Maximilian Raoul Steiner was an Austrian-born American music composer for theatre and films, as well as a conductor. He was a child prodigy who conducted his first operetta when he was twelve and became a full-time professional, either composing, arranging, or conducting, when he was fifteen. Steiner worked in England Broadway, in 1929 he moved to Hollywood, where he became one of the first composers to write music scores for films, he is referred to as "the father of film music", as Steiner played a major part in creating the tradition of writing music for films, along with composers Dimitri Tiomkin, Franz Waxman, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Alfred Newman, Bernard Herrmann, Miklós Rózsa. Steiner composed over 300 film scores with RKO Pictures and Warner Bros. and was nominated for 24 Academy Awards, winning three: The Informer. Besides his Oscar-winning scores, some of Steiner's popular works include King Kong, Little Women and Casablanca, though he did not score its love theme, As Time Goes By.
In addition, Steiner scored The Searchers, A Summer Place, Gone with the Wind, which ranked second on AFI's list of best American film scores, the film score for which he is best known. He was the first recipient of the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score, which he won for his score for Life with Father. Steiner was a frequent collaborator with some of the best known film directors in history, including Michael Curtiz, John Ford, William Wyler, scored many of the films with Errol Flynn, Bette Davis, Humphrey Bogart, Fred Astaire. Many of his film scores are available as separate soundtrack recordings. Max Steiner was born on May 10, 1888, in Austria-Hungary, as the only child in a wealthy business and theatrical family of Jewish heritage, he was named after his paternal grandfather, Maximilian Steiner, credited with first persuading Johann Strauss II to write for the theater, was the influential manager of Vienna's historic Theater an der Wien. His father was the Hungarian-Jewish Gábor Steiner, a Viennese impresario, carnival exposition manager, inventor, responsible for building the Wiener Riesenrad.
His father encouraged Steiner's musical talent, allowed him to conduct an American operetta at the age of twelve, The Belle of New York which allowed Steiner to gain early recognition by the operetta's author, Gustave Kerker. Steiner's mother Marie was a dancer in stage productions put on by his grandfather when she was young, but became involved in the restaurant business, his godfather was the composer Richard Strauss who influenced Steiner's future work. Steiner credited his family for inspiring his early musical abilities; as early as six years old, Steiner was taking three or four piano lessons a week, yet became bored of the lessons. Because of this, he would practice improvising on his own, his father encouraging him to write his music down. Steiner cited his early improvisation as an influence of his taste in music his interest in the music of Claude Debussy, "avant garde" for the time. In his youth, he began his composing career through his work on marches for regimental bands and hit songs for a show put on by his father.
His parents sent Steiner to the Vienna University of Technology, but he expressed little interest in scholastic subjects. He enrolled in the Imperial Academy of Music in 1904, due to his precocious musical talents and private tutoring by Robert Fuchs, Gustav Mahler, he completed a four-year course in only one year, winning himself a gold medal from the academy at the age of fifteen, he studied various instruments including piano, violin, double bass, trumpet. His preferred and best instrument was the piano, but he acknowledged the importance of being familiar with what the other instruments could do, he had courses in harmony and composition. Along with Mahler and Fuchs, he cited his teachers as Edmund Eysler; the music of Edmund Eysler was an early influence in the pieces of Max Steiner. However, one of his first introductions to operettas was by Franz Lehár who worked for a time as a military bandmaster for Steiner's father's theatre. Steiner paid tribute to Lehár through an operetta modeled after Lehár's Die lustige Witwe which Steiner staged in 1907 in Vienna.
