In basketball, an official enforces the rules and maintains order in the game. The title of official applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the speed of play, complexity of rules, the case-specific interpretations of rules, the instantaneous decision required. There is one lead referee and one or two umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the lead official is called the other two officials are referees. In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, three-man crews contain a referee and two umpires. Regardless, both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS and NCAA have allowed the referee to designate which official shall perform the jump ball. In American high school and college basketball, officials wear black-and-white-striped shirts with black side panels, black pants, black shoes.
Some state high school association allow officials to wear grey shirts with black pin-stripes instead of black-and-white-striped shirts. NBA officials wear light grey shirts with black shoes; the NBA shirt is light grey with one black colored stripe on either shoulder, a black stripe on either side, the official's number in the center at the top on the back, the NBA logo above the breast. NBA officials sometimes wear alternate uniforms consisting of a white shirt with light gold shoulders and black stripes. NBA Summer League officials wear the same light grey shirt but with blue shoulders; the WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange, the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo. FIBA officials wear a grey and black shirt, black trousers, black socks, black shoes. Officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball – the Euroleague and Eurocup – wear an orange shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association wear the Euroleague's orange shirt but sometimes wear royal blue shirts for contests between two Israeli teams.
NBL officials wear orange stripes on the sides. The NBL logo is atop the breast and a sponsor's name is on the back. Shirts are V-neck, without a collar, pants lack belts. All officials wear a whistle, used to stop play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. Hand signals are used to administer the game. In higher levels of college and professional basketball, officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS; the device is used by on court officials to start and stop the game clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator to do so. The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management, they carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game it is the job of the officials to rectify the problem.
Quite the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game. There are two standard methods for officiating a basketball game, either "two-person" or "three-person" mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In "two-person" mechanics, each official works either the trail position; the lead position is along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket. Officials change position during the game to cover the area in the best possible way; as the game transitions from one end of the court to the other, the lead becomes the trail and vice versa. Between the two positions, each is responsible for a specific part of the court as well as two each of the side, base or back court lines. Officials change position after certain calls; this allows officials to alternate between positions to increase the speed of play.
This prevents one official from always working one particular team's basket throughout the course of the game. In "three-person" mechanics, the court is further divided among three officials, with the lead official determining the position of the other two officials; the lead official will move to the side of the court in which the ball is located if there is a "post-up" player in that position. The official, on the same sideline as the lead official takes up a position level with the top of the three-point line and becomes the "trail" official, while the third official will stand across the court near the free throw line in what is called the center position; this creates a triangle coverage of the court. The lead will switch sides of the baseline during a play, requiring the trail to move down to be level with the free-throw line and become the new center, while the center will move up and become the trail; as the ball moves to the other end of the court in transition, the lead will become the trail, the trail will b
Jump shot (basketball)
In basketball, a player may attempt to score a basket by leaping straight into the air, the elbow of the shooting hand cocked, ball in hand above the head, lancing the ball in a high arc towards the basket for a jump shot. Although early critics thought the leap might lead to indecision in the air, the jump shot replaced the earlier, less released set shot, transformed the game because it is the easiest shot to make from a distance and more difficult for a defender to block. Variations on the simple jump shot include the "turnaround jumper". With the "hook shot," a player is turned sideways with the shooting arm away from the basket outstretched so that with a sweep he can launch the ball over his head. Since a defender must leap to block a jumper, the shooter may use a pump fake to get the defender in the air at the wrong time and so have a clear shot. If the shooter leaps into the defender, a foul is called on the defensive player, whereat the shooter is awarded two or three free throws according to the value of a missed attempt, or a single free throw if he scores.
