Agnès Buzyn is a French hematologist, university professor, medical practitioner and political figure, serving as the Minister of Solidarity and Health in the Philippe Government since 17 May 2017. Agnès Buzin, who specializes in hematology, cancer immunology and transplant, spent most of her career as a medical practitioner and researcher at Paris-Descartes University and at Necker Hospital. Since 2008, she assumed many responsibilities as part of Health and Nuclear public institutions: president of the administrative counsel of the Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute, she was appointed Minister of Solidarity and Health under the presidency of Emmanuel Macron, as part of the first government of Édouard Philippe on May the 17th 2017 confirmed on June the 21st 2017 as part of the second government of Édouard Phillipe. Buzyn was born to two Holocaust survivors, her father Elie from Polish Lodz, who survived Buchenwald's death march at age 16, left for British Palestine after World War II.
He became an orthopedic surgeon in Paris and married a French Jewish woman, whose family hid in France during the war. Buzyn is a qualified doctor and university professor, she has been head of the French National Cancer Institute and other public health executive boards. In 2016, she was nominated as the first woman. For several years she was a senior physician and researcher at the Paris Necker Children's Hospital, teaching hematology and transplantation at the Paris VI University. From 2008 to 2013, she chaired France's Agency for Nuclear Safety and Protection against Radiation, a position which involved reassuring the public after Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011. In May 2017, President Emmanuel Macron appointed her as minister of health. Buzyn had never been involved in party politics prior to being nominated similar to other ministers. Buzyn was married to Pierre-Francois Veil, son of health minister and Holocaust survivor Simone Veil, who died in June 2017, they have 2 children together.
Buzyn is married to Yves Lévy. Levy is an immunology professor and has been heading the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research since June 2014, he remains interim head since his term expired 12 June 2018 and announced on July 30th that he would not run for another term due to the controversy. As the Minister of Health and the Minister of Research oversee INSERM, there has been an obvious conflict of interest. On May 29, 2017, a decree was issued that the French prime minister would carry out acts related to INSERM instead of Buzyn; the French press has called this an unthinkable solution in Anglo-Saxon countries. However, Buzyn is a member of the search committee charged with auditioning the INSERM director candidates. Several candidates decided not to run for office upon learning this information
Christophe Castaner is a French lawyer and politician, serving as the Minister of the Interior since 16 October 2018 and as the Executive Officer of La République En Marche! since 2017. From 17 May 2017 to 16 October 2018, he was Secretary of State for Relations with Parliament under Prime Minister Édouard Philippe, he was spokesperson for Emmanuel Macron during his campaign for the presidential election of 2017. Born in Ollioules in the Var department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, he was a member of the National Assembly for the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department from 2012 to 2017 and headed the Socialist Party list for the 2015 regional elections in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur before joining Macron's En Marche! Movement in 2016, he served as Mayor of Forcalquier from 2001 to 2017 and Vice President of the Regional Council of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur from 2004 to 2012. On 18 November 2017, Castaner became the Executive Officer of La République En Marche! before resigning as Spokesperson of the Government.
The youngest of three children, Christophe Castaner's father was in the military and his mother was a housewife. A poor student, he gained his baccalauréat independently at the age of 20 in 1986. A graduate of the Faculty of Law and Political Science of the University of Aix-Marseille, he holds a post-graduate diploma in International Business Law and a diploma in Criminal and Criminological Sciences. After a work experience at the Banque National de Paris in the legal department of the company, he was recruited to the management of local authorities in Avignon and Paris. In 1995 he became office manager for Tony Dreyfus mayor of the 10th arrondissement of Paris, he was technical adviser to the Minister of Culture, Catherine Trautmann, in 1997 and became her principal private secretary in 1998. He was principal private secretary to Michel Sapin Minister of the Civil Service and the State Reform, from 2000 to 2002. In 2001 Christophe Castaner stood for mayor of Forcalquier, he won against the incumbent mayor, Pierre Delmar, mayor from 1983 to 1989 and again from 1995 to 2001 and was both a national deputy and a departmental councillor.
