S. Route 160, U. S. Route 163, U. S. Route 191, U. S. Route 491, U. S. Route 550.

The main line of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, now operated by the BNSF Railway, passes along the southern edge of Four Corners. The area is home to remnants of through railroads; these include the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad and the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad. The Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad, which connects a power plant with a coal mine near Kayenta, comes near the Four Corners. Four Corners Monument List of regions of the United States Four Corners radio stations Canadian four corners Quadripoint TAG Corner Trail of the Ancients National Scenic Byway, Four Corners and Utah Trail of the Ancients Scenic Byway List of tripoints of U. S. states Four Corners travel guide from Wikivoyage

Wolff Olins

Wolff Olins is a brand consultancy, based in London, New York City and San Francisco. Founded in 1965, it now employs 150 designers, technologists, programme managers and educators, has been part of the Omnicom Group since 2001, it has worked in sectors including technology, retail, energy & utilities and non-profit. In 2012, the London 2012 brand, developed by Wolff Olins in 2007, was included in Extraordinary Stories about Ordinary Things, an exhibition of design that has shaped the modern world at The Design Museum in London. However, despite costing £400,000 the logo was largely criticised by the British public, being described as "puerile". In 2012 the Orange and London 2012 brands were included in a retrospective examining design from 1948 to 2012 at the V&A in London. In 2012, the firm was recognised by The Sunday Times as being one of the Best Small Companies to work for and by Ad Age as one of the Best Places to Work in media and marketing. In 2018 Wolff Olins was named the most innovative design firm in the world by Fast Company.

Wolff Olins was founded in Camden Town, London, in 1965 by designer Michael Wolff and advertising executive Wally Olins. Wolff left the business in 1983, Olins in 2001. Wolff Olins has offices in London, New York City and San Francisco. In 2002, Wolff Olins was selected by the British Library as a subject of their National Life Stories oral history project. In 2017, Sairah Ashman was appointed as the first female CEO of Wolff Olins. From 1965 to the early 1990s, Wolff Olins developed corporate identities for various large European companies. During this time Olins published Corporate Identity. Olins defined corporate identity as "strategy made visible", the firm worked with companies including BOC, The Beatles' Apple Records, Volkswagen's VAG, 3i, Prudential and BT. During the 1990s, Wolff Olins focused more on corporate branding; the company's work during that time includes First Direct, Odeon, Heathrow Express, Tata Group. More recent work has included Tate, GE, Manpower, Sony Ericsson, RED, London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, New York City, Mercedes-Benz, Tata DoCoMo, AOL, Target's Up and Up brand, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Asian Art Museum, Hero MotoCorp, the Smithsonian, NBCUniversal, USA Today, Skype, Cyient, ZocDoc, The Met, Oi, GrubHub Seamless, Virgin Active and Genesis Beijing, an urban redevelopment project, Throughout its history, Wolff Olins has presented controversial work.

Its piper design for BT in 1991 attracted a great deal of opposition. The company was responsible for the short-lived $110m re-branding of PwC Consulting to Monday in 2002; the launch of the London 2012 brand in 2007 was met with widespread public derision. Design critic Stephen Bayley condemned the London 2012 Olympic Games logo as "a puerile mess, an artistic flop and a commercial scandal". Wolff Olins Oral History of Wolff Olins on British Library's National Life Stories

Jack Frost

Jack Frost is a personification of frost, snow, sleet and freezing cold. He is a variant of Old Man Winter, held responsible for frosty weather, nipping the fingers and toes in such weather, coloring the foliage in autumn, leaving fern-like patterns on cold windows in winter. Starting in late 19th century literature, more developed characterizations of Jack Frost depict him as a sprite-like character, sometimes appearing as a sinister mischief-maker or as a hero. Jack Frost is traditionally said to leave the frosty, fern-like patterns on windows on cold winter mornings and nipping the extremities in cold weather. Over time, window frost has become far less prevalent in the modern world due to the advance of double-glazing, but Jack Frost remains a well-known figure in popular culture, he is sometimes described or depicted with paint brush and bucket coloring the autumnal foliage red, yellow and orange. Sometimes he is portrayed as a dangerous giant:The Hindus derive the name of Hindu Kush from the tradition that a giant used to lie there in wait to kill all the Hindus who passed that way.

