Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed upturned snout, a long bushy tail. Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true foxes" group of genus Vulpes. Another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox with about 47 recognized subspecies; the global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World; the word fox comes from Old English. This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-, meaning ’thick-haired. Male foxes are known as dogs, tods or reynards, females as vixens, young as cubs, pups, or kits, though the latter name is not to be confused with a distinct species called kit foxes.

Vixen is one of few words in modern English that retains the Middle English southern dialect "v" pronunciation instead of "f". A group of foxes is referred to leash, or earth. Within the Canidae, the results of DNA analysis shows several phylogenetic divisions: The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox, red fox, Cape fox, Arctic fox, fennec fox; the wolf-like canids, including the dog, gray wolf, red wolf, eastern wolf, golden jackal, Ethiopian wolf, black-backed jackal, side-striped jackal and African wild dog. The South American canids, including hoary fox, crab-eating fox and maned wolf. Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox, gray fox, raccoon dog. Foxes are smaller than some other members of the family Canidae such as wolves and jackals, while they may be larger than some within the family, such as Raccoon dogs. In the largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and 8.7 kg, while the smallest species, the fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg. Foxy features include a triangular face, pointed ears, an elongated rostrum, a bushy tail.

Foxes are digitigrade, thus, walk on their toes. Unlike most members of the family Canidae, foxes have retractable claws. Fox vibrissae, or whiskers, are black; the whiskers on the muzzle, mystaciae vibrissae, average 100–110 mm long, while the whiskers everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers are on the forelimbs and average 40 mm long, pointing downward and backward. Other physical characteristics vary according to adaptive significance. Fox species differ in fur color and density. Coat colors range from pearly white to black-and-white to black flecked with white or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes, for example, have short fur to aid in keeping the body cool. Arctic foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm. Red foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail ending with a white. A fox's coat color and texture may vary due to the change in seasons. To get rid of the dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April.

Coat color may change as the individual ages. A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/2 = 42. Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, characteristic of a carnivore; these pairs consist of the upper premolar and the lower first molar, work together to shear tough material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced characteristic of a carnivore, are excellent in gripping prey. In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years, although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids, foxes are not always pack animals, they live in small family groups, but some are known to be solitary. Foxes are omnivores; the diet of foxes is made up of invertebrates such as insects, small vertebrates such as reptiles and birds, can include eggs and plants. Many species are generalist predators. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it for consumption under leaves, snow, or soil. Foxes tend to use a pouncing technique where they crouch down to camouflage themselves in the terrain using their hind legs, leap up with great force to land on top of thei

Jaroslav Foglar

Jaroslav Foglar was a famous Czech author who wrote many novels about youths and their adventures in nature and dark city streets. His signature series is Rychlé šípy, adapted into comics by Jan Fischer. Foglar grew up in Prague, capital of Bohemia; because his father died prematurely he was brought up in rather poor material conditions by his mother. He was influenced by romantic parts of Prague. All of the fictional towns in his novels are less derived from Prague. During the 1920s, Foglar was influenced by German independent Wandervogel movement as well as Scout movement led by Antonín Benjamin Svojsík under Czech name Junák. During the 1930s and 1940s, Foglar worked as a magazine editor in one of the largest Prague publishing houses, Melantrich, he edited several journals for youths: Mladý hlasatel, 1938–1941 Junák, 1945–1949 Vpřed, 1946–1948and he wrote articles for other journals including the Skaut, Sluníčko, ABC, the Tramp. After the Communist coup in 1948 Foglar was kicked out of the publishing house, his magazines were liquidated and his books prohibited, as was the Scout movement and independent youth clubs.