Re-elected as mayor of Forcalquier and president of the district council of Forcalquier-Mount Lure in 2008, he was an active participant in the creation of the intercommunality of the Pays de Haute-Provence. He was once again re-elected mayor of Forcalquier on 23 March 2014, standing against Sébastien Ginet. On 11 April 2014, his vice-president, Pierre Garcin, succeeded him as the president of the district council of Forcalquier-Mount Lure. In 2004, after having been elected to the regional council of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, he found himself entrusted by the president Michel Vauzelle with responsibility for land use planning, it was the first time this important responsibility fell to an "Alpine" representative, the youngest vice-president of the PACA region. He was re-elected in 2010 and given a new responsibility: employment, higher education and innovation. Christophe Castaner was named on 5 February 2015 as chief candidate for the 2015 PACA regional elections by members of the Socialist Party with 55% of the vote, ahead of Patrick Allemand and Elsa di Méo.
In the first round he obtained 17 % of the vote, trailing The Republicans. Following the decision of the Socialist Party, Christophe Castaner decided not to stand in the second round in an act of unity against the National Front; this choice enabled the election of Christian Estrosi with 54.8% of the vote. On 17 June 2012, he was elected as a member of the National Assembly for the 2nd constituency of the Alpes de Haute-Provence in the 2012 legislative election, ahead of the UMP candidate, Jean-Claude Castel, mayor of Corbières. A member of the National Assembly's Finance Committee, in July 2012 he was appointed Special Rapporteur of Work and Employment Budgets. On 20 June 2014, Prime Minister Manuel Valls entrusted Christophe Castaner with the vice-presidency of the Council for the Co-ordination of Profit-sharing, Employee Savings and Employee Shareholding; this authority was in charge of bringing negotiations between unions and management on these measures to a successful conclusion. He sponsored the Bill for Growth and Equality of Economic Opportunity, known as the loi Macron.
He was spokesperson for and a supporter of Emmanuel Macron during the campaign for the presidential election of 2017. During this campaign, he was criticized for dishonesty and tactlessness, he justified his joining with Emmanuel Macron by explaining that in politics one must be "at the right place at the right time, without knowing where you will end up". Described as ambitious, he reckons. Or they are liars. I downloaded La Provence at 5 a.m. to see if my picture was in that day's edition". He stood in the 2017 legislative elections on the La République En Marche! Ticket for the 2nd constituency of the Alpes-de-Hautes-Provence and was reelected. On 17 May 2017 he was named Secretary of State for Relations with Parliament, he was appointed as Government Spokesperson for the Édouard Philippe government. In October 2017, as a result of some arrests, he was named among potential targets of a
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande is a French politician who served as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017. He was the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008, President of the Corrèze General Council from 2008 to 2012. Hollande served in the National Assembly of France twice for the department of Corrèze's 1st constituency from 1988 to 1993, again from 1997 to 2012. Born in Rouen and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hollande began his political career as a special advisor to newly elected President François Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman, he became a member of the National Assembly in 1988 and was elected First Secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997. Following the 2004 regional elections won by the Socialists, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but resigned as First Secretary and was elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as President of the General Council of Corrèze in 2008.
In 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the primary election to select the Socialist Party presidential nominee. During his tenure, Hollande legalised same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. 344, reformed labour laws and credit training programmes, withdrew French combat troops present in the Afghanistan military intervention and concluded a EU directive through a Franco-German contract. Hollande led the country through 2016 Nice attacks, he was a leading proponent of EU mandatory migrant quotas and NATO's 2011 military intervention in Libya. He sent troops to Mali and the Central African Republic with the approval of the UN Security Council in order to stabilise those countries, two operations seen as successful; however his support of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen drew controversy among his left-wing electoral basis. Under his term, France became the most toured country in the world, known as a nation of open markets, regulatory efficiency, rule of law and limited governmental intervention.
