Salma Hayek Pinault is a Mexican and American film actress and former model. She began her career in Mexico starring in the telenovela Teresa and starred in the film El Callejón de los Milagros for which she was nominated for an Ariel Award. In 1991 Hayek moved to Hollywood and came to prominence with roles in films such as Desperado, From Dusk till Dawn and Wild Wild West, her breakthrough role was in the 2002 film Frida, as Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, for which she was nominated in the category of Best Actress for an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, Golden Globe Award. This movie was a critical and commercial success, she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing in a Children/Youth/Family Special in 2004 for The Maldonado Miracle and received an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series in 2007 after guest-starring in the ABC television comedy-drama Ugly Betty. She guest-starred on the NBC comedy series 30 Rock from 2009 to 2013.
In 2017, she was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award for her role in Beatriz at Dinner. Hayek's recent films include Grown Ups, Puss in Boots, Grown Ups 2, Tale of Tales and The Hitman's Bodyguard. Salma Hayek Jiménez was born in Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, her younger brother, Sami, is a furniture designer. Her mother, Diana Jiménez Medina, is an opera talent scout, her father, Sami Hayek Domínguez, is an oil company executive and owner of an industrial-equipment firm, who once ran for mayor of Coatzacoalcos. Her father is Mexican of Christian Lebanese descent, with his family being from the city of Baabdat, Lebanon, a city Salma and her father visited in 2015 to promote her movie Kahlil Gibran's The Prophet, her mother is Mexican of Spanish descent. In a 2011 interview with V magazine, Hayek mentioned that she was once an illegal immigrant in the United States, although it was not for a long period of time. In an interview in 2015 with Un Nuevo Día while visiting Madrid, Hayek described herself as fifty-percent Lebanese and fifty-percent Spanish, stating that her grandmother/maternal great-grandparents were from Spain.
Raised in a wealthy, devout Roman Catholic family, she was sent to the Academy of the Sacred Heart in Grand Coteau, Louisiana, at the age of twelve. In school, she was diagnosed with dyslexia, she attended university in Mexico City, where she studied International Relations at the Universidad Iberoamericana. At the age of 23, Hayek landed the title role in Teresa, a successful Mexican telenovela that made her a star in Mexico. In 1994, Hayek starred in the film El Callejón de los Milagros, which has won more awards than any other movie in the history of Mexican cinema. For her performance, Hayek was nominated for an Ariel Award. Hayek moved to California, in 1991 to study acting under Stella Adler, she had limited fluency in English, dyslexia. Robert Rodriguez, his producer and then-wife, Elizabeth Avellan, soon gave Hayek a starring role opposite Antonio Banderas in 1995's Desperado, she followed her role in Desperado with a brief role as a vampire queen in From Dusk till Dawn, in which she performed a table-top snake dance.
Hayek had a starring role opposite Matthew Perry in the 1997 romantic comedy Fools Rush In. In 1999 she co-starred in Will Smith's big-budget Wild Wild West, played a supporting role in Kevin Smith's Dogma. In 2000 Hayek had an uncredited acting part opposite Benicio del Toro in Traffic. In 2003, she reprised her role from Desperado by appearing in Once Upon a Time in Mexico, the final film of the Mariachi Trilogy. Around 2000, Hayek founded film production company Ventanarosa, through which she produces film and television projects, her first feature as a producer was 1999's El Coronel No Tiene Quien Le Escriba, Mexico's official selection for submission for Best Foreign Film at the Oscars. Frida, co-produced by Hayek, was released in 2002. Starring Hayek as Frida Kahlo, Alfred Molina as her unfaithful husband, Diego Rivera, the film was directed by Julie Taymor and featured an entourage of stars in supporting and minor roles and cameos, she earned a Best Actress Academy Award nomination for her performance.
In the Time of the Butterflies is a 2001 feature film based on the Julia Álvarez book of the same name, covering the lives of the Mirabal sisters. In the movie, Salma Hayek plays one of the sisters and Edward James Olmos plays the Dominican dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo whom the sisters opposed. In 2003, Hayek produced and directed The Maldonado Miracle, a Showtime movie based on the book of the same name, winning her a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing in a Children/Youth/Family Special. In December 2005, she directed a music video for Prince, titled "Te Amo Corazon" that featured Mía Maestro. Hayek was an executive producer of Ugly Betty, a television series that aired around the world from 2006 to 2010. Hayek adapted the series for American television with Ben Silverman, who acquired the rights and scripts from the Colombian telenovela Yo Soy Betty La Fea in 2001. Intended as a half-hour sitcom for NBC in 2004, the project would be picked up by ABC for the 2006–2007 season with Silvio Horta producing.
