Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore and this led to very early human use, from c.8000 BC. Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris, Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the hemoglobin in fish. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, the adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.
The filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper, at the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The softness of copper partly explains its high conductivity and high thermal conductivity. The maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. 1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air, as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. A green layer of verdigris can often be seen on old structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings.
Copper tarnishes when exposed to sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising approximately 69% of naturally occurring copper, both have a spin of 3⁄2
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid. It is used as coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually means a coating for the outside of a building, and plaster one for interiors, as described below, but other European languages, importantly including Italian, do not have the same distinction, stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using stucco for interior decorative plasterwork in relief, especially in art history, the difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition. Animal or plant fibers were often added for additional strength, in the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster, traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water, lime is added to increase the permeability and workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the properties of the stucco. This is usually done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, lime stucco is a relatively hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty. The lime itself is white, color comes from the aggregate or any added pigments. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is very hard and brittle and can easily crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, typically its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Todays stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
As a building material, stucco is a durable, attractive and it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick or stone surface. The finish coat usually contained a color and was typically textured for appearance. The lath added support for the wet plaster and tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco, while the increased thickness, the traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat
Circuit Court (Ireland)
The Circuit Court of Ireland is an intermediate level court of local and limited jurisdiction in the which hears both civil and criminal matters. On the civil side the Circuit Court has a parallel jurisdiction — including equitable remedies — with the High Court. The Circuit Court hears de novo appeals from the District Court in both civil and criminal matters, the Circuit Court consists of a President and thirty-seven ordinary judges and six specialist judges. It is composed of eight circuits, each of which cover an ad hoc region of the state, the Irish constitution permits the creation of courts of local and limited jurisdiction. The local nature of the Circuit Court exists in the manner in each circuit of the court only has jurisdiction to consider matters arising within its assigned county or counties. And the limited nature occurs in the manner in which it can only adjudicate over matters which are indicated to be within its jurisdiction by statute. This having been said a number of powers are conferred on the Circuit Court by statute.
Divorce and judicial separation, and contentious probate cases can be provided that the value of any real property in a settlement is within the jurisdiction of the court. Civil matters heard in the Circuit Court can be appealed to the High Court, the Court tries all indictable offences with the exception of certain offences that are reserved for the Central Criminal Court. Terrorist offences and offences with an organised crime element can be heard by the non-jury Special Criminal Court, decisions of the Circuit Court in criminal matters can be appealed to the Court of Criminal Appeal. Under the Family Law Act 1995, the Circuit Court, under the name Circuit Family Court, the rules of court for such cases are different, and reporting of them is more restricted. The Court hears de novo appeals from the District Court, when hearing appeals Circuit Court judges have the same powers as a District Court judge and so cannot give higher sentences or award more damages than a District Court judge could do.
The Circuit Court further can hear appeals from various statutory bodies including the Employment Appeals Tribunal, the Appeal Commissioners of Income Tax, the Circuit Court when hearing such an appeal can make any order the statutory tribunal could have made at first instance. The office of the President of the Circuit Court was established under the Courts of Justice Act 1947, the current president is the Honorable Mr Justice Raymond Groarke who was appointed in 2012. His predecessors were, Circuit Court – Courts Service of Ireland Circuit Court – Citizens Information Board
The Honorable Society of Kings Inns is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of Ireland. The full title retains the spelling variant honorable in preference to the contemporary Hiberno-English spelling of honourable. The society was created in 1541,51 years before Trinity College, Dublin was founded, the founders named their society in honour of King Henry VIII of England and his newly established Kingdom of Ireland. The society secured a lease of lands at Inns Quay on the bank of the River Liffey in Dublin. The society was reconstituted in 1607, having been inactive for some time, the building was completed by his pupil Henry Aaron Baker. Only from the middle of the century onwards were courses of legal education provided at Kings Inns. Candidates who have a law degree may apply for the Degree of Barrister-at-Law. Alternatively, candidates without a law degree may undertake the societys Diploma in Legal Studies before presenting for the societys degree.