Paris hosted the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Hollande's efforts to attract the 2024 Summer Olympics to the city were successful. Notwithstanding, with unemployment up to 10% as of December 2016 and domestic troubles over his tenure due to terrorism, he faced spikes and downturns in approval rates making him one of the most unpopular French Presidents in history. On 1 December 2016, he announced he would not seek re-election in the 2017 French presidential election. François Hollande was born on 12 August 1954 in Rouen, his mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert, was a social worker, his father, Georges Gustave Hollande, is a retired ear and throat doctor who "ran for local election on a far right ticket in 1959." The name "Hollande" meant "one from Holland" – it is found in Hollande's ancestral land, Hauts-de-France, it is speculated to be Dutch in origin. The earliest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller; when Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a exclusive suburb of Paris.
He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, receiving his baccalaureate in 1972 graduated with a bachelor's degree in Law from Panthéon-Assas University. Hollande studied at HEC Paris, graduated in 1975, attended the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he did his military service in the French Army in 1977. He chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. Hollande lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 as a university student. After graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit. Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party, he was spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to run in legislative election of 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, the leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party.
Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round. He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party; as the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995. Former party leader Lionel Jospin resumed his position, selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman.
Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997 returning to the National Assembly. That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of F
Nicolas Jacques André Hulot is a French journalist and environmental activist. He is the founder and president of the Fondation Nicolas Hulot, an environmental group established in 1990. Hulot ran as a candidate in the primary for the Europe Ecology – The Greens party in 2011 losing to Eva Joly. Hulot has refused to be a minister for Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande. In May 2017, he was appointed Minister for the Ecological and Solidary Transition in the first Philippe government. On 28 August 2018, he announced his resignation from the government. Hulot was born 30 April 1955 in Lille, France, to Monique Marguerite Marie Hulot, a pharmaceutical sales representative, Philippe Marie Joseph Hulot, a gold miner in Venezuela. Hulot had Gonzaga and a sister, Beatrice. Hulot's father Philippe died. Gonzaga Hulot committed suicide on 24 December 1974. Hulot took up rallying as a hobby when he was growing up and took part in the 1980 Dakar Rally, though he didn't finish the race due to difficulties with his vehicle.
From 1973 to 1978, Hulot worked as an agency photographer for Sipa Press where he documented the 1976 Guatemala earthquake and interviewed Ian Smith during the Rhodesian Bush War. Hulot left Sipa Press in 1978 to move to France Inter after being offered work as a radio journalist and producer. Hulot debuted on television during the children's program Les Visiteurs du mercredi. Hulot presented the short-lived educational programme Les Pieds au mur. Following this, Hulot became an evening reporter focusing on motorcycle events. Hulot left France Inter in 1987. Hulot presented the television programme, Ushuaïa, le magazine de l'extrême, focused around extreme sport and natural landscapes throughout the world; the programme was co-produced by Hulot's then-girlfriend Dominique Cantien. Ushuaïa, le magazine de l'extrême made Hulot a household name in France. Ushuaïa, le magazine de l'extrême ran from 1987 to 1995. Hulot went on to present Opération Okavango and Ushuaïa Nature Hulot's contract with TF1 ended in December 2011 though four of the remaining Ushuaïa Nature episodes aired in 2012.
In 1990, Hulot founded the Ushuaia Foundation which became La Fondation Nicolas-Hulot pour la nature et l'homme in 1995 and which changed its name to La Fondation pour la nature et l'homme in April 2011. Hulot and Gérard Feldzer, a former French airline pilot, experimented with airship prototypes developed by Didier Costes in 1992, in 1993, the pair attempted to cross the Atlantic Ocean from Spain using an airship with pedals; the pair made it as far as 1,500 km before failing near the Cape Verde Islands. Hulot set up partnerships for the Foundation with companies such as EDF, L'Oréal and TF1. In 2006, the National Museum of Natural History formed a partnership with La Fondation pour la nature et l'homme, organising annual events to bring people together to combat climate change. In 2013, the foundation launched a think tank based around ecology. In 2007, Nicolas Hulot told candidates in the presidential election that he would stand as a candidate if ecology were not one of the main themes of the election.