Hayek guest-starred on Ugly Betty as a magazine editor. She had a cameo playing an actress in the telenovela within the show; the show won a Golden Globe Award for Best Comedy Series in 2007. Hayek's performance as Sofia resulted in a nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Se
Ulysse Nardin SA is a luxury Swiss watch manufacturer founded in 1846 in Le Locle, Switzerland. Since 2014, it has been a subsidiary of the French Kering Group. Ulysse Nardin has operated out of the same building headquartered in Le Locle, Switzerland since 1865. Ulysse Nardin is regarded as a top-tier Kering brand, is best known for manufacturing accurate marine chronometers. According to the last official report of Neuchâtel Observatory in Switzerland, Ulysse Nardin had won numerous awards and honors for its marine chronometers from 1846 to 1975, including 4324 certificates, 2411 special prizes and 10 gold medals at International Exhibitions. Before founding his company in 1846 at the age of 23, Ulysse Nardin first trained in horology under his father, Leonard-Frederic Nardin, perfected his skills under the tutelage of Frederic William Dubois and Louis JeanRichard-dit-Bressel, two master watchmakers whose fame extended beyond the mountains of Neuchatel, Switzerland. In 1846, Ulysse Nardin chose his birthplace of Le Locle in Switzerland to set up his company, with a focus on manufacturing marine chronometers.
At the 1862 International Exhibition in London, Ulysse Nardin was awarded the Prize Medal in the category of "complicated watches and pocket chronometers". The prize was the highest distinction for watchmaking in the United Kingdom, and in 1867, Ulysse Nardin obtained the first series of certificates from Neuchâtel Observatory for its marine chronometers. By the 1870s, Ulysse Nardin's marine chronometers were in service with over 50 navies and international shipping companies. In 1876, Ulysse Nardin died at age 53, his son Paul-David Nardin succeeded him as the head of the company. Due to the quartz crisis, Ulysse Nardin faced significant challenges in late early 1980s. In 1983, the company was acquired by businessman Rolf Schnyder who, in conjunction with watchmakers such as Ludwig Oechslin, revived the brand. Schnyder and Oechslin would aim to produce complication timepieces using modern materials and manufacturing techniques. In 2014, Ulysse Nardin was acquired by the Kering Group known as PPR.
In 2017, the company appointed Patrick Pruniaux, a previous executive of Apple, as its new CEO. Ulysse Nardin introduced the Freak wristwatches in 2001; the model contains a revolutionary 7-day carrousel-tourbillon, has no dial, crown or hands. The movement contains silicon escapement components, would rotate on itself to indicate time; the watch model was named "Watch of the Year" in innovation category in 2002. The current Freak model includes two series: Freak Vision; the first major advancement of the company after quartz crisis was the launch of "Trilogy of Time". This collection incorporated three different astronomical pieces starting in 1985 with the release of the Astrolabium Galileo Galilei, named after Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei; the Astrolabium displays local and solar time, the orbits and eclipses of the sun and the moon and the positions of several major stars. It was named by the Guinness Book of Records in 1989 as the world's most-functional watch. Dr. Oechslin followed the Astrolabium up with two other astronomical watches: in 1988 the Planetarium Copernicus and in 1992 the Tellurium Johannes Kepler.
The Cloisonné dial of the Tellurium takes fifty-four processes, twelve baking operations and more than fifty hours of work by a skilled craftsmen to transform a draft sketch on a small metal disc into a unique work of art - each and every Tellurium is unique. Randy Johnson, American former baseball player Michael Jordan, American basketball player Elina Svitolina, Ukrainian tennis player Larry King, American TV host Jeff Bezos, chairman & CEO of Amazon In 2015, Ulysse Nardin announced its partnership with Team Artemis in the 2017 America's Cup. List of watch manufacturers Manufacture d'horlogerie ulysse-nardin.com, the company's official website
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.
Christopher Kane is a Scottish fashion designer based in London whose brand is now part of Kering. Kane was born as the youngest of five children in Newarthill, North Lanarkshire, to an engineer and draughtsman father and housewife mother. Kane attended Taylor High School. While still in college, he worked for fellow designers Russell Sage and Giles Deacon and attracted the attention of Donatella Versace by winning the Lancôme Colour Award in 2005. Kane subsequently won the Harrods Design Award for his MA Graduate collection, consisting of £1,500 and a showpiece window in Harrods from 24 February to 8 March 2006; the collection consisted of stretch-lace dresses decorated with brass rings. He was hired by Versace to work on the label's Atelier couture collection as well as consulting on shoes and accessories, he graduated from Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design in 2006. In December 2006, Kane was photographed by David Bailey for British Vogue alongside Antony Price, whose 1980s bombshell evening dresses and curvaceous feminine styles foreshadowed Kane's bandage-tight tailoring.
