Charles-Joseph Natoire was a French painter in the Rococo manner, a pupil of François Lemoyne and director of the French Academy in Rome, 1751–1775. Considered during his lifetime the equal of François Boucher, he played a prominent role in the artistic life of France, he is remembered above all for the series of the History of Psyche for Germain Boffrand's oval salon de la Princesse in the Hôtel de Soubise and for the tapestry cartoons for the series of the History of Don Quixote, woven at the Beauvais tapestry manufacture, most of which are at the Château de Compiègne. He was born in Nîmes, his sister, was a pastellist. Natoire's father Florent Natoire, a sculptor, gave him his fundamental training in drawing sent him to Paris in 1717 to complete his training, first in the atelier of Louis Galloche, peintre du Roi and professor at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, in the atelier of François Lemoyne, whose training shaped Natoire's style. In 1721 he obtained the Prix de Rome with a Sacrifice of Manoah to obtain a son.
On 30 June 1723 he was appointed a pensionnaire at the French Academy in Rome, at the time lodged in the Palazzo Mancini, where he arrived in October. During his stay he executed a copy of Pietro da Cortona's Rape of the Sabine Women. In December 1725 he won a first prize from the Accademia di San Luca with a Moses Returning from Sinai. In 1728 he painted for the French ambassador, the prince de Polignac, an Expulsion of the Money-Changers from the Temple. Natoire returned to Paris via Venice in the early part of 1729, he was received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture on 30 September 1730. His reputation was established, he received major commissions. From 1731 to 1740 he provided several suites of canvasses for Philibert Orry, contrôleur général des finances, to succeed the duc d'Antin as general director of the Bâtiments du Roi in 1736. For Orry's Château de La Chapelle-Godefroy at Saint-Aubin Natoire provided a series of nine canvasses of Histories of the Gods, six more of the History of Clovis, six of a History of Telemachus and four Seasons.
During the same period, in 1732 he provided three overdoors on Old Testament subjects for the duc d'Antin in Paris. In June 1734, Natoire submitted to an Exposition de la Jeunesse in place Dauphine a Galatea. In the same year his first royal commission arrived, for the Chambre de la Reine at Versailles and was made a full member of the Académie on 31 December with a Venus Commanding from Vulcan the Arms of Aeneas. Henceforth, numerous royal commissions came his way for the petits appartements at the Château de Fontainebleau, for the Cabinet du Roi and the royal dining-room at Versailles, decorations for Marly, for the Cabinet des Médailles in the royal library in Paris, others. In 1735, Natoire carried out the first of his tapestry cartoons for the series Histoire de Don Quichotte woven at the Manufacture de Beauvais, the first set for the fermier général Pierre Grimod du Fort. In 1737 he received the commission at the Hôtel de Soubise. From 1741, he produced a series of cartoons for the History of Mark Anthony woven at the Gobelins.
In 1747, he painted the portrait of Dauphin of France. In a more familiar vein, he provided a Saint Stephen and the False Witnesses for the chapelle Saint-Symphorien in the Church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, 1745. A major loss was his illusionistic decor for the chapel in the Hôpital des Enfants-Trouvés, built by Germain Boffrand but demolished in the 19th century. In 1747 he participated in the competition organized by the new general director of the Bâtiments du Roi, Le Normant de Tournehem, with the Triumph of Bacchus, now in the Musée du Louvre. In 1751, Natoire was appointed director of the French Academy in Rome, a prestigious position, but one, to set a seal on his active career. Far from court, Natoire witnessed his rivals Carle Van Loo François Boucher named premier peintre du Roi in turn, he all but ceased painting, turning his energies instead to the Academy, pressing the pensionnaires to produce the envoies that were forwarded to Paris as proof of their progress and sending them out to draw in the countryside of the Roman campagna.
He was ennobled in April 1753 and received the Order of Saint-Michel,an honour he had impatiently awaited, but he found himself out of sympathy with the new neoclassical style, being developed by the Academy's pensionnaires. His own fresco of the Apotheosis of Saint Louis for the French national Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, 1754–1756, came in for criticism. Natoire's late work, in the two decades that remained to him was confined to numerous drawings of the Campagna for his own pleasure, few canvasses, he became more religious. In 1767, the architect Adrien Mouton, expelled from the Academy, brought a suit that he won in 1770: Natoire was fined 20,000 livres and court costs with interest, accused of administrative errors; the new general director of the Bâtiments, the comte d'Angiviller retired Natoire from office in June 1775. He withdrew to Castel Gandolfo; this article depends in large part on a translation from French Wikipedia, where a list of Natoire's paintings may be found
Diana is a Roman goddess of the hunt, the Moon, nature, associated with wild animals and woodland. She is equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, absorbed much of Artemis' mythology early in Roman history, including a birth on the island of Delos to parents Jupiter and Latona, a twin brother, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was known as the virgin goddess of childbirth and women, she was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves and deer were sacred to her. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman deities. Diana is revered in modern Neopagan religions including Roman Neopaganism and Wicca. From the medieval to the modern period, as folklore attached to her developed and was adapted into neopagan religions, the mythology surrounding Diana grew to include a consort and daughter, figures sometimes recognized by modern traditions. In the ancient and modern periods, Diana has been considered a triple deity, merged with a goddess of the moon and the underworld.
Dīāna is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to dīvus, dius, as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia, in the neuter form dium'sky'. It is derived from Proto-Indo-European *dyew-' sky'. On the tablets of Pylos a theonym di-wi-ja is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars accept the identification; the ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon.... People regard Diana and the moon as one and the same.... The moon is so called from the verb to shine. Lucina is identified with it, why in our country they invoke Juno Lucina in childbirth, just as the Greeks call on Diana the Light-bearer. Diana has the name Omnivaga, not because of her hunting but because she is numbered as one of the seven planets, she is invoked at childbirth because children are born after seven, or after nine, lunar revolutions... --Quintus Lucilius Balbus as recorded by Marcus Tullius Cicero and translated by P.
G. Walsh. De Natura Deorum, Book II, Part ii, Section c The persona of Diana is complex, contains a number of archaic features. Diana was considered to be a goddess of the wilderness and of the hunt, a central sport in both Roman and Greek culture. Early Roman inscriptions to Diana celebrated her as a huntress and patron of hunters. In the Hellenistic period, Diana came to be or more revered as a goddess not of the wild woodland but of the "tame" countryside, or villa rustica, the idealization of, common in Greek thought and poetry; this dual role as goddess of both civilization and the wild, therefore the civilized countryside, first applied to the Greek goddess Artemis. By the 3rd century CE, after Greek influence had a profound impact on Roman religion, Diana had been fully combined with Artemis and took on many of her attributes, both in her spiritual domains and in the description of her appearance; the Roman poet Nemesianus wrote a typical description of Diana: She carried a bow and a quiver full of golden arrows, wore a golden cloak, purple half-boots, a belt with a jeweled buckle to hold her tunic together, wore her hair gathered in a ribbon.
Diana was considered an aspect of a triple goddess, known as Diana triformis: Diana and Hecate. According to historian C. M. Green, "these were an amalgamation of different goddesses, they were Diana... Diana as huntress, Diana as the moon, Diana of the underworld." At her sacred grove on the shores of Lake Nemi, Diana was venerated as a triple goddess beginning in the late 6th century BCE. Andreas Alföldi interpreted an image on a late Republican coin as the Latin Diana "conceived as a threefold unity of the divine huntress, the Moon goddess and the goddess of the nether world, Hekate"; this coin, minted by P. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BCE, has been acknowledged as representing an archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis, it represents Artemis with the bow at one extremity, Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a central deity not identifiable, all united by a horizontal bar. The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this image to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan models; the coin shows that the triple goddess cult image still stood in the lucus of Nemi in 43 BCE.
Lake Nemi was called Triviae lacus by Virgil, while Horace called Diana montium custos nemoremque virgo and diva triformis. Two heads found in the sanctuary and the Roman theatre at Nemi, which have a hollow on their back, lend support to this interpretation of an archaic triple Diana; the earliest epithet of Diana was Trivia, she was addressed with that title by Virgil and many others. "Trivia" comes from the Latin trivium, "triple way", refers to Diana's guardianship over roadways Y-junctions or three-way crossroads. This role carried a somewhat dark and dangerous connotation, as it metaphorically pointed the way to the underworld. In the 1st-century CE play Medea, Seneca's titular sorceress calls on Trivia to cast a mag
André-Hercule de Fleury
André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, Archbishop of Aix was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was born in the son of a tax farmer of a noble family, he was sent to Paris as a child to be educated by the Jesuits in philosophy and the Classics as much as in theology. He entered the priesthood and through the influence of Cardinal Bonzi became almoner to Maria Theresa, queen of Louis XIV, after her death, to the king himself. In 1698 he was appointed bishop of Fréjus, but seventeen years in a provincial see determined him to seek a position at court. In May 1715, a few months before the Sun-King's death, Fleury became tutor to Louis' great-grandson and heir, in spite of a seeming lack of ambition, he acquired an influence over the child, never broken, fostered by Louis' love and confidence. On the death of the regent Philippe d'Orléans in 1723, Louis XV came of age. Fleury, although seventy years of age, deferred his own supremacy by suggesting the appointment of Louis Henri, duke of Bourbon, as first minister.
Fleury was present at all interviews between Louis XV and his titular first minister, on Bourbon's attempt to break through this rule Fleury retired from court. Louis made Bourbon recall the tutor, who on 11 July 1726 took affairs into his own hands and secured the exile from court of Bourbon and of his mistress Madame de Prie, he continued to refuse the formal title of first minister, but his elevation to cardinal, in 1726, confirmed his precedence over any others. Under the Régence, the Scottish economist John Law had introduced financial measures that were modern for the time: a national bank, easy credit to encourage investors, paper money exchangeable for gold bullion. Investor overconfidence in the ability to exchange paper money for gold led to wild speculation after 1720, when the bubble burst and his policies were discredited, French finances were in as dire straits as they had been when Louis XIV died. Fleury was imperturbable in his demeanor and prudent, he carried these qualities into the administration.
In 1726 he fixed the standard of the currency and secured French credit by initiating regular payment of interest on the national debt, with the result that in 1738/39 there was a surplus of 15,000,000 livres instead of the usual deficit. Fleury's stringencies were enforced through the contrôleur général des finances Philibert Orry. By exacting forced labor from the peasants he improved France's roads, though at the cost of rousing angry discontent, which found expression in the French Revolution. During the seventeen years of his orderly government, the country found time to recuperate its forces after the exhaustion caused by the ambitions of Louis XIV and extravagances of the regent, national prosperity increased. Social peace was disturbed by the severities which Fleury exercised against the Jansenists, he was one of the minority of French bishops who published Clement XI's bull Unigenitus and imprisoned priests who refused to accept it, he met the Jansenist opposition of the Parlement of Paris by exiling forty of its members to a "gilded cage" not far from Paris.
In foreign affairs, the maintenance of peace was a preoccupation he shared with Sir Robert Walpole, the two old enemies refrained from war during Fleury's ministry. Some Jacobite sympathizers in France had formed lodges of Freemasons, it was only with reluctance that he supported the ambitious projects of Elizabeth Farnese, queen of Spain, in Italy by guaranteeing in 1729 the succession of Don Carlos to the duchies of Parma and Tuscany. French diplomacy however was losing its military bite. Fleury's cagey double game with the Corsican revolutionaries under the elder Paoli, smuggled arms to the island while assuring the Genoese of French support. Fleury thus began the manipulations that landed Corsica in the arms of France in 1768. Fleury's economies in the army and navy, as elsewhere, found the nation poorly prepared when in 1733 war was forced upon France, he was compelled by court opinion to support the claims of Louis XV's father-in-law Stanislaus Leszczynski to the Polish crown on the death of Augustus II, against the Russian and Austrian candidate.
Fleury was pressed by his advisor Germain Louis Chauvelin to more energetic measures. Military successes on the Rhine and in Italy secured the favorable terms of the treaty of Vienna. France had joined with the other powers in guaranteeing the succession of Maria Theresa under the pragmatic sanction, but by a diplomatic quibble, Fleury found an excuse on the death of Charles VI in 1740 for repudiating his engagements, when he found the party of war supreme in the king's counsels. After the disasters of the Bohemian campaign at the outbreak of the War of Austrian Succession he wrote in confidence a humble letter to the Habsburg general, Königsegg, who published it. Fleury disavowed his own letter, died in Issy-les-Moulineaux, a few days after the French evacuation of Prague on 20 January 1743, he had enriched the royal library by many valuable oriental manuscripts, was a member of the Académie française from 1717, of the Academy of Science, the Academy of Inscriptions. In the years following Fleury's death, escalating Franco-British skirmishes a
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Grand appartement du roi
The grand appartement du roi is the King's grand apartment of the Palace of Versailles. As a result of Louis LeVau’s envelope of Louis XIII’s château, the king and queen had new apartments in the new addition, known at the time as the château neuf; the State Apartments, which are known as the grand appartement du roi and the grand appartement de la reine, occupied the main or principal floor of the château neuf. LeVau’s design for the state apartments followed Italian models of the day, as evidenced by the placement of the apartments on the next floor up from the ground level — the piano nobile — a convention the architect borrowed from 16th- and 17th-century Italian palace design. Le Vau’s plan called for an enfilade of seven rooms, each dedicated to one of the then-known planets and their associated titular Roman deity. LeVau's plan was bold; the salon d’Apollon was designed as the king’s bedchamber, but served as a throne room. The original arrangement of the enfilade of rooms was thus: Salon de Diane Salon de Mars Salon de Mercure Salon d’Apollon Salon de Jupiter Salon de Saturne Salon de Vénus The configuration of the grand appartement du roi conformed to contemporary conventions in palace design.
However, owing to Louis XIV’s personal tastes the grand appartement du roi was reserved for court functions — such as the thrice-weekly appartement evenings given by Louis XIV. The rooms demonstrated Italian influences; the quadratura style of the ceilings evoke Cortona’s sale dei planeti at the Pitti, but LeBrun’s decorative schema is more complex. In his 1674 publication about the grand appartement du roi, André Félibien described the scenes depicted in the coves of the ceilings of the rooms as allegories depicting the “heroic actions of the king.” Accordingly, one finds scenes of the exploits of Augustus, Alexander the Great, Cyrus alluding to the deeds of Louis XIV. For example, in the salon d’Apollon, the cove painting “Augustus building the port of Misenum” alludes to the construction of the port at La Rochelle. Complementing the rooms’ decors were pieces of massive silver furniture. Regrettably, owing to the War of the League of Augsburg, in 1689 Louis XIV ordered all of this silver furniture to be sent to the mint, to be melted down to help defray the cost of the war.
LeVau’s original plan for the grand appartement du roi was short-lived. With the inauguration of the third building campaign, which suppressed the terrace linking the king and queen’s apartments and the salons of Jupiter and Venus for the construction of the Hall of Mirrors, the configuration of the grand appartement du roi was altered; the decor of the salon de Jupiter was removed and reused in the decoration of the salle des gardes de la reine. From 1678 to the end of Louis XIV’s reign, the grand appartement du roi served as the venue for the king’s thrice-weekly evening receptions, known as les soirées de l’appartement. For these parties, the rooms assumed specific functions: Salon de Vénus: buffet tables were arranged to display food and drink for the king’s guests. Salon de Diane: served as a billiard room. Salon de Mars: served as a ballroom. Salon de Mercure: served as a gaming room. Salon d’Apollon: served as a concert or music room. In the 18th century during the reign of Louis XV, the grand appartement du roi was expanded to include the salon de l’Abondance — the entry vestibule of the petit appartement du roi — and the salon d’Hercule — occupying the tribune level of the former chapel of the château.
Primary source Félibien, André. La description du chateau de Versailles, de ses peintures, et. Paris: Antoine Vilette. OCLC 14959654. Félibien, Jean-François. Description sommaire de Versailles ancienne et nouvelle. Paris: A. Chrétien. OCLC 186796049. Monicart, Jean-Baptiste de. Versailles immortalisé par les merveilles parlantes des bâtimens, bosquets, statues et vases de marbre qui sont dans les châteaux de Versailles, de Trianon, de la Ménagerie et de Marly. Paris: E. Ganeau. OCLC 563933157. Secondary source Campbell, Malcolm. Pietro da Cortona at the Pitti Palace. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691038919. OCLC 993316809. Lighthart, E.. Archétype et symbole dans le style Louis XIV versaillais: réflexions sur l’imago rex et l’imago patriae au début de l’époque moderne. Doctoral thesis. Marie and Jeanne. Mansart à Versailles. Paris: Editions Jacques Freal. OCLC 889332274. Marie and Jeanne. Versailles au temps de Louis XIV: Mansart et Robert de Cotte. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale. OCLC 837387303.
Marie, Alfred. Naissance de Versailles. Paris: Edition Vincent
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
The Salon d'Hercule is on the first floor of the Château de Versailles and connects the Royal Chapel in the North Wing of the château with the grand appartement du roi. The fourth and penultimate chapel, the salon d’Hercule occupies the tribune level of this chapel. Called the nouveau salon près de la chapelle when the room was started in 1710 by Robert de Cotte for Louis XIV. However, with the death of Louis XIV in 1715 the project was postponed. Beginning in 1724, work on the salon d’Hercule recommenced. Louis XV commissioned architect Jacques Gabriel, marbrier Claude-Félix Tarlé, sculptors Jacques Verberckt and François-Antoine Vassé to complete the room; the room was completed in 1736 with the ceiling painting Apothéose d’Hercule by François Le Moyne, which gave the room its present name. There are only two other paintings decorating this room. Above the fireplace is the artist’s Rebecca at the Well. Louis XIV received the latter painting as a diplomatic gift from the Republic of Venice in 1664.
Owing to the size of the work – 4.5 meters high by 9.7 meters long – the painting was displayed in the galerie d’Apollon of the Louvre. It was installed in salon d’Hercule in 1730 where it remained until 1832 at which time it was transferred to the Louvre. In 1961 the Feast in the House of Simon was returned to the salon d’Hercule. In 1994, under the aegis of the Société des amis de Versailles and BNP the painting was restored. During the reign of Louis XV the room served as a ball room as the king felt the salon de Mars was too small and the galerie des glaces was too large; the inaugural ball held in the salon d’Hercule was on 26 January 1739 to celebrate the marriage of Louis XV’s eldest daughter Marie Louise-Élisabeth with Infante Filipe of Spain. After the destruction of the escalier des ambassadeurs in 1752, Louis XV planned for the salon d’Hercule to be the landing for a new staircase for the château. During the reign of Louis XVI the salon d’Hercule served for diplomatic functions such as the embassy sent by the bey of Tunis.
Media related to Salon d'Hercule du Château de Versailles at Wikimedia Commons