Some polls estimated his support at around 15%. In response to his announcement, five of the twelve candidates in the election, including Nicolas Sarkozy, signed his Pacte écologique, stating that ecological issues would be central to all future political decisions. On 13 April 2011 while speaking in Sevran, Seine-Saint-Denis, Nicolas Hulot announced his candidacy in the Europe Écologie-Les Verts primary for the 2012 French presidential election; the announcement came a month after Hulot's calls for a referendum on nuclear energy following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Hulot was invited to a televised interview on the France Inter show 7/9 by Bruno Duvic. During the first round of the primary, Hulot came second with 40.22% despite polls indicating he would be able to beat Eva Joly who got 49.75% of the vote. Hulot lost during the second round and Joly became the Europe Ecologie-Les Verts candidate. For the French presidential election of 2012, Nicolas Hulot stated that he had voted for the Left Front's candidate, Jean-Luc Mélenchon, during the first round.
He said. He supported François Hollande in the second round. On 17 May 2017 he was appointed Minister for the Inclusive Transition; this is following Hulot turning down offers for ministerial positions from Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande's governments. The position's responsibilities are focused around climate, air pollution and transport. On 6 July 2017, Hulot announced the government's five-year plan to outlaw all petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040; the plan would attempt to make France carbon-neutral by 2050. Financial incentives would be offered to people; this followed a proposal by Norway to ban all petrol and diesel vehicle sales by 2025. On 10 July 2017, Hulot said on RTL Radio that France may close up to 17 nuclear reactors by 2025 in a new plan to reduce its share of nuclear power. Liberal think-tank Institut Montaigne released a report stating that the plan to convert from nuclear energy to wind and solar will cost €217 billion by 2035. In 2016, France's Court of Audit estimated that prolonging the lifespan of France's nuclear reactors would cost €100 billion.
France derives 75 percent of its electri
Nantes is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, 50 km from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth-largest in France, with a population of 303,382 in Nantes and a metropolitan area of nearly 950,000 inhabitants. With Saint-Nazaire, a seaport on the Loire estuary, Nantes forms the main north-western French metropolis, it is the administrative seat of the Loire-Atlantique department and the Pays de la Loire région, one of 18 regions of France. Nantes belongs and culturally to Brittany, a former duchy and province, its omission from the modern administrative region of Brittany is controversial. Nantes was identified during classical antiquity as a port on the Loire, it was the seat of a bishopric at the end of the Roman era before it was conquered by the Bretons in 851. Although Nantes was the primary residence of the 15th-century dukes of Brittany, Rennes became the provincial capital after the 1532 union of Brittany and France. During the 17th century, after the establishment of the French colonial empire, Nantes became the largest port in France and was responsible for nearly half of the 18th-century French Atlantic slave trade.
The French Revolution resulted in an economic decline, but Nantes developed robust industries after 1850. Deindustrialisation in the second half of the 20th century spurred the city to adopt a service economy. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Nantes as a Gamma world city, it is the fourth-highest-ranking city in France, after Paris and Marseille. The Gamma category includes cities such as Algiers, Porto and Leipzig. Nantes has been praised for its quality of life, it received the European Green Capital Award in 2013; the European Commission noted the city's efforts to reduce air pollution and CO2 emissions, its high-quality and well-managed public transport system and its biodiversity, with 3,366 hectares of green space and several protected Natura 2000 areas. Nantes is named after a tribe of Gaul, the Namnetes, who established a settlement between the end of the second century and the beginning of the first century BC on the north bank of the Loire near its confluence with the Erdre.
The origin of the name "Namnetes" is uncertain, but is thought to come from the Gaulish root *nant- or from Amnites, another tribal name meaning "men of the river". Its first recorded name was by the Greek writer Ptolemy, who referred to the settlement as Κονδηούινκον and Κονδιούινκον —which might be read as Κονδηούικον —in his treatise, Geography; the name was latinised during the Gallo-Roman period as Condevincum, Condevicnum and Condivincum. Although its origins are unclear, "Condevincum" seems to be related to the Gaulish word condate "confluence"; the Namnete root of the city's name was introduced at the end of the Roman period, when it became known as Portus Namnetum "port of the Namnetes" and civitas Namnetum "city of the Namnetes". Like other cities in the region, its name was replaced during the fourth century with a Gaulish one. Nantes' name continued to evolve, becoming Nanetiæ and Namnetis during the fifth century and Nantes after the sixth via syncope. "Nantes" is pronounced, the city's inhabitants are known as Nantais.
