Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. That entity may be an individual, as in an autocracy, or it may be a group, the English dictionary defines despotism as the rule of a despot, the exercise of absolute authority. The root despot comes from the Greek word despotes, which means master or one with power, the term has been used to describe many rulers and governments throughout history. Due to its reflexive connotation throughout history, the word despot cannot be objectively defined, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term applies to a head of state or government. In this sense, it is similar to the connotations that are associated with the terms tyrant. Of all the ancient Greeks, Aristotle was perhaps the most influential promoter of the concept of oriental despotism. He passed this ideology to his student, Alexander the Great, who conquered Persia, which at the time was ruled by the despotic Darius III, Aristotle asserted that oriental despotism was not based on force, but on consent.
Hence, fear could not be said to be its motivating force, but rather the nature of those enslaved. Within ancient Greek society, every Greek man was free and capable of holding office, in contrast, among the barbarians, all were slaves by nature. Another difference Aristotle espoused was based on climates, possessing both spirit and intelligence, the Greeks were free to govern all other peoples. The story of Croesus of Lydia exemplifies this, leading up to Alexanders expansion into Asia, most Greeks were repelled by the Oriental notion of a sun-king, and the divine law that Oriental societies accepted. Herodotuss version of history advocated a society where men became free when they consented lawfully to the contract of their respective city-state. His eyebrows were tinged with black, and his cheeks painted with an artificial red, in its classical form, despotism is a state in which a single individual holds all the power and authority embodying the state, and everyone else is a subsidiary person.
This form of despotism was common in the first forms of statehood and civilization, the word itself seems to have been coined by the opponents of Louis XIV of France in the 1690s, who applied the term despotisme to describe their monarchs somewhat free exercise of power. The word is ultimately Greek in origin, and in ancient Greek usage, the term now implies tyrannical rule. This movement was probably triggered by the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment philosopher Montesquieu believed that despotism was a government for large states
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de lAulne, commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman. Originally considered a physiocrat, he is today best remembered as an advocate for economic liberalism. He is thought to be the first economist to have recognized the law of diminishing returns in agriculture. Born in Paris, he was the youngest son of Michel-Étienne Turgot, provost of the merchants of Paris, and Madeleine Francoise Martineau de Brétignolles, and came from an old Norman family. As one of four children, he had a sister and two older brothers, one of whom, Étienne-François Turgot, was a naturalist, and served as administrator of Malta. Anne Robert Jacques was educated for the Church, and at the Sorbonne and he delivered two remarkable Latin dissertations, On the Benefits which the Christian Religion has conferred on Mankind, and On the Historical Progress of the Human Mind. In 1750 he decided not to take orders, giving as his reason that he could not bear to wear a mask all his life.
The first sign we have of his interest in economics is a letter on money, written to his fellow-student the abbé de Cicé. The first complete statement of the Idea of Progress is that of Turgot, for Turgot progress covers not simply the arts and sciences but, on their base, the whole of culture – manner, institutions, legal codes and society. In 1752 he became substitut, and conseiller in the parlement of Paris, in 1754 he was a member of the chambre royale which sat during an exile of the parlement. It was during this period that he met the leaders of the school and Vincent de Gournay, and with them Dupont de Nemours. In 1743 and 1756 he accompanied Gournay, the intendant of commerce, in 1760, while travelling in the east of France and Switzerland, he visited Voltaire, who became one of his chief friends and supporters. All this time he was studying various branches of science, between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopédie, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs des monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbé Morellet.
In 1759 appeared his work Eloge de Gournay, in August 1761 Turgot was appointed intendant of the genéralité of Limoges, which included some of the poorest and most over-taxed parts of France, here he remained for thirteen years. He was already imbued with the theories of Quesnay and Gournay. He published his Avis sur lassiette et la repartition de la taille and Mirabeau had advocated a proportional tax, but Turgot proposed a distributive tax. Turgots opinion was that a compromise had to be reached between both methods, at the same time he did much to encourage agriculture and local industries, among others establishing the manufacture of porcelain at Limoges. It may be noted that Turgot always made the curés the agents of his charities and it was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberté du commerce des grains, addressed to the controller-general, the abbé Terray
Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a polymath and a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, civic activist, statesman. As a scientist, he was a figure in the American Enlightenment. As an inventor, he is known for the rod, bifocals. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphias fire department and the University of Pennsylvania, Franklin earned the title of The First American for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation, in the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat. To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin the most accomplished American of his age, Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23.
He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richards Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, after 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British policies. He pioneered and was first president of The Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and he organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769. Franklin became a hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France, during the Revolution, he became the first US Postmaster General.
