2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500)
The Second Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1500 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral. Cabral's armada famously discovered Brazil for the Portuguese crown along the way. By and large, the 2nd Armada's diplomatic mission to India failed, provoked the opening of hostilities between the Kingdom of Portugal and the feudal city-state of Calicut, ruled by Zamorins. Nonetheless, it managed to establish a factory in the nearby Kingdom of Cochin, the first Portuguese factory in Asia; the first India Armada, commanded by Vasco da Gama, arrived in Portugal in the summer of 1499, in a rather sorry shape. Battles and storms had taken their toll—half of his ships and men had been lost. Although he came back with a hefty cargo of spices that would be sold at an enormous profit, Vasco da Gama had failed in the principal objective of his mission—negotiating a treaty with Zamorin's Calicut, the spice entrepot on the Malabar Coast of India. Nonetheless, Gama had opened up the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope and secured good relations with the African city-state of Malindi, a critical staging post along the way.
On the orders of King Manuel I of Portugal, arrangements began to assemble a Second Armada in Cascais. Determined not to repeat Gama's mistakes, this one was to be a large and well-armed fleet—13 ships, 1500 men—and laden with valuable gifts and diplomatic letters to win over the potentates of the east. Many details of the composition of the fleet are missing. Only three ship names are known, there is some conflict among the sources on the naming of the captains; the following list of ships should not be regarded as authoritative, but a tentative list compiled from various conflicting accounts. This list is principally in concordance with Fernão Lopes de Castanheda's Historia, João de Barros's Décadas, Damião de Góis's Chronica, the marginal gloss of the Relaçao das Naos, Diogo do Couto's list, Manuel de Faria e Sousa's Asia Portugueza; the main conflict is with Gaspar Correia's Lendas da Índia, who omits Pêro de Ataíde and Aires Gomes da Silva, listing instead Braz Matoso and Pedro de Figueiró, introduces André Gonçalves in addition to Lemos, bringing the number of captains up to fourteen, but manages to bring it back down to thirteen by identifying Simão de Miranda as vice-admiral and captain of Cabral's own flagship.
Neither of the two eyewitnesses—the Anonymous Portuguese pilot and Pêro Vaz de Caminha—give a list of captains. The Second Armada would be headed by the Portuguese nobleman Pedro Álvares Cabral, a master of the Order of Christ. Cabral had no notable naval or military experience, his appointment as capitão-mor of the armada being a political one; the exiled Castillian nobleman Sancho de Tovar was designated vice-admiral and successor should anything befall Cabral. Veteran pilot Pedro Escobar was given the overall technical command of the expedition. Other veterans of the first armada include captain Nicolau Coelho, pilot Pêro de Alenquer and clerks Afonso Lopes and João de Sá. Going as captains were the famed navigator Bartolomeu Dias and his brother Diogo Dias. Most of the ships were either carracks or caravels and at least one was a small supply ship, although details on names and tonnage are missing. At least two ships, Cabral's flagship and Tovar's El Rei, were said to be around 240t, that is, about twice the size of the largest ship in the 1st Armada of Vasco da Gama.
Ten ships were destined for Calicut, while two ships were destined for Sofala and one was destined to be scuttled and burnt along the way. At least two ships were owned and outfitted; the ship of Luís Pires was owned by Diogo da Silva e Meneses, Count of Portalegre, while the Anunciada of Nuno Leitão da Cunha was owned by the king's cousin D. Álvaro of Braganza, financed by an Italian consortium composed of the Florentine bankers Bartolomeo Marchionni and Girolamo Sernigi and the Genoese Antonio Salvago. The remainder belonged to the Portuguese crown. Accompanying the expedition as translator was Gaspar da Gama as well as four Hindu hostages from Zamorin's kingdom taken by da Gama in 1498 during negotiations. Aboard is the ambassador of the Sultan of Malindi, who had come with Gama, was now set to return. Other passengers on the expedition included Aires Correia, designated factor for Calicut, his secretary Pêro Vaz de Caminha, Sofala factor Afonso Furtado and clerk Martinho Neto. Accompanying the trip was the royal physician and amateur astronomer, Master João Faras, who brought along the latest astrolabe and new Arab astronomical staves for navigational experiment.