In Gallo, the oïl language traditionally spoken in the region around Nantes, the city is spelled "Naunnt" or "Nantt". Gallo pronunciation is identical to French. In Breton, Nantes is known as Naoned or an Naoned, the latter of, less common and reflects the more-frequent use of articles in Breton toponyms than in French ones. Nantes' historical nickname was "Venice of the West", a reference to the many quays and river channels in the old town before they were filled in during the 1920s and 1930s; the city is known as la Cité des Ducs "city of the dukes " for its castle and former role as a ducal residence. The first inhabitants of what is now Nantes settled during the Bronze Age than in the surrounding regions, its first inhabitants were attracted by small iron and tin deposits in the region's subsoil. The area exported tin, mined in Piriac, as far as Ireland. After about 1,000 years of trading, local industry appeared around 900 BC. Nantes may have been the major Gaulish settlement of Corbilo, on the Loire estuary, mentioned by the Greek historians Strabo and Polybius.
Its history from the seventh century to the Roman conquest in the first century BC is poorly documented, there is no evidence of a city in the area before the reign of Tiberius in the first century AD. During the Gaulish period it was the capital of the Namnetes people, who were allied with the Veneti in a territory extending to the northern bank of the Loire. Rivals in the area included the Pictones, who controlled the area south of the Loire in the city of Ratiatum until the end of the second century AD. Ratiatum, founded under Augustus, developed more than Nantes and was a major port in the region. Nantes began to grow; because tradesmen favoured inland roads rather than Atlantic routes, Nantes never became a large city under Roman occupa
2012 French legislative election
Legislative elections took place on 10 and 17 June 2012 to select the members of the 14th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic – a little over a month after the French presidential election run-off held on 6 May. All 577 single member seats in the assembly, including those representing overseas departments and territories and French residents overseas, were contested using a two-round system; the elections came a month after the presidential election won by François Hollande of the Socialist Party. Since 2002, legislative elections follow the presidential ones; this was designed to limit the possibility of a cohabitation, whereby the President and his or her Prime Minister, backed by a parliamentary majority, would be of opposite parties. The aim was to give the new President and his government a "double mandate", the election of the President being followed by that of a parliamentary majority enabling him to implement his policies; this is what happened in 2002 and 2007. Thus, in 2012, the Socialist Party has asked French citizens to "confirm" the result of the presidential election.
By contrast, the Union for a Popular Movement, on the right, has asked that the left not be given "all the powers" through this election. The legislative elections in France are described as the "third round" of the presidential election. In order to make possible the election of some candidates of non-European ethnic background as well as for female candidates, the Socialist Party had, like in 2007, reserved several constituencies for them, 22 for ethnic minorities and 49% for women. At the end of the second round, there were 13 metropolitan deputies with non European ethnic background, including two government members who will be replaced by their alternate candidates: 6 with Algerian roots: Kader Arif, Kheira Bouziane, Pascal Cherki, Jean-François Copé, Razzy Hammadi, Chaynesse Khirouni 2 with Lebanese roots: Christian Assaf, Henri Jibrayel 2 with Guadeloupean roots: Hélène Geoffroy, George Pau-Langevin 1 with Tunisian roots: Pierre Lellouche 1 with Chadian roots: Seybah Dagoma 1 with Brazilian roots: Eduardo Rihan Cipel Among the 11 deputies who represent French citizens abroad, one is from Réunion, Corine Narassiguin, another has Chilean roots, Sergio Coronado and a third one has Iranian roots, Pouria Amirshahi.
