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Fox News

Fox News is an American conservative cable television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the U. S; as of September 2018 87,118,000 US households receive Fox News. In 2019, Fox News was the top-rated cable network averaging 2.5 million viewers. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO.

Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations, conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances. Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives". During Trump's presidency, observers have noted a pronounced tendency of Fox News to serve as a "mouthpiece" for the administration, providing "propaganda" and a "feedback loop" for Trump, with one presidential scholar stating, "it’s the closest we’ve come to having state TV." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia.

In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989. With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U.

S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest; the flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred.

To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel. This contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming; when Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U. S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of t

Honey encryption

Honey encryption is a type of data encryption that "produces a ciphertext, when decrypted with an incorrect key as guessed by the attacker, presents a plausible-looking yet incorrect plaintext password or encryption key." Ari Juels and Thomas Ristenpart of the University of Wisconsin, the developers of the encryption system, presented a paper on honey encryption at the 2014 Eurocrypt cryptography conference. A brute-force attack involves repeated decryption with random keys; this is effective because though the attacker is likely to see any given plaintext, most plaintexts are unlikely to be legitimate i.e. the distribution of legitimate plaintexts is non-uniform. Honey encryption defeats such attacks by first transforming the plaintext into a space such that the distribution of legitimate plaintexts is uniform, thus an attacker guessing keys will see legitimate-looking plaintexts and random-looking plaintexts infrequently. This makes it difficult to determine. In effect, honey encryption " up fake data in response to every incorrect guess of the password or encryption key."The security of honey encryption relies on the fact that the probability of an attacker judging a plaintext to be legitimate can be calculated at the time of encryption.

This makes honey encryption difficult to apply in certain applications e.g. where the space of plaintexts is large or the distribution of plaintexts is unknown. It means that honey encryption can be vulnerable to brute-force attacks if this probability is miscalculated. For example, it is vulnerable to known-plaintext attacks: if the attacker has a crib that a plaintext must match in order to be legitimate, they will be able to brute-force Honey Encrypted data if the encryption did not take the crib into account. An encrypted credit card number is susceptible to brute-force attacks because not every string of digits is likely; the number of digits can range from 13-19. Additionally it must have a valid IIN and the last digit must match the checksum. An attacker can take into account the popularity of various services: an IIN from MasterCard is more than an IIN from Diners Club Carte Blanche. Honey encryption can protect against these attacks by first mapping credit card numbers to a larger space where they match their likelihood of legitimacy.

Numbers with invalid IINs and checksums are not mapped at all. Numbers from large brands like MasterCard and Visa map to large regions of this space, while less popular brands map to smaller regions, etc. An attacker brute-forcing such an encryption scheme would only see legitimate-looking credit card numbers when they brute-force, the numbers would appear with the frequency the attacker would expect from the real world. Juels and Ristenpart aim to use honey encryption to protect data stored on password manager services. Juels stated that "password managers are a tasty target for criminals," and worries that "if criminals get a hold of a large collection of encrypted password vaults they could unlock many of them without too much trouble." Hristo Bojinov, CEO and founder of Anfacto, noted that "Honey Encryption could help reduce their vulnerability. But he notes. … Not all authentication or encryption system yield themselves to being honeyed." Eurocrypt 2014 Website Werbegeschenke

List of state leaders in the 4th century BC

State leaders in the 5th century BC – State leaders in the 3rd century BC – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 4th century BC. Carthage Carthage –Didonian Himilco II, King Mago II, King Mago III, King Hanno III, King Hannonian Hanno the Great, King Gisco, King Hamilcar II, King Bomilcar, King Egypt: Late Period Twenty-eighth Dynasty of the Late Period –Amyrtaeus, Pharaoh Twenty-ninth Dynasty of the Late Period –Nefaarud I, Pharaoh Psammuthes, Pharaoh Hakor, Pharaoh Thirtieth Dynasty of the Late Period –Nectanebo I, Pharaoh Teos, Pharaoh Nectanebo II, Pharaoh Khabash Revolt of the Second Persian occupation of Egypt Khabash, rebel Pharaoh Egypt: Ptolemaic Kingdom Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt –Ptolemy I Soter, Pharaoh Kush Kush –Harsiotef, King Akhraten, King Amanibakhi, King Nastasen, King Numidia Numidia: Eastern Numidia –Zelalsen, King China: Warring States period Zhou, China: Eastern Zhou –An, King Lie, King Xian, King Shenjing, King Nan, King Chu –Dao, King Su, King Xuan, King Wei, King Huai, King Han –Jing, Marquess Lie, Marquess Wen, Marquess Ai, Marquess Gong, Marquess Xi, Marquess Xuanhui, King Xiang, King Qi: House of Jiang –Kang, Duke Qi: House of Tian –Tai, Duke Tian Yan, Marquess Huan, Duke Wei, King Xuan, King Min, King Qin –Jian, Duke Hui II, Duke Chuzi II, Duke Xian, Duke Xiao, Duke Huiwen, King Wu, King Zhaoxiang, King Wei –Wen, Marquess Wu, Marquess Hui, King Xiang, King Zhao –Lie, Marquess Jing, Marquess Cheng, Marquess Su, Marquess Wuling, King Vietnam Hồng Bàng dynasty –Hùng Duệ Vương, King India Magadha: Shishunaga dynasty –Shishunaga, King Kalashoka, King Mahanandin, King Magadha: Nanda dynasty –Mahapadma Nanda, Emperor Dhana, Emperor Maurya Empire –Chandragupta, Emperor Sri Lanka Anuradhapura Kingdom –Pandukabhaya, King Mutasiva, King Devanampiya Tissa, King Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara –Pandukabhaya, King First Persian Empire/ Achaemenid Empire –Artaxerxes II, Great King, Shah Artaxerxes III, Great King, Shah Arses, Great King, Shah Darius III, Great King, Shah Bessus, Great King, Shah Antigonid dynasty –Antigonus I Monophthalmus, King in Syria and Asia Minor Kingdom of Bithynia –Bas, Dynast Zipoetes IDynast King Bosporan Kingdom:Spartocids dynasty –Satyrus I, King Seleucus, King Leucon I, King Gorgippus, King Spartacus II, King Pairisades I, King Satyrus II, King Prytanis, King Eumelos, King Spartacus III, King Kingdom of Cappadocia –Ariarathes ISatrap King Ariarathes II, Suzerain King Colchis –Akes, King Kuji, King Seleucid Empire –Seleucus I Nicator, King AthensEpirusTharrhypas, King Alcetas I, King Neoptolemos I, King Arybbas, King Alexander I, King Aeacides, King Alcetas II, King Pyrrhus I, King Neoptolemos II, King Macedonia: Argead dynasty –Archelaus I, King Craterus, King Orestes, King Aeropus II, King Archelaus II, King Amyntas II, King Pausanias, King Argaeus II, King Amyntas III, King Alexander II, King Ptolemy, Regent Perdiccas III, King Amyntas IV, King Philip II, King Alexander the Great, King Philip III Arrhidaeus, King Haaibre Alexander IV, King Odrysian kingdom of Thrace –Amadocus I, King Seuthes II, King Hebryzelmis, King Cotys I, King Cersobleptes, eastern Thrace Berisades, western Thrace Amatokos II, middle Thrace Cetriporis, western Thrace Teres II, middle Thrace Seuthes III, King Paeonia –Agis, King Lycceius, King Patraus, King Audoleon, King Sparta –Agis II, King Agesilaus II, King Archidamus III, King Agis III, King Dacia (complet