Eysler was well-known for his operettas though as critiqued by Richard Traubner, the libretti were poor, with a simple style, the music relying too on the Viennese waltz style. As a result, when Steiner started writing pieces for the theater, he was interested in writing libretto as his teacher had, but had minimal success. However, many of his future film scores such as Dark Victory, In This Our Life and Now Voyager had frequent waltz melodies as influenced by Eysler. According to author of Max Steiner's "Now Voyager" Kate Daubney, Steiner may have been influenced by Felix Weingartner who conducted the Vienna Opera from 1908 to 1911. Although he took composition classes from Weingartner, as a young boy, Steiner always wanted to be a great conductor. Between 1907 and 1914, Steiner traveled between Britain and Europe to work on theatrical productions. Steiner first entered the world of professional music, he wrote and conducted the operetta, The Beautiful Greek Girl, but his father refused to stage it saying it was not good enough.
Steiner took the composition to competing impresario Carl Tuschl. Much to Steiner's pleasure, it ran in the Orpheum Theatre for a year; this led to opportunities to conduct other shows in var
Hal B. Wallis
Harold Brent Wallis was an American film producer. He is best remembered for producing Casablanca, The Adventures of Robin Hood, True Grit, along with many other major films for Warner Bros. featuring such film stars as Humphrey Bogart, Bette Davis, Errol Flynn. On, for a long period, he was connected with Paramount Pictures and oversaw films featuring Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Elvis Presley, John Wayne. Aaron Blum Wolowicz was born October 19, 1898 in Chicago, the son of Eva and Jacob Wolowicz, who were Ashkenazi Jews from the Suwałki region of Poland who changed their surname to Wallis, his family moved in 1922 to Los Angeles, where he found work as part of the publicity department at Warner Bros. in 1923. Within a few years, Wallis became involved in the production end of the business and would become head of production at Warner. In a career that spanned more than 50 years, he was involved with the production of more than 400 feature-length movies. Among the more significant movies he produced were Casablanca, Dark Victory, The Adventures of Robin Hood, The Maltese Falcon, Sergeant York, Now, Voyager.
In March 1944, Wallis won the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 16th Academy Awards. During the ceremony, when the award was announced for Casablanca, Wallis got up to accept, but studio head Jack L. Warner rushed up to the stage "with a broad, flashing smile and a look of great self-satisfaction," Wallis recalled. "I couldn't believe. Casablanca had been my creation; as the audience gasped, I tried to get out of the row of seats and into the aisle, but the entire Warner family sat blocking me. I had no alternative but to sit down again and furious... Forty years I still haven't recovered from the shock." This incident would lead Wallis to leave Warner Bros. the next month. Wallis started to work as an independent producer, enjoying considerable success both commercially and critically; the first screenwriters he hired for his new enterprise were Lillian Hellman. Among his financial hits were the Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis comedies, several of Elvis Presley's movies, he produced True Grit, for which John Wayne won the Academy Award for Best Actor of 1969, its sequel.
After moving to Universal Pictures, he produced Queen of Scots and Anne of the Thousand Days. He received 16 Academy Award producer nominations for Best Picture, winning for Casablanca in 1943. For his high quality of motion picture production, he was twice honored with the Academy Awards' Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, he was nominated for seven Golden Globe awards, twice winning awards for Best Picture. In 1975, he received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. In 1980, he published Starmaker, co-written with Charles Higham. In the 1930s, Wallis invested in residential real estate development in Sherman Oaks, CA, he named Halbrent Avenue after himself, using his nickname "Hal" and his middle name "Brent". Most of its original homes still stand, it is close to Ventura and Sepulveda Boulevards and the Sherman Oaks Galleria used extensively in the 1982 movie Fast Times at Ridgemont High. Hyer and his second wife, actress Martha Hyer, contributed funds towards the construction of “The Hal and Martha Hyer Wallis Theatre”, a black box theater, at Northwestern University.
