SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

François Arago

Dominique François Jean Arago, known as François Arago, was a French mathematician, astronomer, supporter of the carbonari and politician. Arago was born at Estagel, a small village of 3,000 near Perpignan, in the département of Pyrénées-Orientales, where his father held the position of Treasurer of the Mint, his parents were Marie Arago. Arago was the eldest of four brothers. Jean became a general in the Mexican army. Jacques Étienne Victor took part in Louis de Freycinet's exploring voyage in the Uranie from 1817 to 1821, on his return to France devoted himself to his journalism and the drama; the fourth brother, Étienne Vincent, is said to have collaborated with Honoré de Balzac in The Heiress of Birague, from 1822 to 1847 wrote a great number of light dramatic pieces in collaboration. Showing decided military tastes, François Arago was sent to the municipal college of Perpignan, where he began to study mathematics in preparation for the entrance examination of the École Polytechnique. Within two years and a half he had mastered all the subjects prescribed for examination, a great deal more, and, on going up for examination at Toulouse, he astounded his examiner by his knowledge of J. L. Lagrange.

Towards the close of 1803, Arago entered the École Polytechnique, but found the professors there incapable of imparting knowledge or maintaining discipline. The artillery service was his ambition, in 1804, through the advice and recommendation of Siméon Poisson, he received the appointment of secretary to the Paris Observatory, he now became acquainted with Pierre-Simon Laplace, through his influence was commissioned, with Jean-Baptiste Biot, to complete the meridian arc measurements, begun by J. B. J. Delambre, interrupted since the death of P. F. A. Méchain in 1804. Arago and Biot began operations along the mountains of Spain. Biot returned to Paris after they had determined the latitude of Formentera, the southernmost point to which they were to carry the survey. Arago continued the work until 1809, his purpose being to measure a meridian arc in order to determine the exact length of a metre. After Biot's departure, the political ferment caused by the entrance of the French into Spain extended to the Balearic Islands, the population suspected Arago's movements and his lighting of fires on the top of Mount Galatzó as the activities of a spy for the invading army.

Their reaction was such that he was obliged to give himself up for imprisonment in the fortress of Bellver in June 1808. On 28 July he escaped from the island in a fishing-boat, after an adventurous voyage he reached Algiers on 3 August. From there he obtained a passage in a vessel bound for Marseille, but on 16 August, just as the vessel was nearing Marseille, it fell into the hands of a Spanish corsair. With the rest the crew, Arago was taken to Roses, imprisoned first in a windmill, afterwards in a fortress, until the town fell into the hands of the French, when the prisoners were transferred to Palamos. After three months' imprisonment and the others were released on the demand of the dey of Algiers, again set sail for Marseille on 28 November, but within sight of their port they were driven back by a northerly wind to Bougie on the coast of Africa. Transport to Algiers by sea from this place would have occasioned a weary delay of three months. After six months in Algiers he once again, on 21 June 1809, set sail for Marseille, where he had to undergo a monotonous and inhospitable quarantine in the lazaretto, before his difficulties were over.

The first letter he received, while in the lazaretto, was from Alexander von Humboldt. Arago had succeeded in preserving the records of his survey; as a reward for his adventurous conduct in the cause of science, he was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences, at the remarkably early age of twenty-three, before the close of 1809 he was chosen by the council of the École Polytechnique to succeed Gaspard Monge in the chair of analytical geometry. At the same time he was named by the emperor one of the astronomers of the Paris Observatory, accordingly his residence till his death, it was in this capacity that he delivered his remarkably successful series of popular lectures in astronomy, which were continued from 1812 to 1845. In 1818 or 1819 he proceeded along with Biot to execute geodetic operations on the coasts of France and Scotland, they measured the length of the seconds-pendulum at Leith, in the Shetland Islands, the results of the observations being published in 1821, along with those made in Spain.