Debate still continues as to. Although in the NCAA collegiate archives, John Miller Cooper, who played at the University of Missouri in the 1930s, is recognized as the person to hoist the first jump shot, in his The Origins of the Jump Shot, John Christgau makes a strong case that Ken Sailors did so in May 1934. Sailors went on to play for the University of Wyoming and was selected as MVP of their 1943 NCAA Championship team. Sailors played for five different teams in the old American Basketball League. Other people that Christgau credits with the jump shot are Glen "Glenn" Roberts, Myer "Whitey" Skoog, John "Mouse" Gonzales, Bud Palmer, Davage "Dave" Minor, “Jumping” Joe Fulks, Johnny Adams, Belus Smawley. Hank Luisetti is credited with popularizing the jump shot. Christgau, John; the Origins of the Jump Shot. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803263945. How to shoot a basketball on YouTube BBC Sport: The jump shot How To Shoot a Basketball Guide
Roy Williams (coach)
Roy Allen Williams is an American college basketball coach for the North Carolina Tar Heels. He started his college coaching career at North Carolina as an assistant coach for Dean Smith in 1978. In 1988, Williams became the head coach of the men's basketball team at Kansas, taking them to 14 consecutive NCAA tournaments, four final four appearances, two national championship game appearances, collecting a.805 win percentage and winning nine conference titles over his fifteen-year span. In 2003, Williams left Kansas to return to his alma mater North Carolina, replacing Matt Doherty as head coach of the Tar Heels. Since returning to North Carolina, Williams has won three national championships, nine Atlantic Coast Conference conference titles, three ACC tournament championships, one AP National Coach of the Year award, two ACC Coach of the Year awards, he is third all-time for most wins at Kansas behind Phog Allen and Bill Self, second all-time for most wins at North Carolina behind Dean Smith.
Williams is ranked seventh in total victories by a men's NCAA Division I college coach, winning 871 games to date. Williams has taken his teams to nine Final Fours in his careers at North Carolina, he is the only coach in NCAA history to have led two different programs to at least four Final Fours each and the only basketball coach in NCAA history to have 400 or more victories at two NCAA Division 1 schools. He is tenth all-time in the NCAA for winning percentage among men's college basketball coaches. In 29 of his 31 seasons as a head coach, Williams has coached his teams to at least 20 or more wins; the other two seasons he coached each of those teams to 19 wins. In 41 years as an assistant or head coach, he has been on a team that reached the NCAA Tournament in every season except 1989 and 2010. Williams was an assistant coach for Dean Smith when North Carolina won the 1982 national championship; as a head coach, Williams has coached in a total of six NCAA championship games. On April 4, 2005, Williams won his first national title as his Tar Heels defeated the University of Illinois in the 2005 NCAA championship game.
He again led the Tar Heels to a national title on April 6, 2009, against the Michigan State Spartans. Williams won his third national championship on April 3, 2017 when he led the Tar Heels to victory against the Gonzaga Bulldogs. Williams is one of six NCAA Men's Division I college basketball coaches to have won at least three national championships. In 2006, Williams was inducted into the College Basketball Hall of Fame; the following year, in 2007, Williams was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. Williams was born in Marion General Hospital in Marion, North Carolina, spent his early years in the small western North Carolina towns of Marion and Spruce Pine; as a child his family relocated to nearby Asheville. Williams lettered in basketball and baseball at T. C. Roberson High School in Asheville, NC all four years. In basketball, playing for Coach Buddy Baldwin, he was named all-county and all-conference for two years, all-western North Carolina in 1968 and served as captain in the North Carolina Blue-White All-Star Game.
Williams has stated. Williams went on to play on the freshman team at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and study the game under coach Dean Smith; when Williams was a sophomore at Carolina, he asked Smith if he could attend his practices and would sit in the bleachers taking notes on Smith's coaching. Williams volunteered to keep statistics for Smith at home games and worked in Smith's summer camps. Williams' first coaching job was in 1973 as a high school basketball and golf coach at Charles D. Owen High School in Black Mountain, North Carolina, he coached basketball and boys' golf for five years and ninth-grade football for four years, served as athletic director for two years. In 1978, Williams came back to the University of North Carolina and served as an assistant to Coach Dean Smith from 1978 to 1988. During his tenure as assistant coach, North Carolina went 275–61 and won the NCAA national championship in 1982, the first for Smith and the second for North Carolina. One of Williams' more notable events came as assistant coach when he became instrumental in recruiting Michael Jordan.