Those who are presented with the degree are entitled to be called to, in 2006, the society had an enrolment of approximately 300 students, whilst there are approximately 2,000 practising barristers. The library collection dates from the end of the 18th century, and was based on part of that of Christopher Robinson, senior judge of the Court of Kings Bench. Books were sold at auction at Sothebys, and a stock of them were sold to clients outside Ireland. This was seen at the time as a major cultural outflow, in addition, the societys library had received an annual grant since 1945 for the upkeep of the books from the Irish Exchequer. A Kings Inns team or individual has often won the prestigious Irish Times National Debating Championship, in 2006 the Inns hurling team competed in and won the Fergal Maher Cup in their inaugural year and have subsequently reached the final and semi-final. After crossing Bolton Street, Henrietta Street runs into Kings Inns Street, the latter was renamed due to its proximity to the Kings Inns.
In 1756, this appears as Turn Again Lane on Rocques map of Dublin. Henrietta Street is thought to have been named by Luke Gardiner in honour of Henrietta Somerset and her portrait by Enoch Seeman survives
Irish Free State
The Irish Free State was an independent state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army, and British Crown forces, the Free State was established as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, Northern Ireland, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state. W. T. Cosgrave, who had led both of these governments since August 1922, became the first President of the Executive Council, the legislature consisted of Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, known as the Senate. Members of the Dáil were required to take an Oath of Allegiance, the oath was a key issue for opponents of the Treaty, who refused to take the oath and therefore did not take their seats. Pro-Treaty members, who formed Cumann na nGaedheal in 1923, held a majority in the Dáil from 1922 to 1927.
In the first months of the Free State, the Irish Civil War was waged between the newly established National Army and the anti-Treaty IRA, who refused to recognise the state. The Civil War ended in victory for the government forces, with the anti-Treaty forces dumping its arms in May 1923, the anti-Treaty political party, Sinn Féin, refused to take its seats in the Dáil, leaving the relatively small Labour Party as the only opposition party. In 1926, when Sinn Féin president Éamon de Valera failed to have this policy reversed, he resigned from Sinn Féin, Fianna Fáil entered the Dáil following the 1927 general election, and entered government after the Irish general election,1932, when it became the largest party. De Valera abolished the Oath of Allegiance and embarked on a war with Britain. In 1937 he drafted a new constitution, which was passed by a referendum in July of that year, the Free State came to an end with the coming into force of the new constitution on 29 December 1937. Under the new constitution the Irish state was named Ireland, opposition increased to Irelands participation in World War I in Europe and the Middle East.
This came about when the Irish Parliamentary Party supported the Allied cause in World War I in response to the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill in 1914. Many people had begun to doubt whether the Bill, passed by Westminster in September 1914 but suspended for the duration of the war, Sinn Féin, the Irish Party and all other Nationalist elements joined forces in opposition to the idea during the Conscription Crisis of 1918. At the same time the Irish Parliamentary lost in support on account of the crisis, Irish republicans felt further emboldened by successful anti-monarchical revolutions in the Russian Empire, the German Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Sinn Féin party, founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905, had espoused non-violent separatism, under Éamon de Valeras leadership from 1917, it campaigned aggressively and militantly for an Irish republic. On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin MPs, refusing to sit at Westminster, assembled in Dublin and it affirmed the formation of an Irish Republic and passed a Declaration of Independence, the irish people is resolved.
To promote the common weal, to re-establish justice, with equal rights and equal opportunity for every citizen
Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Steels base metal is iron, which is able to take on two forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the elements, primarily carbon. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an atom in the centre of each cube. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that otherwise occur in the lattices of iron atoms. The carbon in steel alloys may contribute up to 2. 1% of its weight. Steels strength compared to pure iron is possible at the expense of irons ductility. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century and this was followed by Siemens-Martin process and Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron, further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking, largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the product.
Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world and it is a major component in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations, the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stakhlijan, which is related to stakhla. The carbon content of steel is between 0. 002% and 2. 1% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys and these values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, tungsten, carbon and so on. Basically, steel is an alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction, too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make an alloy, commonly called pig iron, while iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, tungsten and niobium.
Additional elements are important in steel, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Alloys with a higher than 2. 1% carbon content, depending on other element content, cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. The quarries consist of beds of white-grey limestone separated by chert beds and it has been used extensively as a building stone throughout the British Isles, notably in major public buildings in London such as St Pauls Cathedral and Buckingham Palace. It is exported to many countries—Portland stone is used in the United Nations headquarters building in New York City, Portland stone formed in a marine environment, on the floor of a shallow, sub-tropical sea probably near land. When seawater is warmed by the sun, its capacity to hold dissolved gas is reduced and bicarbonate ions within the water are able to combine, to form calcium carbonate as a precipitate. The process of lime scale build up in a kettle in hard water areas is similar, calcium carbonate is the principal constituent of most limestones. Billions of minute crystals of precipitated calcium carbonate accumulated forming lime mud which covered the sea floor, small particles of sand or organic detritus, such as shell fragments, formed a nucleus, which became coated with layers of calcite as they were rolled around in the muddy micrite.
The calcite gradually accumulated around the fragments of shell in concentric layers and this process is similar to the way in which a snowball grows in size as it is rolled around in the snow. Over time, countless billions of these balls, known as ooids or ooliths, became partially cemented together by more calcite and this is one of the reasons why Portland stone is so favoured as a monumental and architectural stone. Dr Geoff Townson conducted three years research on the Portlandian, being the first to describe the patch-reef facies. Stone has been quarried on Portland since Roman times and was being shipped to London in the 14th century, Extraction as an industry began in the early 17th century, with shipments to London for Inigo Jones Banqueting House. Wrens choice of Portland for the new St Pauls Cathedral was a great boost for the quarries, the island was connected by railway to the rest of the country from 1865. Albion Stone PLC has been quarrying and mining Portland stone since 1984, Portland Stone Firms Ltd have been quarrying Portland stone since 1994.
Jordans is part of the Inmosthay Quarry in the centre of the Island, the quarry has been worked since the late 19th century. Albion Stone leases the section from The Crown Estate and purchased the northern part of the site in 2006. The majority of the southern reserves lie under the grounds of the cricket club. To avoid disturbing the site at surface level, the company has applied and received permission to extract the stone using mining rather than quarrying techniques, the reserves to the north will be quarried using the diamond bladed cutting machines, hydro bags and wire saws to shape the blocks. Albion Stone PLC now extract all their stone through mining which dramatically reduces the impact on the environment, jordans Mine is currently the biggest mine on Portland. Bowers Quarry has been operational since the late 18th century and it has been leased from The Crown Estate since 1979 and in 2002 it became the site of the first Portland stone mine by Albion Stone PLC
Edward Daly (Irish revolutionary)
Edward Ned Daly was commandant of Dublins 1st battalion during the Easter Rising of 1916. He was the youngest man to hold that rank, and the youngest executed in the aftermath, born at 26 Frederick Street, Daly was the only son among the ten children born to Edward and Catherine Daly. He was the brother of Kathleen Clarke, wife of Tom Clarke. His father, was a Fenian who died five months before his sons birth at the age of forty-one and his uncle was John Daly, a prominent republican who had taken part in the Fenian Rising. It was through John Daly that Clarke had met his future wife and he was educated by the Presentation Sisters at Sexton Street, the Congregation of Christian Brothers at Roxboro Road and at Leamy’s commercial college. He spent a time as an apprentice baker in Glasgow. He moved to Dublin where he took up a position with a wholesale chemists. He lived in Fairview with Kathleen and Tom Clarke, although Dalys membership of the IRB is certain, it is not known when he joined the organisation.
