Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, the focus of physiology is on how organisms, organ systems, organs and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is the investigation of the fundamental biophysical and biochemical phenomena, the coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, the continuous communication between cells; the physiologic state is the condition occurring from normal body function, while the pathological state is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans. According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into, animal physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology and microbial physiology; the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of systems within systems; the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals; the biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of both electrical and chemical. Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning of plants. Related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, cell biology, genetics and molecular biology. Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, plant nutrition, nastic movements, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination and stomata function and transpiration. Absorption of water by roots, production of food in the leaves, growth of shoots towards light are examples of plant physiology. Although there are differences between animal and microbial cells, the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, cell metabolism. Microorganisms can be found everywhere on Earth.
Types of microorganisms include archaea, eukaryotes, protists and micro-plants. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel and other bioactive compounds, they are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora, they are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures. Most microorganisms can reproduce and bacteria are able to exchange genes through conjugation and transduction between divergent species; the study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates. Outside of Western tradition, early forms of physiology or anatomy can be reconstructed as having been present at around the same time in China and elsewhere.
Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudius Galenus would expand on; the critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold and dry. Claudius Galenus, known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body, his modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were tied to the humours, added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood.
Galen saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations.
The cerebellum is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. Although smaller than the cerebrum, in some animals such as the mormyrid fishes it may be as large as or larger. In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control, it may be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium and motor learning in humans. Anatomically, the human cerebellum has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres, its cortical surface is covered with finely spaced parallel grooves, in striking contrast to the broad irregular convolutions of the cerebral cortex.
These parallel grooves conceal the fact that the cerebellar cortex is a continuous thin layer of tissue folded in the style of an accordion. Within this thin layer are several types of neurons with a regular arrangement, the most important being Purkinje cells and granule cells; this complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain sensorimotor calibration in terms of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum; these models derive from those formulated by David Marr and James Albus, based on the observation that each cerebellar Purkinje cell receives two different types of input: one comprises thousands of weak inputs from the parallel fibers of the granule cells.
The basic concept of the Marr–Albus theory is that the climbing fiber serves as a "teaching signal", which induces a long-lasting change in the strength of parallel fiber inputs. Observations of long-term depression in parallel fiber inputs have provided support for theories of this type, but their validity remains controversial. At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a folded layer of cortex, with white matter underneath and a fluid-filled ventricle at the base. Four deep cerebellar nuclei are embedded in the white matter; each part of the cortex consists of the same small set of neuronal elements, laid out in a stereotyped geometry. At an intermediate level, the cerebellum and its auxiliary structures can be separated into several hundred or thousand independently functioning modules called "microzones" or "microcompartments"; the cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa. The fourth ventricle and medulla are in front of the cerebellum, it is separated from the overlying cerebrum by a layer of leathery dura mater, the tentorium cerebelli.
Anatomists classify the cerebellum as part of the metencephalon, which includes the pons. Like the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum is divided into two hemispheres. A set of large folds is, by convention, used to divide the overall structure into 10 smaller "lobules"; because of its large number of tiny granule cells, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain, but takes up only 10% of the total brain volume. The number of neurons in the cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex. There are about 3.6 times as many neurons in the cerebellum as in the neocortex, a ratio, conserved across many different mammalian species. The unusual surface appearance of the cerebellum conceals the fact that most of its volume is made up of a tightly folded layer of gray matter: the cerebellar cortex; each ridge or gyrus in this layer is called a folium. It is estimated that, if the human cerebellar cortex were unfolded, it would give rise to a layer of neural tissue about 1 meter long and averaging 5 centimeters wide—a total surface area of about 500 square cm, packed within a volume of dimensions 6 cm × 5 cm × 10 cm.