One chronicler suggests that the knight Duarte Pacheco Pereira was aboard. The fleet carried some twenty Portuguese degredados, who could fulfill their sentences by being abandoned along the shores of various places and exploring inland on the crown's behalf. Among the degredados we know four names: Afonso Ribeiro, João Machado, Luiz de Moura, Antonio Fernandes Finally, the fleet carried the first Portuguese Christian missionaries to India—eight Franciscan friars and eight chaplains, under the supervision of the head chaplain, Fr. Henrique Soares of Coimbra There are three surviving eyewitness accounts of this expedition: an extended letter written by Pêro Vaz de Caminha (possibly
Brazilian National Anthem
The "Brazilian National Anthem" was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1831 and had been given at least two sets of unofficial lyrics before a 1922 decree by President Epitácio Pessoa gave the anthem its definitive, official lyrics, by Joaquim Osório Duque-Estrada, after several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909. The anthem's lyrics have been described as Parnassian in Romantic in content; the melody of the Brazilian national anthem was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva, was presented to the public for the first time in April 1831. On 7 April 1831, the first Brazilian Emperor, Pedro I, abdicated the Crown and days left for Europe, leaving behind the then-five-year-old Emperor Pedro II. From the proclamation of the independence of Brazil in 1822 until the 1831 abdication, an anthem, composed by Pedro I himself, celebrating the country's independence, was used as the national anthem. In the immediate aftermath of the abdication of Pedro I, the anthem composed by him fell in popularity.
Francisco Manuel da Silva seized this opportunity to present his composition, the anthem written by him was played in public for the first time on April 13, 1831. On that same day, the ship carrying the former Emperor left the port of Rio de Janeiro; the date of April 13 now appears in official calendars as the Day of the Brazilian National Anthem. As to the actual date of composition of the music presented in April 1831, there is controversy among historians; some hold that Francisco Manuel da Silva composed the music in the last four months of 1822 to commemorate Brazil's independence, others hold that the hymn was written in early 1823 and others consider the evidence of composition dating back to 1822 or 1823 unreliable, hold that the Anthem presented on 13 April 1831 was written in 1831, not before. In any event, the Anthem remained in obscurity until it was played in public on 13 April 1831. In style, the music resembles early Romantic Italian music such as that of Gioachino Rossini; the music composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva was given lyrics by Appeals Judge Ovídio Saraiva de Carvalho e Silva not as a national anthem, but as a hymn commemorating the abdication of Pedro I and the accession of Pedro II to the Throne.
It was known during this early period as "April 7 Hymn". The lyrics by Ovídio Saraiva soon fell out of use, given that they were considered poor, offensive towards the Portuguese; the music, continued enjoying sustained popularity, by 1837 it was played, without lyrics, in all public ceremonies. Although no statute was passed during the imperial period to declare Francisco Manuel da Silva's musical composition as the national anthem, no formal enactment was considered necessary for the adoption of a national anthem. A national anthem was seen as resulting from praxis or tradition. Thus, by 1837, when it was played in all official solemnities, Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition was the Brazilian National Anthem. A new set of lyrics was proposed in 1841, to commemorate the coming of age and Coronation of Emperor Pedro II. Emperor Pedro II directed that Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition, as the national anthem of the Empire of Brazil, should be played, without lyrics, on all occasions when the monarch presented himself in public, in solemnities of military or civilian nature.
During the Empire of Brazil era, the U. S. composer and pianist Louis Moreau Gottschalk residing in Rio de Janeiro, composed two nationalistic works of classical music based on the Brazilian National Anthem that achieved great popularity during the imperial period: the Brazilian Solemn March and the Great Triumphal Fantasy on the Brazilian National Anthem. The former was dedicated to Emperor Pedro II, the latter was dedicated to his heiress presumptive, the Princess Imperial Isabel, comtesse d'Eu; those works are in the vein of similar compositions written at the time in other Nations, such as Charles Gounod's Fantasy on the Russian National Anthem. The Grand Triumphal Fantasy, long forgotten, resurfaced in popularity in 1985, at the dawn of Brazil's New Republic, during the country's re-democratization process, when it was played to accompany the funeral cortège of President Tancredo Neves. After the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889, the new rulers made a competition in order to choose a new anthem, the competition was won by a music composed by Leopoldo Miguez, with lyrics by Medeiros e Albuquerque.