Wallis was married to actress Louise Fazenda from 1927 until her death in 1962. They had one son, who became a psychiatrist. Wallis was married to actress Martha Hyer from 1966 until his death in 1986. Wallis died in 1986 of complications of diabetes in Rancho Mirage, California, at the age of 88. News of his passing was not released. U. S. President Ronald W. Reagan sent condolences to the family. Wallis is interred in a crypt at the Great Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. Little Caesar Central Airport The Petrified Forest Kid Galahad West of Shanghai The Invisible Menace The Adventures of Robin Hood Comet Over Broadway Dark Victory The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex All This, Heaven Too Castle on the Hudson Santa Fe Trail Sergeant York The Maltese Falcon They Died with Their Boots On Casablanca Now, Voyager Yankee Doodle Dandy This Is the Army Love Letters You Came Along The Strange Love of Martha Ivers Desert Fury So Evil My Love The Fountainhead Dark City The Furies The Rainmaker Gunfight at the O.
K. Corral Loving You King Creole Career G. I. Blues Blue Hawaii Summer and Smoke Girls! Girls! Girls! Fun in Acapulco Wives and Lovers Becket Roustabout The Sons of Katie Elder Paradise, Hawaiian Style Barefoot in the Park Easy Come, Easy Go True Grit Anne of the Thousand Days Mary, Queen of Scots Rooster Cogburn 1938 and 1943 Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Awards Hal B. Wallis on IMDb Hal B. Wallis at the TCM Movie Database Literature on Hal B. Wallis Hal Wallis papers, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Four Wives is a 1939 American drama film starring the Lane Sisters and Gale Page. The film is based on the story "Sister Act" by Fannie Hurst, it was released by Warner Bros. on December 25, 1939. The film was followed by Four Mothers. Ann Lemp Borden has been widowed, after her husband Mickey Borden, a down and out and unlucky musical genius, is tragically killed in a car accident, she now lives at home again with Aunt Etta and younger sister Kay. Her two other sisters and Thea, are married. Kay is dating a young doctor Clint Forrest Jr.. Ann, engaged to musical composer Felix Dietz discovers that she is pregnant with her deceased husband's child. Unable to forget Mickey, she vacillates on marrying Felix. A flashback shows Mickey playing an unfinished musical composition “that has only a middle…no beginning…no ending” and Ann finds herself replaying the tune in her head or on her piano. Ann is distressed over the raw deal life. Felix convinces Ann to marry him and they elope, but Ann is still caught up in the past tragedy.
Felix finishes Mickey’s composition and conducts it nationally on radio, making a speech commemorating Mickey's genius and untimley death. Convinced now that Mickey Borden did not die in vain, Ann comes back to reality, rediscovers her love for husband Felix and together with her family goes on to have a normal happy life complete with her child and nephews. Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times writes in his movie review: "Sequels so even approximate the quality of their originals that the Warners deserve a special word of commendation this morning for their "Four Wives," the Strand's inevitable aftermath to the "Four Daughters" which appeared on most of the ten-best lists last year. For it is a singularly happy film, well-written, well-directed and well-played, it reconciles us tranquilly to the vista it has opened of a "Four Mothers", a "Four Grandmothers" and a "Four Granddaughters; the film runs its course entertainingly, making its little jokes about fatherhood, having its fun with the new matrimonial prospect's introduction to the family, regaining its dignity in the moments devoted to consideration of the posthumous problem child.
The old cast has been assembled again: the Lane sisters, Gale Page, Claude Rains, May Robson, Frank McHugh, Dick Foran and Mr. Lynn. A pleasant family reunion all around, in fact, being a tribute not to the Lemps but to the Lane sisters who play it, to the Epstein brothers who have written it, to the Warners who have produced it." Warner Archive released Four Wives on DVD in August 1, 2011. The film was released by Warner Archive in the "Four Daughters Movie Series Collection". Four Wives on IMDb
John Garfield was an American actor who played brooding, working-class characters. He grew up in poverty in Depression-era New York City. In the early 1930s, he became a member of the Group Theater. In 1937, he moved to Hollywood becoming one of Warner Bros.' stars. Called to testify before the U. S. Congressional House Committee on Un-American Activities, he denied communist affiliation and refused to "name names" ending his film career; some have alleged that the stress of this incident led to his premature death at 39 from a heart attack. Garfield is acknowledged as a predecessor of such Method actors as Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift, James Dean. Garfield was born Jacob Julius Garfinkle in a small apartment on Rivington Street in Manhattan's Lower East Side, to David and Hannah Garfinkle, Russian Jewish immigrants, grew up in the heart of the Yiddish Theater District. In early infancy, a middle name—Julius—was added, for the rest of his life those who knew him well called him Julie, his father, a clothes presser and part-time cantor, struggled to make a living and to provide marginal comfort for his small family.