In August 2014, Kane was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian opposing Scottish independence in the run-up to September's referendum on that issue. Kane established his namesake label in 2006, with his sister, Tammy Kane, who studied at the Scottish College of Textile Design, running the financial side of the business and assisting in his fabric creation and design process, his first independent show, presented on 20 September 2006, consisted of super-short bandage dresses in neon shades. Kane said of his collection that he "only used neon last year because it was first collection and I wanted to go as bright as possible." The collection was lauded by prominent international fashion critics and credited by various sources as a major contributor to summer 2007's'fluoro' trends. In April 2006, Kane was awarded the Young Designer of the Year at the Scottish Fashion Awards. Subsequently, the designer launched a capsule collection for British high-street clothing store Topshop.
His second collection, showcased on 13 February 2007, once again received positive reviews from leading critics. Moving away from his signature tight-fitted look, Kane showcased a collection of velvets and leathers in a more relaxed silhouette; this was his first collaboration with prominent shoe designer Manolo Blahnik, who created the shoes for the show. Kane collaborations extend into music, whereby he designed costumes for Kylie Minogue's music video "2 Hearts". On 18 October 2007, he collaborated with Beth Ditto for luxury label Swarovski's Fashion Rocks show held at the Royal Albert Hall to critical acclaim. In addition to designing his own label and consulting at Versace, he is part of Atlier Swarovski, a small collective of designers who create special jewellery collections for Swarovski. On 10 September 2007, days before Kane was scheduled to show his third collection, it was reported that 23 pieces from the Spring-Summer 2008 show had been stolen from his London studio. In addition to cashmere and leather pieces, a laptop was stolen.
No fingerprints were found upon inspection. However, the designer proceeded his third show and second collaboration with Blahnik seven days on 17 September 2007, once again changing directions and introducing snake skin printed chiffon and denim in yet another collection that won rave reviews. On 27 November 2007, he was awarded New Designer of The Year at the British Fashion Awards. Kane has been credited for single-handedly turning the fortunes of cashmere producer Johnstons of Elginby partnering with the company to produce his line of cashmere garments. Known to be a passionate promoter of his home country, the designer was appointed as an ambassador for VisitScotland in January 2008, he celebrated Burns Night by showcasing a special trunk show of his Spring-Summer 2008 collection as well as hosting an exclusive party at Harvey Nichols the ambassador for VisitScotland. Furthering his role, Kane collaborated with Lancôme to create a limited edition Juicy Tube lip gloss; the finished product, called Burns Night, is a tangerine colour with a beautiful illustration printed on the tube along with Kane's signature and was launched in February 2008.
On 12 February 2008, the designer showcased his fourth collection which departed again from his previous themes. Featuring dresses of layered organdy and plastic sequins, cable woven cashmere tops and dresses along with embellished jackets, the show was greeted with similar praise from fashion critics. On 16 September 2008, Kane showcased his fifth collection, this time building upon his previous theme of circular sequins which "had grown into bigger circles of chiffon and leather that rippled like scales around the models or created scalloped contours down their bodies to oscillating – and short – hemlines." Inspired by "Planet of the Apes" and "The Flintstones", it was met with similar praise from fashion critics. Commercially, the collection was a massive success, selling out within 24 hours of launch on Net-A-Porter.com on 13 February 2009. Kane presented his sixth collection on 21 February 2009, a show labelled as another "Best Ever"; the collection featured nude chiffon dresses and was praised for its construction as a more mature offering.
He collaborated with Versace, producing a capsule collection of accessories for the younger Versus line showcased on 2 March 2009. Donatella Versace compared him to her late brother Gianni Versace. In 2009 and 2010, he collaborated with a professional British haircare brand Catwalk by TIGI to create an advertising campaign for the brand's three new product collections. On 15 January 2013, Kering and Kane jointly announced that they have signed an agreem
Stade Rennais F.C.