After protests against the adoption of the proposed new anthem, the Head of the Provisional Government, Deodoro da Fonseca, formalized Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition as the national anthem, while the composition by Miguez and Medeiros e Albuquerque was declared the Anthem of the Proclamation of the Republic. Deodoro himself was said to prefer the old anthem to the new composition; the Decree of the Provisional Government confirming Francisco Manuel da Silva's music, that had served as the National Anthem of the Empire of Brazil, as the National Anthem of the new Republic, was issued on 20 January 1890. In the early days of the new Federal Republic, the Nation
Independence of Brazil
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire. It is celebrated on 7 September, the anniversary of the date in 1822 that prince regent Dom Pedro declared Brazil's independence from the former United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves. Formal recognition came with a treaty three years signed by both the new Empire of Brazil and the Kingdom of Portugal in late 1825; the land now called Brazil was claimed by the Kingdom of Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese naval fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered Indigenous nations divided into several tribes, most of whom shared the same Tupi–Guarani languages family, shared and disputed the territory. Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was started in 1534 when King John III divided the territory into fifteen hereditary captaincies.
This arrangement proved problematic, in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes while others disappeared in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.. By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export due to the increasing international demand for sugar. To profit from the situation, by 1700 over 963,000 African slaves had been brought across the Atlantic Ocean to work in the plantations of Brazil. More Africans were brought to Brazil up until that date than to all the other places in The Americas combined. Through wars against the French, the Portuguese expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615, they sent military expeditions to the northwest of the South American continent to the Amazon River basin rainforest and conquered competing English and Dutch strongholds, founding villages and forts from 1669.
In 1680 they reached the far southeast and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Banda Oriental region. At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline, but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would be called Minas Gerais in current Mato Grosso, Goiás and the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais saved the colony from imminent collapse. From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines in an early "gold rush"; the Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion northwest, west and southeast into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas division of the New World of The Americas by the Bishop and Pope of Rome, Pope Alexander VI and succeeded in conquering the Banda Oriental region in 1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian southeastern border.
During the French invasion of Portugal, by Emperor Napoleon I in 1807, the Portuguese royal family House of Braganza fled across the Atlantic Ocean with the help of the British Royal Navy to Brazil, establishing Rio de Janeiro as the de facto capital of Portugal and Brazil and the Portuguese Empire during the ensuing worldwide Napoleonic Wars. This had the side effect of soon creating within Brazil, many of the institutions required to exist as an independent state. After Napoleon's Imperial French army was defeated at Waterloo in June 1815, in order to maintain the capital in Brazil and allay Brazilian fears of being returned to colonial status, King John VI of Portugal raised the de jure status of Brazil to an equal, integral part of a new status in a United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, rather than a mere colony, a status which it enjoyed for the next seven years, sending his son, Dom Pedro as prince regent. In 1820 the Constitutionalist Revolution erupted in Portugal; the movement initiated by the liberal constitutionalists resulted in the meeting of the Cortes, that would have to create the kingdom's first constitution.
The Cortes at the same time demanded the return of King Dom John VI, living in Brazil since 1808, who elevated Brazil to a kingdom as part of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in 1815 and who nominated his son and heir prince Dom Pedro as regent, to govern Brazil in his place on 7 March 1821. The king left for Europe on 26 April, while Dom Pedro remained in Brazil governing it with the aid of the ministers of the Kingdom and Foreign Affairs, of War, of Navy and of Finance; the Portuguese military officers headquartered in Brazil were sympathetic to the Constitutionalist movement in Portugal. The main leader of the Portuguese officers, General Jorge de Avilez Zuzarte de Sousa Tavares forced the prince to dismiss and banish from the country the ministers of Kingdom and Finance. Both were loyal allies of Pedro; the humiliation suffered by the prince, who swore he would never yield to the pressure of the military again, would have a decisive influence on his abdication ten years later.
Meanwhile, on 30 September 1821, the Cortes approved a decree that subordinated the governments of the Brazilian provinces directly to Portugal. Prince Pedro became for all purposes only the governor of the Rio de Janeiro Province. Other decrees that came after ordered his return to Europe and
National Congress of Brazil
The National Congress of Brazil is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government. Unlike the state Legislative Assemblies and Municipal Chambers, the Congress is bicameral, composed of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies; the Congress meets annually in Brasília, from 2 February to 27 July and from 1 August to 22 December. The Senate represents the Federal District; each state and the Federal District has a representation of three Senators, who are elected by popular ballot for a term of eight years. Every four years, renewal of either one third or two-thirds of the Senate takes place; the Chamber of Deputies represents the people of each state, its members are elected for a four-year term by a system of proportional representation. Seats are allotted proportionally according to each state's population, with each state eligible for a minimum of 8 seats and a maximum of 70 seats. Unlike the Senate, the whole of the Chamber of Deputies is renewed every four years; until it was common for politicians to switch parties and the proportion of congressional seats held by each party would change.