When Garfield was five, his brother Max was born. Their mother never recovered from what was described as a "difficult" pregnancy, she died two years and the young boys were sent to live with various relatives, all poor, scattered across the boroughs of Brooklyn and The Bronx. Several of these relatives lived in tenements in a section of East Brooklyn called Brownsville, there, Garfield lived in one house and slept in another. At school, he was judged a poor reader and speller, deficits that were aggravated by irregular attendance, he would say of his time on the streets there, that he learned "all the meanness, all the toughness it's possible for kids to acquire." His father moved to the West Bronx, where Garfield joined a series of gangs. Much he would recall: "Every street had its own gang. That's the way it was in poor sections... the old safety in numbers." He soon became a gang leader. At this time, people started to notice his ability to mimic well-known performers, both physically and facially.
He began to hang out and spar at a boxing gym on Jerome Avenue. At some point, he contracted scarlet fever, causing permanent damage to his heart and causing him to miss a lot of school. After he was expelled three times and expressed a wish to quit school altogether, his father and step-mother sent him to P. S. 45, a school for difficult children. It was under the guidance of the school's principal—the noted educator Angelo Patri—that he was introduced to acting. Noticing Garfield's tendency to stammer, Patri assigned him to a speech therapy class taught by a charismatic teacher named Margaret O'Ryan, she gave him acting exercises and made him memorize and deliver speeches in front of the class and, as he progressed, in front of school assemblies. O'Ryan thought he cast him in school plays, she encouraged him to sign up for a citywide debating competition sponsored by the New York Times. To his own surprise, he took second prize. With Patri and O'Ryan's encouragement, he began to take acting lessons at a drama school, part of The Heckscher Foundation and began to appear in their productions.
At one of the latter, he received back-stage congratulations and an offer of support from the Yiddish actor Jacob Ben-Ami, who recommended him to the American Laboratory Theater. Funded by the Theatre Guild, "the Lab" had contracted with Richard Boleslavski to stage its experimental productions and with Russian actress and expatriate Maria Ouspenskaya to supervise classes in acting. Former members of the Moscow Art Theatre, they were the first proponents of Konstantin Stanislavski's'system' in the United States, which soon developed into what came to be known as "the Method." Garfield took morning classes and began volunteering time at the Lab after hours, auditing rehearsals and painting scenery, doing crew work. He would view this time as beginning his apprenticeship in the theater. Among the people becoming disenchanted with the Guild and turning to the Lab for a more radical, challenging environment were Stella Adler, Lee Strasberg, Franchot Tone, Cheryl Crawford and Harold Clurman. In varying degrees, all would become influential in Garfield's career.
After a stint with Eva Le Gallienne's Civic Repertory Theater and a short period of vagrancy, involving hitchhiking, freight hopping, picking fruit, logging in the Pacific Northwest Garfield made his Broadway debut in 1932 in a play called Lost Boy. It ran for only two weeks, but gave Garfield something critically important for an actor struggling to break into the theater: a credit. There is a claim that he was a patron of Polly Adler's brothel in New York. Garfield received feature billing in his next role, that of Henry the office boy in Elmer Rice's play Counsellor-at-Law, starring Paul Muni; the play ran for three months, made an eastern tour and returned for an unprecedented second, return engagement, only closing when Muni was contractually compelled to return to Hollywood to make a film for Warners. At this point, Warner's sought a screen test, he turned them down. Garfield's former colleagues Crawford and Strasberg had begun a new theater collective, calling it "the Group," and Garfield lobbied his friends hard to get in.
