A frame story is a literary technique that serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, where an introductory or main narrative sets the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories. The frame story leads readers from a first story into one or more other stories within it; the frame story may be used to inform readers about aspects of the secondary narrative that may otherwise be hard to understand. This should not be confused with character personality change. A frame story is called a "sandwich narrative" or an "intercalated narrative." One narrative is embedded or nestled within a second story and acts as a commentary on the frame narrative or vice versa. This framing device is a common literary technique within the New Testament. For example, Mark interrupts the story of the cursing and withering of the fig tree to place another story within it; the fig tree narrative acts as a commentary on the Temple cleansing. A Cursing of the Fig Tree B Cleansing of the Temple A' Withering of the Fig Tree.
Some of the earliest known frame stories are those from ancient Egypt, including one found in the Papyrus Westcar, the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, The Eloquent Peasant. Other early examples are from Indian literature, including the Sanskrit epics Mahabharata, Panchatantra, Syntipas's The Seven Wise Masters, the fable collections Hitopadesha and Vikram and The Vampire; this form spread west through the centuries and became popular, giving rise to such classic frame tale collections as the One Thousand and One Nights, The Decameron, Canterbury Tales. This format had flexibility in that various narrators could retain the stories they liked or understood, while dropping ones they didn't and adding new ones they heard from other places; this occurred with One Thousand and One Nights, where different versions over the centuries have included different stories. The use of a frame story in which a single narrative is set in the context of the telling of a story is a technique with a long history, dating back at least to the beginning section of the Odyssey, in which the narrator Odysseus tells of his wandering in the court of King Alcinous.
This literary device acts as a convenient conceit for the organization of a set of smaller narratives, which are either of the devising of the author or taken from a previous stock of popular tales altered by the author for the purpose of the longer narrative. Sometimes a story within the main narrative can be used to sum up or encapsulate some aspect of the framing story, in which case it is referred to in literary criticism by the French term mise en abyme. A typical example of a frame story is One Thousand and One Nights, in which the character Shahrazad narrates a set of fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights. Many of Shahrazad's tales are frame stories, such as Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman, a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. Extensive use of this device is found in Ovid's Metamorphoses, where the stories nest several deep, to allow the inclusion of many different tales in one work. Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights uses this literary device to tell the story of Heathcliff and Catherine, along with the subplots.
Her sister Anne uses this device in her epistolary novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. The main heroine's diary is framed by the narrator's story and letters. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is another good example of a book with multiple framed narratives. In the book, Robert Walton writes letters to his sister describing the story told to him by Victor Frankenstein. Frame stories have appeared in other media, such as comic books. Neil Gaiman's comic book series The Sandman featured a story arc called Worlds End which consisted of frame stories, sometimes featured stories within stories within stories. Frame stories are organized as a gathering of people in one place for the exchange of stories; each character tells his or her tale, the frame tale progresses in that manner. Famous frame stories include Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, about a group of pilgrims who tell stories on their journey to Canterbury. Sometimes only one storyteller exists, in this case there might be different levels of distance between the reader and author.
In this mode, the frame tale can become more fuzzy. In Washington Irving's Sketch Book, which contains "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle" among others, the conceit is that the author of the book is not Irving, but a certain gentleman named Crayon. Here the frame includes the world of the imagined Crayon, his stories, the possible reader, assumed to play along and "know" who Crayon is. Donald Westlake's short story "No Story" is a parody of frame stories, in which a series of narrators start to tell stories, each of which contains a narrator who starts to tell a story, culminating in a narrator who announces that there will be no story, it is a frame story without a story to be framed. When there is a single story, the frame story is used for other purposes – chiefly to position the reader's attitude toward the tale. One common one is to draw attention to the narrator's unreliability. By explicitly making the narrator a character within the frame story, the writer distances him or herself from the narrator.
Michael Penn is the Teresa Hihn Moore Professor of Religious Studies at Stanford University, taught at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts. His writings include the book Kissing Christians: Ritual and the Late Ancient Church, he received a Guggenheim Fellowship and other grants for studies of the Syriac Christians and their relationship to Islam. He was quoted in USA Today regarding the veracity of the Gospel of Judas. Penn's courses at Mount Holyoke included "What Didn't Make It into the Bible" and "Sex and the Early Church". Penn studied molecular biology and was a debater at Princeton University received his Ph. D. from Duke University. He attended Pinewood High School in California, from which he graduated in 1989. Faculty profile at Stanford University
King's Valley II: The Seal of El Giza is a game for MSX1 and MSX2 computers by Konami. It is a sequel to King's Valley from 1985; the MSX2 version only saw a release in Japan. The same goes for a rare "contest" version; the contest was about making levels with the games' built-in level editor, held by four Japanese MSX magazines, two of them are MSX. FAN and Beep; the winners of this contest received a gold cartridge with the twenty custom stages on it. Custom levels can be saved to either a disk or tape, the levels are interchangeable between both the MSX1 and MSX2 versions. Far, far into the future, inter-planetary archaeologist Vick XIII, makes a choking discovery; the pyramids on earth are malfunctioning devices of alien origin with enough energy to destroy earth. And it's up to Vick to switch off the core functions of El Giza; the game consists of six pyramids each with its own wall engravings and color pattern. The idea of the game is to collect crystals called soul stones in each level by solving the different puzzles and evading or killing the enemies using the many tools and weapons available to unlock the exit door that will take you to the next level.
