A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon vary in caliber, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, firepower; the word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can be translated as tube, cane, or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery if not a more specific term such as mortar or howitzer, except for high calibre automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons; the earliest known depiction of cannon appeared in Song dynasty China as early as the 12th century, however solid archaeological and documentary evidence of cannon do not appear until the 13th century. In 1288 Yuan dynasty troops are recorded to have used hand cannons in combat, the earliest extant cannon bearing a date of production comes from the same period.
By 1326 depictions of cannon had appeared in Europe and immediately recorded usage of cannon began appearing. By the end of the 14th century cannon were widespread throughout Eurasia. Cannon were used as anti-infantry weapons until around 1374 when cannon were recorded to have breached walls for the first time in Europe. Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and larger pieces appeared. In 1464 a 16,000 kg cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after 1453 with the introduction of limber, which improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. European cannon reached their longer, more accurate, more efficient "classic form" around 1480; this classic European cannon design stayed consistent in form with minor changes until the 1750s. Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning "large tube", which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the Greek κάννα, "reed", generalised to mean any hollow tube-like object.
The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom; the cannon may have appeared as early as the 12th century in China, was a parallel development or evolution of the fire-lance, a short ranged anti-personnel weapon combining a gunpowder-filled tube and a polearm of some sort. Co-viative projectiles such as iron scraps or porcelain shards were placed in fire lance barrels at some point, the paper and bamboo materials of fire lance barrels were replaced by metal; the earliest known depiction of a cannon is a sculpture from the Dazu Rock Carvings in Sichuan dated to 1128, however the earliest archaeological samples and textual accounts do not appear until the 13th century. The primary extant specimens of cannon from the 13th century are the Wuwei Bronze Cannon dated to 1227, the Heilongjiang hand cannon dated to 1288, the Xanadu Gun dated to 1298.
However, only the Xanadu gun contains an inscription bearing a date of production, so it is considered the earliest confirmed extant cannon. The Xanadu Gun weighs 6.2 kg. The other cannon are dated using contextual evidence; the Heilongjiang hand cannon is often considered by some to be the oldest firearm since it was unearthed near the area where the History of Yuan reports a battle took place involving hand cannon. According to the History of Yuan, in 1288, a Jurchen commander by the name of Li Ting led troops armed with hand cannon into battle against the rebel prince Nayan. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before 1259 while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by 1220, Stephen Haw goes further by stating that guns were developed as early as 1200. Sinologist Joseph Needham and renaissance siege expert Thomas Arnold provide a more conservative estimate of around 1280 for the appearance of the "true" cannon. Whether or not any of these are correct, it seems that the gun was born sometime during the 13th century.
References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries. Cannon featured in literary pieces. In 1341 Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, transfix several persons at once."By the 1350s the cannon was used extensively in Chinese warfare. In 1358 the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands on during the siege of Suzhou in 1366; the Korean kingdom of Joseon started producing gunpowder in 1374 and cannon by 1377. Cannon appeared in Đại Việt by 1390 at the latest. During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372. From the 13th to 15th centuries cannon-armed Chinese ships travelled throughout Southeast Asia; the first of the western cannon to be introduced were breach-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by 1523 and began improving on.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until 1510 when a monk brought one back from China, did not produce a
Fowling TM is a hybrid game that combines the equipment of American football and bowling into one sport with a similar layout as horseshoes and cornhole. Most played as a pastime in a tailgate or campground setting across the United States, Fowling was founded in 2001 by Chris Hutt from Detroit, Michigan; the object of Fowling is for teams to be the first to knock down all opponent's pins by throwing a full-size regulation football at 10 bowling pins positioned in a traditional bowling layout. The American Fowling Association has established a set of guidelines in order to govern sanctioned tournament play. All AFA members are expected to comply with the rules and regulations established and any violations or offenses will result in a team forfeiture at the discretion of a judge or official. Players have the option to protest a ruling to an official if they feel a violation has occurred by the opposing team. Fowling is played one-on-one, in teams of two, or with doubles play where teams stand on opposite ends called lanes.