After months of rejection, he began frequenting the inside steps of the Broadhurst Theater where the Group had its offices. Cheryl Crawford noticed him o
The Lane Sisters were a family of American singers and actresses. The sisters were Lola Lane, Rosemary Lane and Priscilla Lane. Lola and Priscilla co-starred in four films together: Four Daughters, Daughters Courageous, Four Wives and Four Mothers. Leota did not find the same success as her sisters and left Hollywood for New York City before the sisters' breakthrough; the four sisters, Dorothy and Priscilla, were from a family of five daughters born to Dr. Lorenzo A. Mullican and his wife, Cora Bell Hicks; the first three children had been born in Macy, but the family moved in 1907 to Indianola, Iowa, a small college town south of Des Moines. Here Dr. Mullican had a dental practice; the Mullicans owned a large house with 22 rooms, some of which they rented out to students attending nearby Simpson College. Before marrying, Cora Bell Hicks had been a reporter with a local newspaper in Macy, had harbored acting ambitions herself, but was frustrated by the strict religious beliefs of her Methodist parents who frowned on any form of public entertainment.
Cora Mullican encouraged her daughters to play musical instruments. All the girls were fond of music, at one time or another studied music in night classes at Simpson College in Indianola. Dorothy was playing piano at age twelve for a silent screen movie house. Leota was the first to leave home to pursue a musical career in New York in the mid-1920s. In 1928, Dorothy followed Leota to New York; the girls made the theatrical rounds. They obtained parts in a Gus Edwards show, Greenwich Village Follies, it was Edwards who changed their names to Lane, Dorothy became Lola Lane. Martha, eloped with a college professor and moved to Des Moines, she had no interest in show business. She had a child divorced, became a medical secretary. Leota and Lola both made their Broadway debuts in the late twenties, Lola in 1928, as Sally Moss in The War Song, which opened on Broadway on August 24, 1928, at the Nederlander Theatre and Leota in 1929 as Contrary Mary in Babes in Toyland, which opened on December 23, 1929 at Jolson's 59th Street Theatre.
The War Song closed four months into its run and Lola went to Hollywood where she made her debut starring as Alice Woods alongside Paul Page in the drama Speakeasy. She was soon teamed with Page again in the film The Girl from Havana as Joan Anders. Meanwhile Babes in Toyland closed after only thirty-two performances. Leota followed her sister to Hollywood where she made her screen appearance in a comedy short film Three Hollywood Girls directed by Roscoe Fatty Arbuckle, but soon returned to New York. Rosemary and Priscilla travelled to Des Moines every weekend to study dancing with Rose Lorenz; the girls made their first professional appearance September 30, 1930, at Des Moines' Paramount Theater. Rosemary 17, Priscilla, 15, performed on stage as part of the entertainment accompanying the release of Lola's Hollywood movie, Good News. Rosemary, a member of the National Honor Society, graduated from Indianola High in 1931 and attended Simpson College for a while, playing on the freshman basketball team.
After graduating from high school, Priscilla was permitted to travel to New York to visit Leota, appearing in a musical revue in Manhattan. Priscilla decided to enroll at the nearby Fagen School of Leota paid the fee. At this time talent agent Al Altman saw Priscilla performing in one of Fagen's school plays and invited her to screentest for MGM, she was 16 years old. Priscilla wrote to a friend in Indianola, "Leota accompanied me to a sort of theater in a New York skyscraper. Others were there being made up. One was a strange-looking girl with her hair slicked back in a sort of a bun, her name is said to be Catherine Hepburn. Not pretty, I thought, but Mr. Altman said she has something. Margaret Sullavan, the Broadway actress, was there too!" A follow-up letter said. Neither Hepburn nor Sullavan were approved, neither received a contract from MGM at the time. In the meantime, Cora had left her husband and in 1932, accompanied by Rosemary, arrived in New York. Cora went to work pushing her two young daughters into attending auditions for various prospective Broadway productions, without success.