The Konami game Castlevania: Portrait of Ruin for the Nintendo DS reuses the stage musics "In Search of the Secret Spell" and "Sandfall" for the Egyptian area of the game. The MSX 2 version was the same game except minor changes like the music was remixed and some of the items and backgrounds recolored. Castlevania: Harmony of Despair uses a remix of the Stage Clear theme as the Stage Clear theme for Chapter 7: Beauty, Situation Dire
The 2016–17 Northwestern Wildcats women's basketball team represented Northwestern University during the 2016–17 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Wildcats, led by ninth-year head coach Joe McKeown, played their home games at the Welsh-Ryan Arena as members of the Big Ten Conference, they finished the season 8 -- 8 in Big Ten play to finish in a tie for eighth place. They defeated Iowa in the second round of the Big Ten Women's Tournament before losing to Ohio State. Despite having 20 wins, they were not invited to a postseason tournament first time since 2013. 2016–17 Northwestern Wildcats men's basketball team
Flying Officer George Ebben Randall was a British World War I flying ace credited with eleven aerial victories. George Ebben Randall was born in London, England on 19 January 1899. Randall joined the Royal Flying Corps as a cadet, was commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant on 4 April 1917, being appointed a flying officer and confirmed in his rank on 15 July, with seniority from 17 May, he served for some time in No. 3 Squadron RFC as an observer/gunner, before training as a pilot, being promoted to lieutenant being appointed a flying officer on 20 May 1918. He was posted to No. 20 Squadron RAF, flying the Bristol F.2 Fighter, shot down eleven German fighter aircraft between 24 July and 10 November 1918. His last two victories, on the day before the Armistice, won him a Distinguished Flying Cross, his observer/gunners included Sergeant Arthur Ernest Newland. Randall's final tally was four driven down out of control. Randall's DFC was gazetted on 7 February 1919, his citation read: Lieutenant George Ebben Randall.
"A brave and resourceful flight commander who has, within the last four months previous to November 11th, led 71 offensive patrols. On 10th November, engaging a superior number of enemy aircraft, he himself shot down two, the remainder were driven off by his flight. In addition to the foregoing he has four other enemy machines to his credit." On 1 August 1919, Randall was a granted permanent commission in the RAF with the rank of flying officer. On 9 July 1920, he was awarded a Bar for his part in operations in Waziristan. Randall appears to have run into financial difficulties, as on 6 July 1922, while serving at RAF Uxbridge, he was declared bankrupt, he resigned his commission on 22 November 1922. Guttman, Jon. Bristol F 2 Fighter Aces of World War I. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-201-1. Shores, Christopher F.. Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9
Anna Gershnik, née Segal, is an American Woman Grandmaster, who until 1990 representing Soviet Union, in 1990–2005 - Israel. In 1989, in Aguadilla she won World Youth Chess Championship in girl's U14 age category; the following year, her family went to Israel, Anna Gershnik was among the top chess players of this country. In 1991, in Graz she took the third place in the FIDE Women's World Chess Championship Zonal tournament. In the following years she represented Israel several times at the World Junior Chess Championships and European Junior Chess Championships. In 1993, Anna Gershnik shared 4th place in the tournament First Saturday FS12 IM-A in Budapest. In 1998, she advanced to the semi-finals of the Israeli Women's Chess Championship play-off where she lost Ella Pitam. Anna Gershnik played for Israel in the Women's Chess Olympiads: In 1990, at third board in the 29th Chess Olympiad in Novi Sad, In 1992, at first board in the 30th Chess Olympiad in Manila, In 1994, at second board in the 31st Chess Olympiad in Moscow, In 1996, at second board in the 32nd Chess Olympiad in Yerevan, In 1998, at first reserve board in the 33rd Chess Olympiad in Elista.
Anna Gershnik played for Israel in the European Team Chess Championship: In 1992, at second board in the 1st European Team Chess Championship in Debrecen. In 1995, she was awarded the FIDE International Women Grandmaster title. In 1999, Anna Gershnik ended her active chess career. Anna Gershnik player profile and games at Chessgames.com Anna Gershnik chess games at 365Chess.com