However, a decision of the Supreme Federal Court has ruled that the seats belong to the parties and not to the politicians, that one can only change parties and retain his seat in a limited set of cases. Politicians who abandon the party for which they were elected now face the loss of their Congressional seat; each house of the Brazilian Congress elects its President and the other members of its directing board from among its members. The President of the Senate is ex officio the President of the National Congress, in that capacity summons and presides over joint sessions, as well as over the joint services of both Houses; the President of the Chamber is second in the presidential line of succession while the President of the Senate is third. The current composition of the Board of the National Congress is as follows: The Federal Senate is the upper house of the National Congress. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was inspired in United Kingdom's House of Lords, but with the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 it became closer to the United States Senate.
The Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later; when one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate. The candidate in each State and the Federal District who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected; the Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the National Congress, it is composed of 513 federal deputies, who are elected by a proportional representation of votes to serve a four-year term. Seats are allotted proportionally according to each state's population, with each state eligible for a minimum of 8 seats and a maximum of 70 seats. In 2010, 22 out of the country's 35 political parties were able to elect at least one representative in the Chamber, while fifteen of them were able to elect at least one Senator.
See the Latest election section for election results table. In early 1900s, the Brazilian National Congress happened to be in separate buildings; the Senate was located near Railway Central Station, beside the Republica Square, at Moncorvo Filho Street, where there is today a Federal University of Rio de Janeiro students' center. The Federal Chamber of Deputies was located at Misericórdia Street, which would be the location of the State of Rio de Janeiro's local Chamber of Deputies. From the 1930s to early 1960s, the Senate occupied the Monroe Palace, demolished in the 1970s to allow the construction of the subway Cinelândia Station; the Federal Chamber of Deputies moved to Brasília in early 1960s as well, but for a couple of years temporarily occupied a building near the Municipal Theater. Since the 1960s, the National Congress has been located in Brasília; as with most of the city's government buildings, the National Congress building was designed by Oscar Niemeyer in the modern Brazilian style.
The semi-sphere on the left is the seat of the Senate, the semi-sphere on the right is the seat of the Chamber of the Deputies. Between them are two vertical office towers; the Congress occupies other surrounding office buildings, some of them interconnected by a tunnel. The building is located in the middle of main street of Brasília. In front of it there is a large lawn. At the back of it, is the Praça dos Três Poderes, where lies the Palácio do Planalto and the Supreme Federal Court. On December 6, 2007, the Institute of Historic and Artistic National Heritage decided to declare the building of the National Congress a historical heritage of the Brazilian people; the building is among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as part of Brasília's original urban buildings, since 1987. At least two other high-rise buildings are similar to the National Congress b
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
History of Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century; the first European to colonize what is now the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire; the country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and it became the Empire of Brazil. A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic; the country has seen two dictatorship periods: the first during Vargas Era and the second during the military rule under Brazilian military government.
When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, "the earliest going back at least 10,000 years in the highlands of Minas Gerais". The dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called "Indians" by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists; the earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere, radiocarbon-dated 8,000 years old, has been excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, near Santarém, providing evidence to overturn the assumption that the tropical forest region was too poor in resources to have supported a complex prehistoric culture". The current most accepted view of anthropologists and geneticists is that the early tribes were part of the first wave of migrant hunters who came into the Americas from Asia, either by land, across the Bering Strait, or by coastal sea routes along the Pacific, or both; the Andes and the mountain ranges of northern South America created a rather sharp cultural boundary between the settled agrarian civilizations of the west coast and the semi-nomadic tribes of the east, who never developed written records or permanent monumental architecture.
For this reason little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500. Archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, occasional large state-like federations. At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes; the indigenous peoples were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living on the coast and along the banks of major rivers. Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives, but the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them, against which many Natives were helpless due to lack of immunity. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people; the diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans.
Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks; the extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island. Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos.
She concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rainforest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. There are many theories regarding, the first European to set foot on the land now called Brazil. Besides the accepted view of Cabral's discovery, some say that it was Duarte Pacheco Pereira between November and December 1498 and some others say that it was first encountered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, a Spanish navigator who had accompanied Colombus in his first voyage of discovery to the Americas, having arrived in today's Pernambuco region on 26 January 1500 but was unable to claim the land because of the Treaty of Tordesillas. In April 1500, Brazil was claimed for Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
The Portuguese encountered stone-using natives d
Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Eurico Gaspar Dutra was a Brazilian military leader and politician who served as 16th President of Brazil from 1946 to 1951. He was the first President of the Second Brazilian Republic which followed the Vargas Regime. Military, born in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, he falsified his birth year to 1885, at age 19, so that he would have a physical compatible with the age, in order to facilitate his entry into the Army. He studied at the Preparatory and Tactical School of Rio Grande do Sul and at the Military Academy of Brazil in 1904, of which he was expelled for taking part in an uprising that same year, related to the Vaccine Revolt, but pardoned, returned to school, now based in Realengo, completing the course in 1906, he was a student of the School of War in Porto Alegre, the School of Artillery and Engineering, where perfected in mechanics and metallurgy, the School of General Staff, where he graduated as the 1st in class and received the rare mention "très bien", acting shortly after, in the repression of the São Paulo Revolution of 1924.
Helped found the National Defense magazine in 1918, fought the uprising known as the "18 Fort" in 1922, in Rio de Janeiro, participated, integrating the North Detachment, under the command of General Mena Barreto, of the fighting against an insurgency erupted in Manaus that radiated to Pará. By having fought the Revolution of 1930, he was sent to the command of the 11th Cavalry Independent Regiment in Ponta Porã. Promoted to colonel, Dutra took command of the 4th Cavalry Divisional Regiment in Três Corações, where he fought the Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo in 1932. Defended the government of President Washington Luís against the rebels of 1930s, but in 1932, fought the Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo. Appointed commander of the 1st Military Region, stood out in reaction to the communist movement in 1935, episode known as “Intentona Comunista”, occupying the post of Minister of War. During World War II, he was among the Brazilian military leaders who were against an alignment with allies and a deeper involvement of the country in the conflict.
With, although modest, Brazil's participation in the war on the Allied side, the growing pressure from civil society for democratization of the country, Dutra formally adhered to the idea of the end of the regime that started in 1930, participating in the following deposition of Getúlio Vargas in October 1945, continuing the interventionist doctrine, practiced at the time by the Brazilian army. In this context, the deposed leader announced the following month his support for Dutra, the candidate of the Army, at the expense of the candidate of the Air Force, Eduardo Gomes, in the elections that followed. On September 18, 1946, the fifth constitution of Brazil was enacted, marking the country's return to democratic rule; that year, the government created the Social Service of Industry and Social Service of Commerce, the General Staff, the future General Staff of the Armed Forces. The same year, the president prohibited gambling in the country. In 1947, he registered the appointment of Osvaldo Aranha delegate of Brazil to the United Nations, the forfeiture of the Brazilian Communist Party, breaking off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and achieved, in Petrópolis, the Inter-American Conference of Peacekeeping and Security of the Continent, attended by the U.
S. president, Harry Truman. Closer relations with the Americans was evidenced in the formation of the Joint Commission Brazil-United States, known as Abbink Mission, headed by John Abbink and Minister Octavio Gouveia de Bouillon. Assignment was to diagnose the main problems of the Brazilian economy and, as a special recommendation, the use of external resources in the oil sector. Still in 1947 was the intervention of the Ministry of Labour in many unions, continuing the guardianship of the state over union activities guaranteed by ordinance in 9.070 of March 1946, a regulation to limit he right to strike. Concomitant with the union repression and wage restraint, economic policy has gone through two phases: the former was liberal and sought to break with previous forms of intervention in the economy. However, imports of goods led to a rapid depletion of the country's foreign exchange reserves. In 1947, under the guidance of the International Monetary Fund a second phase, in which the exchange control was retaken, kept the cruise at high levels compared to the U.
S. currency. This policy discouraged exports, encouraging, on the other hand, the import of equipment and other inputs, excluding consumer goods, favored the expansion of the manufacturing sector; the development strategy of the government included the “Salte Plan”, named for an emphasis on Health, Food and Energy. Proposed in 1947, it aimed at the management of public spending and investment in key sectors in the country but only began to receive funding from the budget in 1949, being forgotten in 1951. During this period measurements the country's economic growth by calculating the Gross Domestic Product were first published; the average annual growth of the Brazilian economy under his administration was 7.6%. During the Dutra government construction of the hydroelectric plant of Paulo Afonso and the President Dutra highway linking Rio to São Paulo was initiated. In October 1948 his government set up the Superior School of War, with American support. Upon leaving the presidency, he remained active in politics until he ran again for president in the indirect election