In doubles play, teammates throw at the opposing team's lane. Similar to football, the game starts with a coin toss where the winner is granted the decision whether to fowl first or choose a lane to defend and defer to the other team to decide on fowling first; each team alternates throwing the football at their opponent’s pins while alternating fowlers within the team. Each player has 20 seconds. An imaginary foul line is designated for women who are throwing. Men are allowed to throw anywhere behind the back edge of the lane and women may throw from anywhere behind the front edge of the lane. Players may use any throwing style but must throw from the same location during each frame and must throw with the same arm for an entire match unless a medical emergency permits otherwise. At no time are players allowed to interfere with the throwing of the football or the ball contacting the pins. Defense is authorized only when a ball has crossed the foul line and technically still in play until it stops.
Any rule violation results in a foul throw for the other team and regains possession as well regardless of throwing rotation predicted by the coin toss. Like bowling, each match is broken down into frames. In match play, one frame is completed; the team that accomplishes this first wins the frame. The game is over. A tie occurs. In the case of a tie, overtime is invoked in a sudden death contest to determine the winner. Both teams place one pin anywhere on the fowling lane for their opponent’s to throw at. A coin toss determines who throws first and no equalizer throw is allowed; the team that knocks their opponent’s pin down first wins the match. Fowling matches are played with two wooden platforms, 20 bowling pins and a regulation-size football; the lane surface shall be a 42-by-96-inch rectangle constructed of half-inch plywood fastened to a 2-inch × 4-inch wood frame edge. For ease of transportation, lanes made of two 42-by-48-inch plywood boards may be used as long as they are fastened together during tournament play.
AFA-sanctioned tournaments should only be played on wooden fowling lanes due to significant variance in play for different surface materials. Each game consists of two lanes placed 32 feet apart between the front edge of the lanes, facing each other, it is recommended. Bowling pins should be standard regulation size and weight and arrange in the standard, triangular bowling pin formation with equidistant 12-inch spacing between each pin from center to center. Footballs must meet pro or college regulation weight standards for tournament play. Footballs should be inflated to regulation pressure to avoid deflategate situations. Cornhole Horseshoes Ladder toss Washer pitching Lawn game Fowling.org The Fowling Warehouse - Fowling Warehouse
The Outer Hebrides known as the Western Isles, Innse Gall or the Long Isle or the Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically coextensive with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland, they form part of the archipelago of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch, the Sea of the Hebrides. Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority. Most of the islands have a bedrock formed from ancient metamorphic rocks and the climate is mild and oceanic; the 15 inhabited islands have a total population of 27,000 and there are more than 50 substantial uninhabited islands. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is 210 kilometres. There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors.
The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, which lasted for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth in 1266. Control of the islands was held by clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeods, MacDonalds and MacNeils; the Highland Clearances of the 19th century had a devastating effect on many communities and it is only in recent years that population levels have ceased to decline. Much of the land is now under local control and commercial activity is based on tourism, crofting and weaving. Sea transport is crucial and a variety of ferry services operate between the islands and to mainland Scotland. Modern navigation systems now minimise the dangers but in the past the stormy seas have claimed many ships. Religion and sport are important aspects of local culture, there are numerous designated conservation areas to protect the natural environment; the islands form an archipelago whose major islands are Lewis and Harris, North Uist, South Uist, Barra.
Lewis and Harris has an area of 217,898 hectares and is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles, after Great Britain and Ireland. It incorporates Lewis in the north and Harris in the south, both of which are referred to as individual islands, although they are connected by land; the island does not have a single name in either English or Gaelic, is referred to as "Lewis and Harris", "Lewis with Harris", "Harris with Lewis" etc. The largest islands are indented by arms of the sea such as Loch Ròg, Loch Seaforth and Loch nam Madadh. There are more than 7,500 freshwater lochs in the Outer Hebrides, about 24% of the total for the whole of Scotland. North and South Uist and Lewis in particular have landscapes with a high percentage of fresh water and a maze and complexity of loch shapes. Harris has innumerable small lochans. Loch Langavat on Lewis is 11 kilometres long, has several large islands in its midst, including Eilean Mòr. Although Loch Suaineabhal has only 25% of Loch Langavat's surface area, it has a mean depth of 33 metres and is the most voluminous on the island.