In November 1913 Daly joined the newly founded Irish Volunteers and he soon reached the rank of captain. He was assiduous in his study of military manuals and the professionalism of his company gained the admiration of senior officers in such as the Howth gun-running of 1914. In March 1915, he was promoted to the rank of commandant of the 1st Battalion, Dalys battalion, stationed in the Four Courts and areas to the west and north of the centre of Dublin, saw the most harsh fighting of the rising. He was forced to surrender his battalion on 29 April by Patrick Pearse and he was executed by firing squad on 4 May 1916, at the age of 25. The men in his battalion spoke of him as a good leader and this opinion was shared by a British officer that Dalys battalion had captured. Bray railway station was renamed Bray Daly railway station in his honour in 1966, Helen, Edward Daly, Dublin, OBrien Press,2013 Edward Daly at Find a Grave
Richard James Mulcahy was an Irish politician. He was a general and commander-in-chief for the Irish Republican Army. He served as Leader of the Fine Gael Party and served in the cabinets of W. T. Cosgrave, richard Mulcahy was born in Manor Street, Waterford in 1886. He was educated at Mount Sion Christian Brothers School and in Thurles, County Tipperary, one of his grandmothers was a Quaker who was disowned by her wealthy family for marrying a Catholic. Mulcahy joined the Royal Mail in 1902 and worked in Thurles, Wexford and he was a member of the Gaelic League, and joined the Irish Volunteers at the time of their formation in 1913. He was a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and he was second-in-command to Thomas Ashe in an encounter with the armed Royal Irish Constabulary at Ashbourne, County Meath during the Easter Rising in 1916. Arrested after the Rising, Mulcahy was interned at Knutsford and at the Frongoch internment camp in Wales until his release on 24 December 1916, on his release Mulcahy immediately rejoined the republican movement and became commandant of the Dublin Brigade of the Irish Volunteers.
Elected to the First Dáil in the 1918 general election for Dublin Clontarf, he was named Minister for Defence in the new government, in March 1919 he became IRA chief of staff, a position he held until January 1922. He and Michael Collins were largely responsible for directing the campaign against the British during the War of Independence. During this period of upheaval in 1919 he married Mary Josephine Ryan, sister of Kate and Phyllis Ryan and Sean T would both serve in Fianna Fáil governments. Mulcahy supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921, the Provisional Government appointed Mulcahy Minister of Defence. During the subsequent Civil War after the death of Collins in 1922 and he earned notoriety through his order that anti-Treaty activists captured carrying arms were liable for execution. A total of 77 anti-Treaty prisoners were executed by the Provisional Government and he re-entered the cabinet as Minister for Local Government and Public Health in 1927. During his period on the backbenches of Dáil Éireann his electoral record fluctuated and he was elected as TD for Dublin North-West in the 1921 and 1922 general elections.
The following year, in the 1923 election he moved to the Dublin North constituency, Mulcahy was defeated in the 1937 general election, but secured election to the Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the parliament, on the Administrative Panel. The 2nd Seanad sat for less than two months, and he was elected to the 10th Dáil for Dublin North-East in the 1938 election, defeated again in the election of 1943, he secured election to the 4th Seanad, on the Labour Panel. After the resignation of W. T. Cosgrave in 1944, Thomas F. OHiggins was parliamentary leader of the party in the Dáil at the time. Mulcahy was returned again to the 12th Dáil as TD for Tipperary at the 1944 general election, Mulcahy was faced with the task of reviving a party that had been out of office since 1932
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be white, pink, or gray in color. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition, granite is a rock with at least 20% quartz. The term granitic means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a general, descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks, petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite, Granite is nearly always massive and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use throughout human history, and more recently as a construction stone.
The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa, and its viscosity near STP is 3–6 •1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C, it is reduced in the presence of water. Granite has poor primary permeability, but strong secondary permeability, true granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite, when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite, two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age, it is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin veneer of the continents.
Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs, granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite often occurs as small, less than 100 km² stock masses