In 1988, Williams left North Carolina and became the head coach of the University of Kansas Jayhawks, replacing former North Carolina assistant and UCLA head coach Larry Brown, who had taken the position as head coach of the NBA's San Antonio Spurs. He was hired. Weeks after Williams took the position, KU was placed on probation for violations that took place prior to his arrival; as a result, the Jayhawks were barred from postseason play for the 1988–89 season. Williams coached 15 seasons at Kansas. During that time he had a record of 418 -- a. 805 winning percentage. At the time of his departure, he was second on Kansas' all-time wins list behind only Phog Allen. Williams' Kansas teams averaged 27.8 wins per season. Kansas won nine regular-season conference championships over his last 13 years. In seven years of Big 12 Conference play, his teams went 94–18, capturing the regular-season title in 1997, 1998, 2002 and 2003 and the postseason tournament crown in 1997, 1998 and 1999. In 2001–02, KU became the first, so far only, team to go undefeated in Big 12 play.
In 1995–98, Kansas was a combined 123–17 – an average of 30.8 wins per season. Williams' teams went 201–17 in Allen Field
In basketball, a block or blocked shot occurs when a defensive player deflects a field goal attempt from an offensive player to prevent a score. The defender is not allowed to make contact with the offensive player's hand or a foul is called. In order to be legal, the block must occur. A deflected field goal, made does not count as a blocked shot and counts as a successful field goal attempt for shooter plus the points awarded to the shooting team. For the shooter, a blocked shot is counted as a missed field goal attempt. On a shooting foul, a blocked shot cannot be awarded or counted if the player who deflected the field goal attempt is different from the player who committed the foul. If the ball is heading downward when the defender hits it, it is ruled as goaltending and counts as a made basket. Goaltending is called if the block is made after the ball bounces on the backboard. Nicknames for blocked shots include "rejections," "stuffs," "bushed", "fudged", or notably "double-fudged", "facials," "swats," "denials," and "packs."
Blocked shots were first recorded in the NBA during the 1973–74 season. Due to their height and position near the basket and power forwards tend to record the most blocks, but shorter players with good jumping ability can be blockers, an example being Dwyane Wade, the shortest player, at 6'4", to record 100 blocked shots in a single season. A player with the ability to block shots can be a positive asset to a team's defense, as they can make it difficult for opposing players to shoot near the basket and by keeping the basketball in play, as opposed to swatting it out of bounds, a blocked shot can lead to a fast break, a skill Bill Russell was notable for. To be a good shot-blocker, a player needs great court sense and timing, good height or jumping ability. One tactic is that a shot-blocker can intimidate opponents to alter their shots, resulting in a miss. A chase-down block occurs when a player pursues an opposing player who had run ahead of the defense, blocks their shot attempt; the block involves hitting the ball into the backboard as the opponent tries to complete a lay-up.
One of the most recognized chase-down blocks was then-Detroit Pistons' Tayshaun Prince's game-saving block on Reggie Miller in Game 2 of the 2004 NBA Eastern Conference Finals against the Indiana Pacers. Pistons announcer Fred McLeod, who first witnessed this style of blocks from Prince, created the chase-down term with the Cleveland Cavaliers. During the 2008–09 NBA season, the Cavaliers began tracking chase-down blocks, crediting LeBron James with 23 that season and 20 the following season. Another landmark chase-down block occurred in the 2016 NBA Finals when Lebron James, in the closing minutes of the 4th quarter delivered what became known as "The Block" on a lay-up attempt by Andre Iguodala with the score tied at 89 and 01:50 remaining in the game. Most blocks in a single game: Elmore Smith Most blocks in a single half: Elmore Smith, George T. Johnson, Manute Bol Most blocks per game in a season: Mark Eaton Most career blocks: Hakeem Olajuwon Most blocks per game in a career: Mark Eaton Most blocks in NBA Finals game: Dwight Howard Most blocks in a non-NBA Finals playoff game: Andrew Bynum, Hakeem Olajuwon, Mark Eaton Most career blocks: Jarvis Varnado – Mississippi State Most blocks single season, player: David Robinson – Navy Most blocks per game single season, player: Shawn James – Northeastern Most blocks single season, team: Kentucky Most career blocks: Brittney Griner – Baylor Most blocks single season, player: Brittney Griner – Baylor Most blocks per game single season, player: Brittney Griner – Baylor Most blocks single season, team: Baylor List of National Basketball Association career blocks leaders List of National Basketball Association season blocks leaders List of National Basketball Association players with most blocks in a game List of NCAA Division I men's basketball career blocks leaders List of NCAA Division I men's basketball season blocks leaders List of NCAA Division I men's basketball players with 13 or more blocks in a game ^a Brittney Griner's 736 career blocks is recognized as the all-time NCAA record, men's or women's.