Of Loch Sgadabhagh on North Uist it has been said that "there is no other loch in Britain which approaches Loch Scadavay in irregularity and complexity of outline." Loch Bì is South Uist's largest loch and at 8 kilometres long it all but cuts the island in two. Much of the western coastline of the islands is a fertile low-lying dune pastureland. Lewis is comparatively flat, consists of treeless moors of blanket peat; the highest eminence is Mealisval at 574 m in the south west. Most of Harris is mountainous, with large areas of exposed rock and Clisham, the archipelago's only Corbett, reaches 799 m in height. North and South Uist and Benbecula have sandy beaches and wide cultivated areas of machair to the west and uninhabited mountainous areas to the east; the highest peak here is Beinn Mhòr at 620 metres. The Uists and their immediate outliers have a combined area of 74,540 hectares; this includes the Uists themselves and the islands linked to them by causeways and bridges. Barra is 5,875 hectares in extent and has a rugged interior, surrounded by machair and extensive beaches.
The scenic qualities of the islands are reflected in the fact that three of Scotland's forty national scenic areas are located here. The national scenic areas are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development, are considered to represent the type of scenic beauty "popularly associated with Scotland and for which it is renowned"; the three NSA within the Outer Hebridies are: South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area covers the mountainous south west of Lewis, all of Harris, the Sound of Harris and the northern part of North Uist. An area of the south west coast of South Uist is designated as the South Uist Machair National Scenic Area; the archipelago of St Kilda is listed as an NSA, alongside many other conservation designations. Much of the archipelago is a protected habitat, including both the islands and the surrounding waters. There are 53 Sites of Special Scientific Interest of which the largest are Loch an Duin, North Uist and North Harris.
South Uist is considered the best place in the UK for the aquatic plant Slender Naiad, a European Protected S
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function. The fouling materials can consist of a non-living substance. Fouling is distinguished from other surface-growth phenomena, in that it occurs on a surface of a component, system or plant performing a defined and useful function, that the fouling process impedes or interferes with this function. Other terms used in the literature to describe fouling include: deposit formation, crudding, scaling, scale formation and sludge formation; the last six terms have a more narrow meaning than fouling within the scope of the fouling science and technology, they have meanings outside of this scope. Fouling phenomena are common and diverse, ranging from fouling of ship hulls, natural surfaces in the marine environment, fouling of heat-transfer components through ingredients contained in the cooling water or gases, the development of plaque or calculus on teeth, or deposits on solar panels on Mars, among other examples.
This article is devoted to the fouling of industrial heat exchangers, although the same theory is applicable to other varieties of fouling. In the cooling technology and other technical fields, a distinction is made between macro fouling and micro fouling. Of the three, micro fouling is the one, more difficult to prevent and therefore less important. Following are examples of components that may be subject to fouling and the corresponding effects of fouling: Heat exchanger surfaces – reduces thermal efficiency, decreases heat flux, increases temperature on the hot side, decreases temperature on the cold side, induces under-deposit corrosion, increases use of cooling water. Macro fouling is caused by coarse matter of either biological or inorganic origin, for example industrially produced refuse; such matter enters into the cooling water circuit through the cooling water pumps from sources like the open sea, rivers or lakes. In closed circuits, like cooling towers, the ingress of macro fouling into the cooling tower basin is possible through open canals or by the wind.
Sometimes, parts of the cooling tower internals detach themselves and are carried into the cooling water circuit. Such substances can foul the surfaces of heat exchangers and may cause deterioration of the relevant heat transfer coefficient, they may create flow blockages, redistribute the flow inside the components, or cause fretting damage. Examples Manmade refuse; as to micro fouling, distinctions are made between: Scaling or precipitation fouling, as crystallization of solid salts and hydroxides from water solutions, for example, calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate. Scaling or precipitation fouling involves crystallization of solid salts and hydroxides from solutions; these are most water solutions, but non-aqueous precipitation fouling is known. Precipitation fouling is a common problem in boilers and heat exchangers operating with hard water and results in limescale. Through changes in temperature, or solvent evaporation or degasification, the concentration of salts may exceed the saturation, leading to a precipitation of solids.