It was while the girls were trying out numbers at a music publishing office that Fred Waring, an orchestra leader, heard them harmonizing. He found them attractive and individually talented. In early 1933 with Cora's approval they were signed to a contract with Waring. Cora acted as chaperone to Priscilla who at this time adopted the name Lane. Fred Waring not only toured with his band, known as "The Pennsylvanians", but had a weekly radio show. Priscilla became known as the comedienne of the group. Rosemary sang the ballads while Priscilla performed the swing numbers and wisecracked with Waring and various guests. Dr. Mullican instituted divorce proceedings against his wife on the grounds of desertion, the divorce was granted in 1933. Rosemary and Priscilla remained with Fred Waring for five years. In 1937, Waring was engaged by Warner Bros. in Hollywood to appear with his entire band in Varsity Show, a musical starring Dick Powell. Both Rosemary and Priscilla were awarded feature roles in the film.
Rosemary shared the romantic passages with Powell. Although Lola had been in Hollywood sinc
Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry; the 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony; that rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter.
The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 91 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 65 have been awarded Best Director. Since its inception, the award has been given to directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; the Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. Since the 82nd ceremony held in 2010, when the Best Picture category was no longer limited to 5 nominees, only Bennett Miller and Paweł Pawlikowski have been nominated for films not nominated for Best Picture; as of the 2019 ceremony, Alfonso Cuarón is the most recent winner in this category for his work on Roma.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County, California. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; as of the 91st Academy Awards, four Asian directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, one has won the award two times. 1965 – Hiroshi Teshigahara for Woman in the Dunes 1985 – Akira Kurosawa for Ran 1999 – M. Night Shyamalan for The Sixth Sense † 2000 – Ang Lee for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon † 2005 – Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain † 2012 – Ang Lee for Life of Pi † As of the 91st Academy Awards, six black directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, none have won the award.
1991 – John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood § 2009 – Lee Daniels for Precious † 2013 – Steve McQueen for 12 Years a Slave ‡ 2016 – Barry Jenkins for Moonlight ‡ 2017 – Jordan Peele for Get Out §† 2018 – Spike Lee for BlacKkKlansman † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five Latin American directors have been nominated a total of eight times in this category, three have won the award five times. 1985 – Héctor Babenco for Kiss of the Spider Woman † 2003 – Fernando Meirelles for City of God 2006 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Babel † 2013 – Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity † 2014 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman ‡ 2015 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for The Revenant † 2017 – Guillermo del Toro for The Shape of Water ‡ 2018 – Alfonso Cuarón for Roma † As of the 91st Academy Awards, seven Oceanic directors have been nominated a total of eleven times in this category, one has won the award. 1942 – John Farrow for Wake Island † 1983 – Bruce Beresford for Tender Mercies † 1985 – Peter Weir for Witness † 1989 – Peter Weir for Dead Poets Society † 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 1995 – Chris Noonan for Babe † 1998 – Peter Weir for The Truman Show 2001 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring † 2003 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ‡ 2003 – Peter Weir for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World † 2015 – George Miller for Mad Max: Fury Road † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five female directors have been nominated a total of five times in the category, one has won the award.