This giant was the same whom we, in the Arctic Regions, used to call “Old Zero,” better known in England as “Jack Frost.” The horrors of the snow-covered wastes gave rise to the tradition." He may originate from Anglo-Saxon and Norse winter customs and has an entire chapter named after him in Kalevala, the Finnish national epic compiled from their ancient oral tradition. In Russia however, he has taken on a different form as Grandfather Frost, in Germany there is instead a different entity altogether known as Mrs. Holle. There are various other mythological beings who take on a similar role yet have a unique folklore to them. Jack Frost is mentioned in many movies. For example, in the wintertime song "The Christmas Song", he has been presented as a hero in others. Hannah Flagg Gould's poem "The Frost" features a mischievous being responsible for the quieter phenomena of winter, beautiful ice paintings on windows but who got upset at lack of gifts and caused the cold to break and ruin things. In Margaret T. Canby's "Birdie and His Fairy Friends", there is a short story titled "The Frost Fairies."

In this story, Jack Frost is the king of the Winter Spirits and is described as a kind fellow who wants to help children, whereas a king of a neighboring kingdom, King Winter, is cruel to them. The story tells the origins of how Jack Frost began to oversee the coloring of the leaves of the forest in fall. In 1891 Helen Keller made her own reproduction of the story, titled The Frost King. In Charles Sangster's "Little Jack Frost", published in The Aldine, Jack Frost is a playful being who runs around playing pranks and'nose-biting', coating places with snow before being chased off by Dame Nature for spring. In L. Frank Baum's The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, Jack Frost is the son of the otherwise unnamed Frost King, he takes pleasure in nipping "scores of noses and ears and toes", but Santa Claus, who likes Jack though he mistrusts him, asks him to spare the children. Jack says if he can resist the temptation; the same Jack appears in "The Runaway Shadows", a short story by Baum. In this story, he has the power to freeze shadows, separating them from their owners, making them their own living entities.

In Laurell K. Hamilton's Meredith Gentry series, a character emerges as the original Jack Frost. Jack Frost has appeared as a minor character in the Rupert Bear stories. In the Rainbow Magic books by Daisy Meadows, Jack Frost is an antagonist who causes trouble in Fairyland, he is accompanied by pesky goblins who steal the fairies' important objects, try to sabotage them. Jack Frost appears in "First Death in Nova Scotia", a poem by Elizabeth Bishop. In the novel Hogfather by Terry Pratchett, Jack grows tired of "fern patterns" and paints more elaborate pictures on windows. Jack Frost appears in The Veil trilogy of novels by Christopher Golden; the Man Jack, an enigmatic assassin, calls himself Jack Frost in The Graveyard Book by Neil Gaiman. The Stranger, a picture book by Chris Van Allsburg, stars Jack Frost as a lonely stranger with amnesia. Jack Frost is one of the co-stars of the 2002 novel Jill Chill and the Baron of Glacier Mountain, written by Ed McCray with artwork by George Broderick, Jr. Jack is portrayed as Jill Chill's boyfriend.

Jack Frost, an automaton of one of the Ten Benchwarmers in the Unbreakable Machine-Doll light novel. William Joyce's Guardians of Childhood series features Jack Frost as a character, here known by the full name Jackson Overland Frost, he is the subject of the picture book The Guardians of Childhood: Jack Frost which depicts him as having been known as Nightlight, guardian of the Man in the Moon. Jack Frost is the focus of the fifth and final Guardians novel, Jack Frost: The End Becomes the Beginning. Jack Frost features in Bear and the Nightingale by Katherine Arden In comic books, Jack Frost appears as a superhero in works published by Timely Comics in the 1940s. Marvel Comics had the first alias of the original Blizzard. Jack Frost appears in the 2009 comic book Jill Chill & The Christmas Star by Ed McCray and George Broderick Jr. a sequel to the Jill Chill illustrated novel mentioned above. Jack Frost is the alias of Dane McGowan one of the main characters from the 1990s Vertigo series The Invisibles.

Jack Frost, an automaton of one of the Ten Benchwarmers in the Unbreakable Machine-Doll manga. In Jack of Fables the titular character became Jack Frost for a period of time. A second Jack Frost appears