Hall of Famer Anne Donovan, who played for Old Dominion from 1979 to 1983, recorded 801 blocks while playing in the AIAW, therefore her total is not recognized as an NCAA achievement. Career block leaders on Basketball-Reference.com Bill Russell Block Art on YouTube
In basketball, a technical foul is any infraction of the rules penalized as a foul which does not involve physical contact during the course of play between opposing players on the court, or is a foul by a non-player. The most common technical foul is for unsportsmanlike conduct. Technical fouls can be assessed against players, bench personnel, the entire team, or the crowd; these fouls, their penalties, are more serious than a personal foul, but not as serious as a flagrant foul. Technical fouls are handled differently under international rules than under the rules used by the various competitions in the United States. First, illegal contact between players on the court is always a personal foul under international rules, whereas in the United States, such contact is, with some exceptions, a technical foul when the game clock is not running and/or when the ball is dead. Second, in International Basketball Federation play, players foul out after five total fouls and personal combined; the latter rule is similar to that in college, high school, middle school basketball in the United States.
However, in leagues that play 48-minute games such as the NBA, in some leagues such as the Women's National Basketball Association, players are allowed six personal fouls before being disqualified, technical fouls assessed against them do not count toward this total. However, unsportsmanlike technicals in the NBA carry a fine, its severity depending on the number of technicals the player has obtained, players are suspended for varying amounts of time after accumulating sixteen technicals in the regular season or seven in the playoffs. In most American competitions, ejection of the offender, that of the player, coach, or otherwise, is the penalty for being assessed two technical fouls in a game, if charged directly to him/her. In addition, any single flagrant technical foul, or a disqualifying foul in FIBA, incurs ejection. FIBA rules do not provide for ejection for any number of non-flagrant technicals against a player, except in 3x3, in which two unsportsmanlike fouls result in ejection. FIBA rules call for ejection when a coach draws two technicals.
Many infractions can result in the calling of a technical foul. One of the most common is the use of profane language toward another player; this can be called on either players who are active in the play of the game, or seated on a team's bench. It can be assessed to a coach or another person associated with the team in an official capacity such as a trainer or an equipment manager. Additionally, coaches or players can be assessed a technical foul for disputing an official's call too vehemently, with or without the use of profanity; this verbal unsporting technical foul may be assessed regardless of whether the ball is dead or alive. Other offenses can result in technical fouls, such as: Allowing players to lock arms in order to restrict the movement of an opponent Baiting or taunting an opponent Disrespectfully addressing or contacting an official or gesturing in such a manner as to indicate resentment Faking being fouled Fighting or threatening to fight Goaltending a free throw Grasping either basket during pre-game or halftime warm-ups during the time of the officials' jurisdiction, including attempting to dunk or stuff a dead ball prior to or during the game or during any intermission of the game.
Beginning in 2015–16, dunking is permitted during warmup periods in NCAA play, although hanging on the rim remains illegal. Illegal substitution or entering the game at an impermissible time Intentionally hanging on the basket at any time Kicking or striking the basketball at any time using the foot Knowingly attempting a free throw or accepting a foul to which the player was not entitled Lifting or jumping onto a teammate to gain a height advantage Remaining out of bounds to gain an advantage Removing the jersey or pants within the visual confines of the playing area Use of television monitoring or replay equipment, computers, or electronics such as megaphones for coaching purposes during the game Using tobacco or smokeless tobaccoViolations of the rules for delaying the game incur a team warning for a first offense, followed by a team technical, or sometimes a player technical, if the same team delays a second time, to include: Going out of bounds during an opponent's throw-in without contact, or touching an opposing thrower-in or the ball as it is held in out-of-bounds Huddling at the foul line for an excessive time Not being ready to start play after a time-out, or to begin a quarter or half, or to shoot a free throw at such times Refusing to pass the ball to the nearer