As an example, the equilibrium between the soluble calcium bicarbonate - always prevailing in natural water - and the poorly soluble calcium carbonate, the following chemical equation may be written
The Fens known as the Fenlands, are a coastal plain in eastern England. This natural marshy region supported a rich ecology and numerous species, as well as absorbing storms. Most of the fens were drained several centuries ago, resulting in a flat, low-lying agricultural region supported by a system of drainage channels and man-made rivers and automated pumping stations. There have been unintended consequences to this reclamation, as the land level has continued to sink and the dykes must be built higher to protect it from flooding. A fen is the local term for an individual area of former marshland, it designates the type of marsh typical of the area, which has neutral or alkaline water chemistry and large quantities of dissolved minerals, but few other plant nutrients. Fenland lies around the coast of the Wash, occupying an area of nearly 1,500 sq mi in Lincolnshire and Norfolk. Most of the Fenland lies within a few metres of sea level; as with similar areas in the Netherlands, much of the Fenland consisted of fresh- or salt-water wetlands.
These have been artificially drained and continue to be protected from floods by drainage banks and pumps. With the support of this drainage system, the Fenland has become a major arable agricultural region in Britain for grains and vegetables; the Fens are fertile, containing around half of the grade 1 agricultural land in England. The Fens have been referred to as the "Holy Land of the English" because of the former monasteries, now churches and cathedrals, of Crowland, Peterborough and Thorney. Other significant settlements in the Fens include Boston, Cambridge and Wisbech; the Fens are low-lying compared with the chalk and limestone uplands that surround them – in most places no more than 10 m above sea level. As a result of drainage and the subsequent shrinkage of the peat fens, many parts of the Fens now lie below mean sea level. Although one writer in the 17th century described the Fenland as above sea level, the area now includes the lowest land in the United Kingdom. Holme Fen in Cambridgeshire, is around 2.75 metres below sea level.
Within the Fens are a few hills, which have been called "islands", as they remained dry when the low-lying fens around them were flooded. The largest of the fen-islands is the Isle of Ely, on which the cathedral city of Ely was built: its highest point is 39 m above mean sea level. Without artificial drainage and flood protection, the Fens would be liable to periodic flooding in winter due to the heavy load of water flowing down from the uplands and overflowing the rivers; some areas of the Fens were once permanently flooded, creating small lakes or meres, while others were flooded only during periods of high water. In the pre-modern period, arable farming was limited to the higher areas of the surrounding uplands, the fen islands, the so-called "Townlands", an arch of silt ground around the Wash, where the towns had their arable fields. Though these lands were lower than the peat fens before the peat shrinkage began, the more stable silt soils were reclaimed by medieval farmers and embanked against any floods coming down from the peat areas or from the sea.
The rest of the Fenland was dedicated to pastoral farming, fishing and the harvesting of reeds or sedge for thatch. In this way, the medieval and early modern Fens stood in contrast to the rest of southern England, an arable agricultural region. Since the advent of modern drainage in the 19th and 20th centuries, the Fens have been radically transformed. Today arable farming has entirely replaced pastoral; the economy of the Fens is invested in the production of crops such as grains and some cash crops such as rapeseed and canola. Drainage in the Fenland consists of both river drainage and internal drainage of the land between the rivers; the internal drainage was organised by levels or districts, each of which includes the fen parts of one or several parishes. The details of the organisation vary with the history of their development, but the areas include: The Great Level of the Fens is the largest region of fen in eastern England: including the lower drainage basins of the River Nene and the Great Ouse, it covers about 500 sq mi.
It is known as the Bedford Level, after Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford, who headed the so-called adventurers in the 17th-century drainage in this area. In the 17th century, the Great Level was divided into the North and South Levels for the purposes of administration and maintenance. In the 20th century, these levels have been given new boundaries; the South Level lies to the southeast of the Ouse Washes and surrounds Ely, as it did in the 17th century. The Middle Level lies between the Ouse Washes and the Nene, but was defined as between the Ouse Washes and Morton's Leam, a 15th-century canal that runs north of the town of Whittlesey; the North Level now includes all of the fens in Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire between the Nene and the River Welland. It included only a small part of these lands, including the ancient parishes of Thorney and Crowland, but excluding most of Wisbech Hundred and Lincolnshire, which were under their own local jurisdictions. Deeping Fen, in the southern part of Lincolnshire, lies between the River Welland and the River Glen with its tributary the Bourne Eau.
The Black Sluice District, much of, known as the Lindsey Level when it was first drained in 1639, extends from the Glen and Bou