Underneath the gray matter of the cortex lies white matter, made up of myelinated nerve fibers running to and from the cortex. Embedded within the white matter—which is sometimes called the arbor vitae because of its branched, tree-like appearance in cross-section—are four deep cerebellar nuclei, composed of gray matter. Connecting the cerebellum to different parts of the nervous system are three paired cerebellar peduncles; these are the superior cerebellar peduncle, the middle cerebellar peduncle and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, named by their position relative to the vermis. The superior cerebellar peduncle is an output to the cerebral cortex, carrying efferent fibers via thalamic nuclei to upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex; the fibers arise from the deep cerebellar nuclei. The middle cerebellar peduncle is connected to the pons and receives all of its input from the pons from the pontine nuclei; the input to the pons is from the cerebral cortex and is relayed from the pontine nuclei via transverse pontine fibers to the cerebellum
Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother; the eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting.
Sannois is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 15.2 km. from the center of Paris, in the Val-d'Oise department in Île-de-France in northern France. Cyrano de Bergerac is said to have died in Sannois. Louis de Robert, winner of the Prix Femina in 1911 died in Sannois. Sannois is served by Sannois station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. Sannois is served by the A15 and A115 motorways and the N14 national road between Paris and Normandy. Sannois is home to the Parc des Sports Michel Hidalgo, where the local football team L'Entente SSG play their home games in France's Championnat National; the windmill, built in the 18th century, was classified as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture in 1975. Jardin botanique de Sannois des Plantes Médicinales Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Land use
The Greyhound is a breed of dog, a sighthound, bred for coursing game and Greyhound racing. Since the rise in large-scale adoption of retired racing Greyhounds, the breed has seen a resurgence in popularity as a family pet. According to Merriam-Webster, a Greyhound is "any of a breed of tall slender graceful smooth-coated dogs characterized by swiftness and keen sight", as well as "any of several related dogs," such as the Italian Greyhound, it is a gentle and intelligent breed whose combination of long, powerful legs, deep chest, flexible spine and slim build allows it to reach average race speeds exceeding 64 kilometres per hour. The Greyhound can reach a full speed of 70 kilometres per hour within 30 metres, or six strides from the boxes, traveling at 20 metres per second for the first 250 metres of a race. Males are 71 to 76 centimetres tall at the withers, weigh on average 27 to 40 kilograms. Females tend to be smaller, with shoulder heights ranging from 68 to 71 centimetres and weights from less than 27 to 34 kilograms.
Greyhounds have short fur, easy to maintain. There are thirty recognized color forms, of which variations of white, fawn, black and blue can appear uniquely or in combination. Greyhounds are dolichocephalic, with a skull, long in comparison to its breadth, an elongated muzzle. Greyhounds are affectionate with their own pack, they are docile, easy-going, calm. Greyhounds wear muzzles during racing, which can lead some to believe they are aggressive dogs, but this is not true. Muzzles are worn to prevent injuries resulting from dogs nipping one another during or after a race, when the'hare' has disappeared out of sight and the dogs are no longer racing but remain excited. Contrary to popular belief, adult Greyhounds do not need extended periods of daily exercise, as they are bred for sprinting rather than endurance. Greyhound puppies that have not been taught how to utilize their energy, can be hyperactive and destructive if not given an outlet, therefore require more experienced handlers. Greyhound owners and adoption groups consider Greyhounds wonderful pets.
Greyhounds are quiet and loyal to owners. They are loving, enjoy the company of their humans and other dogs. Whether a Greyhound will enjoy the company of other small animals, such as cats, depends on the individual dog's personality. Greyhounds will chase small animals. Many owners describe their Greyhounds as "45-mile-per-hour couch potatoes". Greyhounds live most as pets in quiet environments, they do well in families with children, as long as the children are taught to treat the dog properly with politeness and appropriate respect. Greyhounds have a sensitive nature, gentle commands work best as training methods. A Greyhound may bark. A common misconception regarding Greyhounds is that they are hyperactive; this is not the case with retired racing Greyhounds. Greyhounds can live comfortably as apartment dogs, as they do not require much space and sleep 18 hours per day. Due to their calm temperament, Greyhounds can make better "apartment dogs" than smaller, more active breeds. Many Greyhound adoption groups recommend that owners keep their Greyhounds on a leash whenever outdoors, except in enclosed areas.