He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, from 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective, Franklins father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a soap-maker and a candle-maker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23,1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith-farmer, and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15,1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife, Mary Morrill, Josiah Franklin had seventeen children with his two wives. He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to Boston in 1683, after her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9,1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their child, was Josiah Franklins fifteenth child and tenth
Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau
Victor de Riqueti, Marquis de Mirabeau was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. He was the father of great Honoré, Comte de Mirabeau and is, in distinction and he had a younger brother, Jean-Antoine Riqueti de Mirabeau. Mirabeau was brought up very sternly by his father, and in 1728 joined the army and he took keenly to campaigning, but never rose above the rank of captain, owing to his being unable to get leave at court to buy a regiment. Also in 1743, Mirabeau was made a Knight of the Royal, in 1749, his son Honoré Gabriel was born. This work was followed in 1750 by a book on the Utilité des états provinciaux, in 1756 Mirabeau made his first appearance as a political economist by the publication of his Ami des hommes ou Traité de la population. At Bignon the school of the physiocrats was really established, and the marquis in 1765 bought the Journal de lagriculture, du commerce, et des finances, which became the organ of the school. He was recognized as a leader of political thinkers by Prince Leopold of Tuscany, afterwards emperor, and by Gustav III of Sweden, one of his own daughters had encouraged his wife to take this step.
He was determined to keep the case quiet, if possible, for the sake of Mme de Pailly, a Swiss lady whom he had loved since 1756. But his wife would not let him rest, her plea was rejected in 1777, but she renewed her suit, though the great Mirabeau had pleaded his fathers case, was successful in 1781. This trial quite broke the health of the marquis, as well as his fortune, he sold his estate at Bignon, and hired a house at Argenteuil, where he lived quietly till his death. The marquiss younger brother, Jean Antoine Riquetti, the bailli, served with distinction in the navy, in 1763 he became general of the galleys of Malta. In 1767 he returned to France and took charge of the château de Mirabeau, Mirabeau was nicknamed Friend of Man, after his work LAmi des Hommes. Also Henri Ripert, Le Marquis de Mirabeau, ses theories politiques et économiques This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built by Louis XIII in 1623, as a lodge of brick and stone. The first phase of the expansion was designed and supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau and it culminated in the addition of three new wings of stone, which surrounded Louis XIIIs original building on the north and west. After Le Vaus death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant, charles Le Brun designed and supervised the elaborate interior decoration, and André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun and Le Nôtre collaborated on the fountains, and Le Brun supervised the design. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings north and south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
He replaced Le Vaus large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with became the most famous room of the palace. The Royal Chapel of Versailles, located at the end of the north wing, was begun by Mansart in 1688. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV, owing to the nature of the construction of Versailles and the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was planned to be a residence for Louis XIV and was referred to as the kings house. Once Louis XIV embarked on his campaigns, expenses for Versailles became more of a matter for public record. To counter the costs of Versailles during the years of Louis XIVs personal reign. Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France, even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. While Venice in the 17th century had the monopoly on the manufacture of mirrors, to meet the demands for decorating and furnishing Versailles, Colbert nationalised the tapestry factory owned by the Gobelin family, to become the Manufacture royale des Gobelins.
In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne, the Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example. 5 In anticipation, For the silver balustrade for the bedroom,90,000 livres II
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano, usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer and military leader. He took part in the Argentine Wars of Independence and created the Flag of Argentina and he is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country. Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires, the child of Italian businessman Domingo Belgrano y Peri. He came into contact with the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment while at university in Spain around the time of the French Revolution and this rejection led him to work towards a greater autonomy for his country from the Spanish colonial regime. He favoured the May Revolution, which removed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power on 25 May 1810 and he was elected as a voting member of the Primera Junta that took power after the ouster. As a delegate for the Junta, he led the ill-fated Paraguay campaign and his troops were defeated by Bernardo de Velasco at the battles of Campichuelo and Paraguarí.
Though he was defeated, the initiated the chain of events that led to the Independence of Paraguay in May 1811. He retreated to the vicinity of Rosario, to fortify it against a possible royalist attack from the Eastern Band of the Uruguay River, while there, he created the flag of Argentina. The First Triumvirate did not approve the flag, but because of communications, Belgrano would only learn of that many weeks later. His counter-offensive at the Battle of Tucumán resulted in a key strategic victory, by then, the Asamblea del Año XIII had approved the use of Belgranos flag as the national war flag. Belgrano went on a mission to Europe along with Bernardino Rivadavia to seek support for the revolutionary government. He returned in time to part in the Congress of Tucumán. He promoted the Inca plan to create a monarchy with an Inca descendant as Head of State. This proposal had the support of San Martín, Martín Miguel de Güemes, and many provincial delegates, the Congress of Tucumán approved the use of his flag as the national flag.