Stade Rennais Football Club referred to as Stade Rennais, SRFC or Rennes, is a French association football club based in Rennes. The club was founded in 1901 and plays in Ligue 1, the top tier of French football. Rennes plays; the team is managed by Julien Stéphan. The team's president is Olivier Létang and its owner is Artémis, the holding company of businessman François Pinault. Rennes was founded in 1901 under the name Stade Rennais and is one of the founding members of the first division of French football. Alongside Nantes, Rennes is one of the top football clubs in the region and the two are among the main clubs that contest the Derby Breton; the club's best finish in the league has been fourth with the club accomplishing this feat on four occasions, most in 2006–07. Rennes has won two Coupe de France titles in 1965 and 1971. After winning the Coupe de France in 1971, Rennes changed its name to its current version. Rennes is known for its youth academy, known in English as the Henri Guérin Training Centre, formed in 2000.
The French Football Federation has recognised Rennes as having the best youth academy in the country in 2010. The cornerstone of the academy is the under-19 team, which has won the Coupe Gambardella three times in 1973, 2003 and 2008; the academy has produced several notable talents, such as Sylvain Wiltord, Yoann Gourcuff, Yann M'Vila, Moussa Sow, Yacine Brahimi, Abdoulaye Doucouré, Ousmane Dembélé and Jimmy Briand, among others. Stade Rennais Football Club was founded on 10 March 1901 by a group of former students living in Brittany. Football had become circulated in nearby regions and it was soon brought to Brittany; the club's first match was played two weeks against FC Rennais, which Stade lost 6–0. In 1902, Stade Rennais joined the USFSA federation and, became a founding member of the Ligue de Bretagne de football, a newly created regional league founded by the federation. In the second league season, the club won the competition after defeating the inaugural league winners FC Rennais 4–0 in the final.
On 4 May 1904, Stade Rennais merged with its rivals FC Rennais to form Stade Rennais Université Club, with the primary objective being to overcome the recent domination of the Ligue de Bretagne by US Saint-Malo known as US Saint-Servan, which fielded British players. The new club adopted the colours of Rennais, which consisted of a red and black combination with black vertical stripes on the shirt. After three years of Saint-Malo dominating the league, Rennes eclipsed the club in 1908 under the leadership of Welsh manager Arthur Griffith. In the following season, Rennes won the league again, but in 1910 Rennes was unable to win a third, as Saint-Malo won the league by two points; the champions subsequently went on an impressive run in which it won the league for the next four seasons over. After World War I, Rennes began focusing its efforts on winning the created Coupe de France. Strengthened by the arrivals of internationals Bernard Lenoble, Maurice Gastiger, Ernest Molles and captain François Hugues after the war, in the competition's fourth campaign, Rennes reached the final.
In the match, the club faced two-time defending champions Red Star Olympique, led by attacker Paul Nicolas, defender Lucien Gamblin and goalkeeper Pierre Chayriguès. Red Star opened the scoring in the fourth minute and the match was concluded following a late goal from Raymond Sentubéry. After the disorganisation of the USFSA in 1913, Rennes joined the Ligue de l'Ouest. In 1929, Rennes departed the league after disagreeing with the increased number of games the league sought to implement in the new season; the departure led to Rennes becoming a "free agent", the club played numerous friendly matches to compensate the loss of league matches. In July 1930, the National Council of the French Football Federation voted 128–20 in support of professionalism in French football. Under the leadership of club president Isidore Odorico, Rennes was among the first clubs to adopt the new statute and, became professional and became founding members of the new league. In the league's inaugural season, Rennes finished mid-table in its group.
Two years in 1935, the club reached the final of the Coupe de France for the second time. Rennes, lost to Marseille 3–0 after failing to overcome three first-half goals; the club's attack was limited in the match due to being deprived of its top two attackers, Walter Kaiser and Walter Vollweiler, who were both injured. Rennes spent four more years in the first division before suffering relegation to Division 2 in the 1936–37 season. Rennes played in Division 2 before professionalism was abolished due to World War II. After the war, Rennes returned to Division 1. Led by the Austrian-born Frenchman Franz Pleyer, Rennes achieved its best finish in the league after finishing fourth in the 1948–49 campaign. Despite the domestic resurgence under Pleyer, the club struggled to maintain the consistency and, in the 1950s, rotated between the first division and the second division under the watch of the Spaniard Salvador Artigas and Henri Guérin, who acted in a player-coach role. Under the leadership of new president Louis Girard, Rennes underwent a major upheaval, which included renovations to the stadium.