For many years he worked as a tutor in boarding schools and youth homes. During the fall of censorship at the end of the 1960s, he published some new books and re-editions of the older ones. After Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia his books were once again banned until 1989. Foglar never married. Although Foglar worked as a Boy Scout leader, his relation to the Scout movement was not straightforward, he pictured the Boy Scouts only in few of his novels, preferring to write about his own invention, the boy clubs. Foglar's idea of independent boy clubs is derived from German Wandervogel movement; as editor of Mlady Hlasatel, Foglar systematically build clubbist ideology on some and traditions and own terminology. Clubs were small groups between 8 youths; some of them were informally led by young men few years older than other youths, like Rikitan in novel Hosi od Bobri reky or by best of the youths - like'exemplary youth' Mirek Dusin of Rychle Sipy Club. With Foglar's novels and magazine articles as examples, many Czech youths established such clubs.

In the golden age of club movement, there were thousands of such independent clubs, which presented a type of Wandervogel-like alternative to the organized Scout movement. On the other hand, when Scouts were persecuted and forbidden during the German occupation between 1938 and 1945 and during Communism between 1948 and 1989, boy clubs posed excellent informal alternative of youth life based on ideas similar to those of Scouts. One of the key motives of Foglar's novels is the tension between the loneliness and close friendship between young male heroes; these are distinctive in novels'Přístav volá','Když duben přichází','Chata v Jezerní kotlině','Modrá rokle' and'Tajemná Řásnovka'. These novels are non-scout ones, picturing independent life of youths. On the other hand, in second large group of his novels, a'group hero' novels, the plot is based on stories of some organized group of youths, with less individual psychology and more action and adventures; the heroes are independent clubbists. Some critics argued that Foglar's novels are crammed with covert homoerotic desire, or that the author himself was gay.

Foglar was influenced by German Wandervogel romantism more than the ideas of British scout movement. Wandervogel movement itself had some elements of male eroticism, it can be admitted that most of the Foglar's novels include close friendships between two youths, with some exceptions in relation to the'group-hero' novels like'Rychle Sipy' Club and'Devadesatka'. Foglar novels are set in an prevalently male world, where women are irrelevant; this homosociality was common in literature of the period, regardless of the sexual orientation of the author. Besides, there are a few strong female characters in his books, in his comic series "Rychlé šípy"; that Foglar was not gay can be documented by the fact that he had a few serious love affairs with girls. Note: the list is incomplete. Rychlé šípy Hoši od Bobří řeky Přístav volá Když duben přichází Pod junáckou vlajkou Devadesátka pokračuje Záhada hlavolamu, the mechanical puzzle Hedgehog in the Cage plays a central role in the book Stínadla se bouří Tajemství velkého Vonta Strach nad Bobří řekou Chata v jezerní kotlině Tábor smůly Tajemná Řásnovka Boj o první místo Historie svorné sedmy Poklad Černého delfína Kronika ztracené stopy Náš oddíl Dobrodružství v zemi nikoho Modrá rokle Jestřábe, vypravuj Život v poklusu Junák Foglar info Foglar e-zin Society of Friends of Jaroslav Foglar


Akanye or akanje "a-ing", is a phonological phenomenon in Slavic languages in which the phonemes /o/ or /e/ are realized as more or less close to. It is a case of vowel reduction; the most familiar example is Russian akanye. Akanye occurs in standard Belarusian as well as in northern Ukrainian dialects, Slovene dialects, some subgroups of the Kajkavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian dialects. In Belarusian аканне, both non-softened and softened /o/ and /a/ and other phonemes phonetically merge into in unstressed positions. In Russian а́канье, /o/ and /a/ phonetically merge in unstressed positions. If not preceded by a palatalized consonant, these phonemes give in the syllable before the stress and in absolute word-initial position. In other unstressed locations, non-softened /o/ and /a/ are further reduced towards a short, poorly enunciated; the dialects without reduction of unstressed o are called okanye "o-ing". After soft consonants, unstressed /o/ and /a/ are pronounced like in most varieties of Russian.

Unlike Belarusian akanne, Russian akanye does not affect softened vowels. Slovene akanje may be complete. Examples from various Slovene dialects: domú → damú'at home', dnò → dnà'bottom', léto → líəta, ne vém → na vém'I don't know', hléb → hlàb'loaf', jêčmen → jèčman'barley'. Vowel reduction in Russian - about ikanye