A total of 6,603 candidates ran for an average of 11 per constituency. Some 40% are women; the law mandates that every party must have between 49 and 51% of women among its candidates, or have their public funding reduced. "Some parties, among the richest, prefer to pay the fine" rather than comply with this rule, according to Libération. The law does not take electability into account, significant numbers of women candidates run in constituencies where their party does not stand a real chance. French expatriates elected their own MPs for the first time – voting early, from 23 to 26 May or on 2 or 3 June for the first round and from 6 to 12 June or on 16 or 17 June for the second, depending on their location and the method by which they cast their ballot. If an expatriate votes via the Internet, he or she has a week to do so from 23 to 26 May. A postal ballot may be cast, if received by 31 May in the Americas or by 1 June in the rest of the world; those who prefer to vote in person in their local consulate must do so on 2 June in the Americas or 3 June in the rest of the world.
Each of the 577 constituencies elects one representative to the National Assembly, in a two-round election. A candidate is elected in the first round if he or she obtains an absolute majority of the vote in his or her constituency and the votes of at least one quarter of all registered voters in the constituency. If a large number of voters abstain, an absolute majority of the vote may thus not be enough, although this happens. If no candidate is elected in the first round the two candidates who finished first and second in the first round advance automatically to the second for a runoff, they may be joined by the third- or fourth-placed candidate. Low turnouts therefore decrease the likelihood of a three-person runoff. In the second round, the candidate who obtains the most votes is elected. Candidates who advance to the second round have the option of withdrawing; this happens in a triangulaire, where the party and/or candidate that finished third in the first round prefers to favour one of the two leading candidates.
In the 2012 election, for example, third-placed UMP candidate Roland Chassain in the Bouches-du-Rhônes's 16th constituency withdrew in order to help the National Front candidate defeat the Socialist candidate. In addition, the parties of the mainstream left (Socialist, Left Front, Ra
Loire-Atlantique is a department in Pays de la Loire on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean. Loire-Atlantique is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was named Loire-Inférieure, but its name was changed in 1957 to Loire-Atlantique. The area is part of the historical Duchy of Brittany, contains what many people still consider to be Brittany's capital, Nantes. However, during World War Two, the Vichy Government set up a system of regional prefectures where Loire-Atlantique was excluded from the Region of Brittany and united with neighbouring French departments, under the lead of Angers. After the war these administrative changes were re-implemented in the 1955 boundary changes intended to optimise the management of the regions. There has since been a series of campaigns reflecting a strong local mood to have the department reintegrated with Brittany. Loire-Atlantique is part of the current region of Pays-de-la-Loire and is surrounded by the department of Morbihan, Ille-et-Vilaine, Maine-et-Loire, Vendée, with the Atlantic on the west.
Upper Brittany's indigenous language is a romance language related to French. The number of Gallo language speakers has been in steady decline since the early 20th century; the language is neither official nor taught in secondary education. In the south of the département, the local language was Poitevin dialect; the Breton language, a Celtic language, native to Lower Brittany, was spoken in the western area of Loire-Atlantique, up to 1920 in Batz-sur-Mer. This area has a rather Breton toponymy: for instance, Guérande originates from the Breton Gwenn Rann; the folklore and musical traditions of eastern or Upper Brittany are similar to those of western or Lower Brittany. The département operates the Lila network of interurban buses, which link its villages and cities; the urban areas of Nantes and Saint-Nazaire operate their own urban transport networks, known as Tan and Stran respectively. By rail, the regional trains and buses of the TER Pays de la Loire link major towns and cities of the Pays de la Loire and adjoining regions, including those of the département.
Nantes is on the TGV network, with high speed trains running to Paris by the LGV Atlantique in just over 2 hours. Nantes Atlantique Airport, located 8 km to the southwest of the city of Nantes, serves the département and surrounding areas, it is the biggest airport in northwestern France, linking with several French, North African and European cities, as well as Montreal in Canada. Cantons of the Loire-Atlantique department Communes of the Loire-Atlantique department Arrondissements of the Loire-Atlantique department La Baule - Guérande Peninsula Brittany portal Prefecture General council Loire Atlantic Tourism