Arago was elected a member of the Bureau des Longitudes afterwards, contributed to each of its Annuals, for about twenty-two years, important scientific notices on astronomy and meteorology and on civil engineering, as well as interesting memoirs of members of the Academy. Arago's earliest physical researches were on the pressure of steam at different temperatures, the velocity of sound, 1818 to 1822, his magnetic observations took place from 1823 to 1826. He discovered rotatory magnetism, what has been called Arago's rotations

Rodion Raskolnikov

Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The name Raskolnikov derives from the Russian raskolnik meaning "schismatic"; the name "Rodion" indicates an inhabitant of Rhodes. Raskolnikov is a young ex-law student living in extreme poverty in Saint Petersburg, he lives in a tiny garret which he rents, although due to a lack of funds has been avoiding payment for quite some time. He sleeps on a couch using old clothes as a pillow, due to lack of money eats rarely, he is handsome and intelligent, though disliked by fellow students. He is devoted to his mother. A poor student with a conflicted idea of himself, Raskolnikov decides to kill a corrupt pawnbroker, Alyona Ivanovna, with whom he has been dealing, with the idea of using the money to start his life all over, to help those who are in need of it, it is revealed that he commits the murder as justification for his pride, as he wants to prove that he is "exceptional" in the way Napoleon was.

He commits the murder, but is so nervous during the crime that he makes a few mistakes, is afraid that he will be caught. Raskolnikov finds a small purse on Alyona Ivanovna's body, which he hides under a rock without checking its contents, his grand failure is that he lacks the conviction of his beliefs to accomplish greatness, thus declines into madness. After he confesses to the destitute, pious prostitute Sofya Semyonovna Marmeladova, she guides him towards admitting to the crime, he confesses to Porfiry Petrovich, a prosecutor with a keen psychological sense. Raskolnikov is sentenced to exile in Siberia, accompanied by Sofya Semyonovna, where he experiences a mental and spiritual rebirth. In film, Raskolnikov was portrayed for the first time by Gregori Chmara in the silent adaptation Raskolnikov, directed by Robert Wiene, he was portrayed by Peter Lorre in Josef von Sternberg's Hollywood film version, by John Hurt in a 1979 BBC mini-series adaptation, by Patrick Dempsey in a 1998 television movie, by John Simm, Crispin Glover and Ilya Kremnov.

The character of Michel in Robert Bresson's Pickpocket is based on Raskolnikov. Paul Schrader, who wrote Taxi Driver, was in turn inspired by Bresson's Michel character to create Travis Bickle, Robert De Niro's antihero. Woody Allen's 2015 drama-thriller Irrational Man was inspired by Crime and Punishment, with protagonist Abe Lucas as its Raskolnikov character. Despair, a novel by Vladimir Nabokov

NASL Final 1972

NASL Final 1972 was the championship match of the 1972 season, between the New York Cosmos and the St. Louis Stars; the match was played on August 26, 1972 in Hempstead, New York. The New York Cosmos won the match, 2–1, were crowned the 1972 NASL champions; the St. Louis Stars qualified for the playoffs by winning the Southern Division with 69 points; this guaranteed them at least one home playoff game. They defeated the 1970 champions, the Rochester Lancers, 2–0, in a semifinal game played on August 15, 1972 to advance to the final; the New York Cosmos qualified for the playoffs by winning the Northern Division with 77 points. They had the highest point-total in the NASL, therefore were guaranteed home field throughout the playoffs, they defeated the defending champion Dallas Tornado, 1–0, in a semifinal game played on August 19, 1972 to advance to the final. The Cosmos took an early lead after league MVP Randy Horton headed winger Roby Young's corner kick off the crossbar and in at 4:23; the lead would be last through the intermission, until Casey Frankiewicz, the Stars' player/coach, tied the game seven minutes after the restart.

Frankiewicz's goal was the source of some controversy as referee Roger Schott ruled the play offside. Multiple Stars players appealed to linesman Bill Maxwell. Schott subsequently allowed the goal to stand. Late in the rain-soaked game with New York applying pressure, Cosmos' midfielder John Kerr was fouled in the penalty area by St. Louis defender Gary Rensing. Schott promptly awarded New York a penalty. Two minutes with tempers flaring, as St. Louis pressed for the equalizer, Cosmos defender Werner Roth was sent off, leaving New York a man short for the final two minutes of the match. In a furious push at the end, forward Willy Roy found the net for St. Louis with only thirteen second remaining. Like before, Roger Schott again ruled the Stars offside, but unlike the previous occasion, the Stars' appeals to both the referee and linesman fell on deaf ears this time, giving New York the title. 1972 NASL Champions: New York Cosmos 1972 North American Soccer League season NASL Soccer Bowl Template:1972 in American soccer