When Buenos Aires was about to be invaded by José Gervasio Artigas and Estanislao López, he moved the Army southwards, Belgrano died of dropsy on 20 June 1820. His last words reportedly were, ¡Ay, Patria mía. Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires on 3 June 1770, at his fathers house. It was located near the Santo Domingo convent, at Santo Domingo street, though the city was still rather small, the Belgranos lived at one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods. Manuel Belgrano was baptised at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral the following day, as he was born in the Americas he was considered a criollo, a social class below the Peninsulars
Richard Cantillon was an Irish-French economist and author of Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général, a book considered by William Stanley Jevons to be the cradle of political economy. Although little information exists on Cantillons life, it is known that he became a successful banker and his success was largely derived from the political and business connections he made through his family and through an early employer, James Brydges. During the late 1710s and early 1720s, Cantillon speculated in, his success came at a cost to his debtors, who pursued him with lawsuits, criminal charges, and even murder plots until his death in 1734. Essai remains Cantillons only surviving contribution to economics and it was written around 1730 and circulated widely in manuscript form, but was not published until 1755. His work was translated into Spanish by Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, probably in the late 1770s, despite having much influence on the early development of the physiocrat and classical schools of thought, Essai was largely forgotten until its rediscovery by Jevons in the late 19th century.
Cantillon was influenced by his experiences as a banker, and especially by the bubble of John Laws Mississippi Company. He was influenced by prior economists, especially William Petty. Essai is considered the first complete treatise on economics, with contributions to the science. These contributions include, his cause and effect methodology, monetary theories, his conception of the entrepreneur as a risk-bearer, and the development of spatial economics. Cantillons Essai had significant influence on the development of political economy, including the works of Adam Smith, Anne Turgot, Jean-Baptiste Say, Frédéric Bastiat. While details regarding Richard Cantillons life are scarce, it is thought that he was sometime during the 1680s in County Kerry. He was son to land-owner Richard Cantillon of Ballyheigue, sometime in the middle of the first decade of the 18th century Cantillon moved to France, where he attained French citizenship. By 1711, Cantillon found himself in the employment of British Paymaster General James Brydges, in Spain, Cantillon remained in Spain until 1714, cultivating a number of business and political connections, before returning to Paris.
Cantillon became involved in the industry working for a cousin. Two years later, thanks in part to financial backing by James Brydges, Cantillon bought his cousin out. At this time, Cantillon became involved with British mercantilist John Law through the Mississippi Company, in return, Law promised the French government to finance their debt at low rates of interest. Law began a financial speculative bubble by selling shares of the Mississippi Company, Richard Cantillon amassed a great fortune from his speculation, buying Mississippi Company shares early and selling them at inflated prices. Cantillon replied, I shall not go away, but I will make your system succeed, to that end, in 1718 Law and wealthy speculator Joseph Gage formed a private company centred on financing further speculation in North American real estate
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five, Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinals death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. During his reign, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, territory won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, Louis ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the Seven Years War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of Lorraine and Corsica into the kingdom of France and he was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI in 1774. French culture and influence were at their height in the first half of the eighteenth century, many scholars believe that Louis XVs decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and made it more vulnerable to distrust and destruction.
Evidence for this view is provided by the French Revolution, which broke out 15 years after his death, norman Davies characterized Louis XVs reign as one of debilitating stagnation, characterized by lost wars, endless clashes between the Court and Parliament, and religious feuds. A few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. Jerome Blum described him as a perpetual adolescent called to do a mans job, Louis XV was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710 during the reign of Louis XIV. His grandfather, Louis Le Grand Dauphin, had three sons with his wife Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria, Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Anjou, and Charles, Duke of Berry. Louis XV was the son of the Duke of Burgundy and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy. At birth, Louis XV received a title for younger sons of the French royal family. In April 1711, Louis Le Grand Dauphin suddenly died, making Louis XVs father, the Duke of Burgundy, at that time, Burgundy had two living sons, Duke of Brittany and his youngest son, the future Louis XV.
A year later, Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Burgundy, contracted smallpox and her husband, said to be heartbroken by her death, died the same week, having contracted smallpox. Within a week of his death, it was clear that the two children had been infected. The elder son was treated by bloodletting in an unsuccessful effort to save him. Fearing that the Dauphin would die, the Court had both the Dauphin and the Duke of Anjou baptised, the Dauphin died the same day,8 March 1712. His younger brother, the Duke of Anjou, was treated by his governess, Madame de Ventadour. The two year old Dauphin survived the smallpox, on 1 September 1715, Louis XIV died of gangrene, having reigned for 72 years