This is due to their prey-drive, their speed, the assertion that Greyhounds have no road sense. In some jurisdictions, it is illegal for Greyhounds to be allowed off-leash in off-leash dog parks. Due to their size and strength, adoption groups recommend that fences be between 4 and 6 feet tall, to prevent Greyhounds from jumping over them; the original primary use of Greyhounds, both in the British Isles and on the Continent of Europe, was in the coursing of deer. They specialized in competition hare coursing; some Greyhounds are still used for coursing, although artificial lure sports like lure coursing and racing are far more common and popular. Many leading 300- to 550-yard sprinters have bloodlines traceable back through Irish sires, within a few generations of racers that won events such as the Irish Coursing Derby or the Irish Cup; until the early twentieth century, Greyhounds were principally bred and trained for hunting and coursing. During the 1920s, modern greyhound racing was introduced into the United States, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
Australia has a significant racing culture. Aside from professional racing, many Greyhounds enjoy success on the amateur race track. Organizations like the Large Gazehound Racing Association and the National Oval Track Racing Association provide opportunities for Greyhounds and other sighthound breeds to compete in amateur racing events all over the United States; the Greyhound has, since its first appearance as a hunting type and breed, enjoyed a specific degree of fame and definition in Western literature and art as the most elegant or noble companion and hunter of the canine world. In modern times, the professional racing industry, with its large numbers of track-bred greyhounds, as well as international adoption programs aimed at re-homing dogs has redefined the breed as a sporting
Richard Martin (Irish politician)
Colonel Richard Martin, was an Irish politician and campaigner against cruelty to animals. He was known as "Humanity Dick", a nickname bestowed on him by King George IV, he succeeded in getting the pioneering Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822, nicknamed'Martin's Act', passed into British law. Martin was born at Ballynahinch Castle, County Galway, the only son of Robert Martin FitzAnthony of Birch Hall, County Galway, Bridget Barnwall, a daughter of Robert Barnewall, 12th Baron Trimlestown, he was raised at Dangan House, situated on the Corrib River, four miles upriver from the town of Galway. His father's family were Jacobites and one of "The Tribes of Galway," fourteen merchant families who ruled Galway from the 14th to 17th centuries; the Barnwalls were an ennobled family of Norman descent based in the counties of Dublin and Meath in Leinster. Bridget Barnwall died. Richard's father married Mary Lynch, a member of another "Tribal" family, with whom he had sons Robert and Anthony. Though both of his parents were born to Catholics, Richard Martin was raised a Protestant and educated in England and became a wealthy landlord in Ireland.
He studied at Harrow and after some tutelage for exams to gain admission at Trinity College, Cambridge, he "was admitted a gentleman-commoner at Trinity on 4 March 1773." Martin did not graduate with a degree but studied for admission to the bar and was admitted to Lincoln's Inn on 1 February 1776. He served as a lawyer in Ireland and became High Sheriff of Galway in 1782. Martin entered the Irish House of Commons in 1776, sitting for Jamestown until 1783. After a break of fifteen years, he was returned to Parliament for Lanesborough in 1798, promoting Catholic Emancipation. Just before the Act of Union dissolved the Irish Parliament and obliged Irish MPs to sit in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, he was elected for Galway County, he continued to represent Galway County in Westminster as a political independent until 1812 and again from 1818, supporting the Tory government of Lord Liverpool. In the House of Commons he was known for humorous speeches, he continued his work towards Irish Catholic Emancipation till 1826.
Emancipation was granted in 1829, much to his delight. He was "a member of the Society for the amelioration and gradual abolition of Slavery throughout the British Dominions, formed in 1823." Martin is now best known for his work against animal cruelty against bear baiting and dog fighting. Martin's attempt to have an anti-cruelty to animals Bill passed stands in a chronological line with some previous failed efforts in England's Parliament. A sympathetic groundswell of public opinion emerged in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in opposition to cultural amusements such as bull-baiting and cock-fighting and in the visible maltreatment of animals that were herded in for slaughter at London's Smithfield Market; the first unsuccessful legislative attempt was led by William Johnstone Pulteney on 18 April 1800 to ban bull-baiting but it was lost to the opposition vote in the House of Commons. A renewed effort was undertaken in 1809 with an anti-cruelty Bill introduced into the House of Lords by Lord Erskine which passed in that House but was defeated by a vote in the House of Commons.