Girard sought to make Rennes competitive nationally and the first objective was achieved when the club earned promotion back to Division 1 in 1958. After finishing in the bottom-half of the table for six-straight seasons, now managed by former club player Jean Prouff, finished in fourth place in the 1964–65 season. In the same season, the club earned its first major h
Fnac is a large French retail chain selling cultural and electronic products, founded by André Essel and Max Théret in 1954. Its head office is in Le Flavia in Ivry-sur-Seine near Paris. Fnac is an abbreviation of Fédération Nationale d’Achats des Cadres; the company's founders were Max Théret. Fnac was founded in 1954. Fnac holds "forums" throughout the year, which are opportunities for customers to have dialogue with people such as Pedro Almodóvar, George Lucas, David Cronenberg, discussions with authors including Paul Auster, Pierre Bourdieu, Françoise Giroud in addition to concerts. Musicians playing in these concerts have included Yann Tiersen, Ben Harper and David Bowie; each year a "Book Fair" is held with discussions among writers and the public. Topics related to literature, culture and the sciences are discussed. Since 2001 the company has annually presented an award, Le prix du roman Fnac, whose winners are chosen by a panel of booksellers and members. Dominique Mainard, Pierre Charras, Pierre Charras and Pierre Péju are among those.
These events are shown on the company website fnaclive.com. The company claims to be committed to defending the diversity of music. In February 2002 Fnac published with UPFI "Manifeste pour la diversité musicale", as a prelude to a policy of favorable treatment for independent labels and their artists. Fnac publishes "Indétendances," a compilation of ten artists bimonthly published by independent labels, which it set aside part of its listening kiosks in stores to promote their work. Max Théret had a passion for photography which began in 1932. Hunted by the Gestapo, Théret left the Occupied Zone in 1942, moving to Grenoble, where he took up photography as a career. After the war, he trained as a photo laboratory technician, founded his own laboratory, constructed the first colour-processing machine in France. In 1951, while working for the telephone company, he founded Economie Nouvelle, a membership discount buying group for products sold through participating merchants. In 1953, Théret and André Essel conceived a new magazine-based buyers club.
Founded 1954, Fnac was a members-only discount buyers' club, offering sharp discounts on commercial and consumer products, based on the founders' socialist principles. Their aim was to improve the lives of the workers, not through higher salaries but through lower prices; the first shop was opened in a sublet, a second-floor apartment on the rue de Sebastopol in Paris on July 31, 1954. The brand positioning of the company continued with the training of sales assistants in their product categories, with purchases being guaranteed for one year. Furthermore, all products were tested in the company's independent test centre before sale; the test centre would check for technical quality, ease of use and the "price/quality ratio," and all results were published in the company's free members' magazine Contact, which today can be found advertised in store. In addition, staff were expected to do more than just sell their products but offer advice to customers and beginning in 1957 blacklist any unsatisfactory products, such as those with technical difficulties.
By the end of its first full year of operation the company saw revenues of 50 million old francs. In 1957, it was selling televisions, hi-fis, recording equipment and records. In 1966, the Fnac store was opened to non-members and began to expand, opening its second store in Paris on the avenue de Wagram, near the Arc de Triomphe in 1969. By this time, the company had 580 employees; the 1970s saw further expansion for Fnac, as the company began opening shops in the French provinces outside Paris and a third in the city itself that sold books, the newest addition to the product range. The founders of the company sold 40 percent of the company to insurance firm Union des Assurances to raise money to fund growth. In turn, the insurance firm sold 16 percent of its shares to investment bank Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas, in 1972. In 1974, the company began selling books at 80% of the Recommended Retail Price, sparking protests from publishers and independent booksellers alike, who could not benefit from the economies of scale.
This prompted government action in 1982 with the so-called'anti-Fnac' law, signed to limit discounts on books to a maximum of five percent. In 1975, videos were added to the product range. Towards the late 1970s, Fnac continued to expand by building to 12 stores in Paris and other cities through France. In 1977, the remaining shares of the company's founders were sold to the Société Génerale des Cooperatives de Consommation to raise more capital. FNAC became a Public limited company on the Paris stock exchange in 1980 when 25 percent of the company was offered to the public. SGCC, maintained a 51 percent control of the company, which now employed more than 2,700 and was declaring turnover of FFr 2.2 billion. Théret left the company in 1981. In 1981, FNAC opened a store in Brussels, Belgium under the management of Sodal, a joint-venture between FNAC and the GIB Group; the GIB Group added three more stores in the mid-1980s, in Ghent, Liège. In 1983, Essel retired and was replaced by the SGCC president Roger Kerinec.
In 1985, SGCC sold its shares to the insurance group Garantie Mutuelle des Fonctionnaires due to growing competition from the French hypermarket and discount chains such as Carrefour and E. Leclerc. Michel Barouin, GMF's president and director general, took these positions at FNAC as well. In 1987, Baro