1976 – Lina Wertmüller for Seven Beauties 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 2003 – Sofia Coppola for Lost in Translation † 2009 – Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker ‡ 2017 – Greta Gerwig for Lady Bird §† As of the 91st Academy Awards, twenty-five directors of non-English language films have been nominated a total of thirty times in this category, one has won the award. 1961 - Federico Fellini for La Dolce Vita, Italian 1962 - Pietro Germi for Divorce Italian Style, Italian 1963 - Federico Fellini for 8½, Italian 1964 - Michael Cacoyannis for Zorba the Greek, Greek 1965 -
A boarding house is a house in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, sometimes for extended periods of weeks and years. The common parts of the house are maintained, some services, such as laundry and cleaning, may be supplied, they provide "room and board," that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. Lodgers only obtain a licence to use their rooms, not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. Boarders would share washing and dining facilities; such boarding houses were found in English seaside towns and college towns. It was common for there to be two elderly long-term residents. "The phrase "boardinghouse reach" comes from an important variant of hotel life. In boardinghouses, tenants rent rooms and the proprietor provides family-style breakfasts and evening dinners in a common dining room. Traditionally, the food was put on the table, everyone scrambled for the best dishes; those with a long, fast reach ate best." Boarders can arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast, half-board or full-board.
For families on holiday with children, boarding was an inexpensive alternative and much cheaper than staying in all but the cheapest hotels. In the United Kingdom, boarding houses were run by landladies, some of whom maintained draconian authority in their houses: the residents might not be allowed to remain on the premises during the daytime and could be subject to rigorous rules and regulations, stridently enforced. Boarding houses were common in growing cities until the 1930s. In Boston in the 1830s, when the landlords and their boarders were added up, between one-third and one-half of the city's entire population lived in a boarding house. Boarding houses ran from large, purpose-built buildings down to "genteel ladies" who rented a room or two as a way of earning a little extra money. Large houses were converted to boarding houses as wealthy families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods; the boarders in the 19th century ran the gamut as well, from well-off businessmen to poor laborers, from single people to families.
In the 19th century, between 1/3 to 1/2 of urban dwellers rented a room to boarders or were boarders themselves. In New York in 1869, the cost of living in a boarding house ranged from $2.50 to $40 a week. Some boarding houses attracted people with particular occupations or preferences, such as vegetarian meals; the boarding house reinforced some social changes: it made it feasible for people to move to a large city, away from their families. This distance from relatives brought social anxieties and complaints that the residents of boarding houses were not respectable. Boarding out gave people the opportunity to meet other residents, so they promoted some social mixing; this had advantages, such as learning new ideas and new people's stories, disadvantages, such as meeting disreputable or dangerous people. Most boarders were men, but women found that they had limited options: a co-ed boarding house might mean meeting objectionable men, but an all-female boarding house might be – or at least be suspected of being – a brothel.
Boarding houses attracted criticism: in "1916, Walter Krumwilde, a Protestant minister, saw the rooming house or boardinghouse system "spreading its web like a spider, stretching out its arms like an octopus to catch the unwary soul." Attempts to reduce boarding house availability had a gendered impact, as boarding houses were operated or managed by women "matrons". Groups such as the Young Women's Christian Association provided supervised boarding houses for young women. Boarding houses were viewed as "brick-and-mortar chastity belts" for young unmarried women, which protected them from the vices in the city; the Jeanne d'Arc Residence in Chelsea, operated by an order of nuns, aimed to provide a dwelling space for young French seamstresses and nannies. Married women who boarded with their families in boarding houses were accused of being too lazy to do all of the washing and cleaning necessary to keep house or to raise children properly. While there is an association between boarding houses and women renters, men rented, notably the poet-authors Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe.
In the decades after the 1880s, urban reformers began working on modernizing cities. By the early 1930s, urban reformers were using codes and zoning to enforce "uniform and protected single-use residential district of private houses", the reformers' preferred housing type. In 1936, the FHA Property Standards defined a dwelling as "any structure used principally for residential purposes", noting that "commercial rooming houses and tourist homes, tourist cabins, clubs, or fraternities would not be considered dwellings" as they did not have the "private kitchen and a private bath" that reformers viewed as essential in a "proper home"; as a result, boarding houses became less common in the early 20th century. Another factor that red