Martin voted in favour of Erskine's bills. Martin drafted a new Bill in consultation with the retired Lord Erskine as well as with the agricultural writer and animal rights advocate John Lawrence, his actions resulted in Martin's Act of 1822, entitled "Ill Treatment of Cattle Bill". The Bill passed in the House of Commons by twenty-nine to eighteen votes through the House of Lords and was signed by the King on 21 June 1822, he tried to spread his ideas in the streets of London, becoming the target of jokes and political cartoons that depicted him with ears of a donkey. He sometimes paid fines of minor offenders. In May 1824 he attempted to widen the scope of anti-cruelty legislation by introducing the Slaughtering of Horses Bill which would have obliged licensed slaughter houses to keep proper records of food allocated to each horse and with penalties applied to those using a horse that had a disabled limb to haul carts; this Bill was defeated on 15 June 1824. In 1821 letters were exchanged by various correspondents in periodicals raising concerns about the maltreatment of animals, which included one written by Rev. Arthur Broome, published in The Kaleidoscope on 6 March 1821.
Broome attempted to bring together the patronage of persons who were of social rank and committed to social reforms and he chaired a meeting, held in November 1822 to create a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. This initial attempt however faltered and a fresh attempt to launch the Society was organised by Broome at a meeting on 16 June 1824 at Old Slaughter's Coffee House, London. Broome invited various clergy and parliamentarians to vote on the resolution to create the Society and among those present were Thomas Fowell Buxton MP, William Wilberforce, Richard Martin, Sir James Mackintosh MP, Basil Montagu, William Mudford, Rev. George Avery Hatch, Rev George Bonner, Sir James Graham, T. G. Meymott, John Ashley Warre and Lewis Gompertz. Broome was elected as the Society's first honorary secretary. Due to Martin's profile as a politician and as the drafter of the anti-cruelty legislation, a public perception developed that he was the initiator and creator of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
At the Society's first anniversary meeting Martin set the public record straight and gave credit to Rev Broome by stating
Académie Nationale de Médecine
Situated at 16 rue Bonaparte in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, the Académie nationale de médecine was created in 1820 by king Louis XVIII at the urging of baron Antoine Portal. At its inception, the institution was known as the Académie royale de médecine; this academy was endowed with the legal status of two institutions which preceded it — the Académie royale de chirurgie, created in 1731 and of the Société royale de médecine, created in 1776. Academy members convened at the Paris Faculty of Medicine. Four years the Academy acquired its own headquarters, in the form of a mansion in the rue de Poitiers, where it was located until 1850; the office was relocated to a vaulted hall of the Hospital of Charity on rue Saint Pierre. Their current facility on Rue Bonaparte was designed by the French architect Justin Rochet, was constructed between 1899 and 1902; the institution name has been changed several times since its creation. The following provides a timeline for the various names taken on by the institution: Académie Royale de Médecine.
The edict of 1820 was signed by Louis XVIII. The edict issued the following missions to the Académie Royale de Médecine: " This Academy is instituted to respond to all requests coming from the government on all subjects that may concern public health, on epidemics, diseases specific to a country, diverse fields of legal medicine, propagation of antivariolic vaccination, appraisal of new and secret, internal as well as external, natural or man-made mineral waters, etc..." "The Academy will moreover take charge of the works of the Companie royale de médecine and the Académie Royale de chirurgie in all fields of study or research which can contribute to the improvement of the art of healing." All registers and papers belonging to the Companie royale de médecine and the Académie Royale de chirurgie and related to the tasks assigned to the Academies, will be transmitted as Archives to the new Academy." Official site Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF