The Nazgûl called Ringwraiths, Ring-wraiths, Black Riders, Dark Riders, the Nine Riders, or the Nine, are fictional characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, they were nine men who succumbed to Sauron's power and attained immortality as wraiths, servants bound to the power of the One Ring and under the dominion of Sauron. They are first mentioned in The Lord of the Rings published in 1954–1955; the book calls the Nazgûl Sauron's "most terrible servants". According to Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, the Nazgûl arose as Sauron's most powerful servants in the Second Age of Middle-earth, they were once mortal men. Sauron gave each of them one of nine Rings of Power. However, they were bound to the One Ring and enslaved by the will of Sauron; those who used the Nine Rings became mighty in their day, kings and warriors of old. They obtained glory and great wealth, they had, as it seemed, unending life, yet life became unendurable to them. They could walk, if they would, unseen by all eyes in this world beneath the sun, they could see things in worlds invisible to mortal men.
And one by one, sooner or according to their native strength and to the good or evil of their wills in the beginning, they fell under the thraldom of the ring that they bore and of the domination of the One, Sauron's. And they became forever invisible save to him that wore the Ruling Ring, they entered into the realm of shadows; the Nazgûl were the Ringwraiths, the Úlairi, the Enemy's most terrible servants. — The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age", 346 The corrupting effect of the rings extended the bearers' earthly lives far beyond their normal lifespans. Some passages in the novel suggest that the Nazgûl wore their rings, while others suggest that Sauron held them. In a letter from circa 1963 Tolkien says explicitly that Sauron held the rings: They would have obeyed... any minor command of his that did not interfere with their errand — laid upon them by Sauron, who still through their nine rings had primary control of their wills... — The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Letter 246 They were by far the most powerful of his servants, the most suitable for such a mission, since they were enslaved to their Nine Rings, which he now himself held...
— Unfinished Tales, p. 338 The Nazgûl are called Úlairi in Tolkien's invented language of Quenya. They are called the Fell Riders and the Black Wings, as well as the Shadows, the Servants of Sauron, the Nine Servants of the Lord of the Rings; the Orcs of the Tower of Cirith Ungol call. In her duel with the Witch-king, Éowyn calls him a "dwimmerlaik"; this is intended to be a word in Rohirric, the speech of Rohan, translated into Anglo-Saxon, that Tolkien glosses in the index as a "work of necromancy", a "spectre". It derives from Anglo-Saxon dwimor, "phantom, illusion" and -leikr, the Old Norse ending corresponding to Anglo-Saxon -lac, meaning "a state or act". Only two of the Nazgûl are identified individually in Tolkien's works, their leader was the Witch-king of Angmar. Writings unpublished in Tolkien's lifetime identify his second-in-command as Khamûl, the "Black Easterling" or the "Shadow of the East". In the text of The Lord of the Rings, after the fall of the Lord of the Nazgûl, command of Mordor's army in the field falls to Gothmog, the "lieutenant of Morgul".
Tolkien stated. The Nazgûl wore their rings for so long that their physical forms faded away: they became invisible to mortal eyes, their black robes gave them visible form. While wearing the One Ring during their assault on Weathertop, Frodo saw them as pale figures robed in white, with "haggard hands" and wearing crowns; the Witch-king was taller than the others, with "long and gleaming" hair. During the assault on Minas Tirith, the leader of the Nine, the Witch-king of Angmar, cast back his hood to reveal a crown, but the head that wore it was invisible. Having no physical bodies, they cannot be destroyed by conventional means: ordinary weapons have no effect on them, they still can be temporarily impaired, for example when their horses were drowned upon their arrival at Rivendell. Some of their senses smell, are enhanced; as the Nazgûl hunted Frodo across The Shire, they can hear what they think to be snuffling, sometimes sees them crawling/crouching on the ground. On Weathertop, Aragorn explains.
They can keenly feel the presence of others, more-so than mortals. Their sight works differently as well:They themselves do not see the world of light as we do, but our shapes cast shadows in their minds, which only the noon sun destroys. — "A Knife in the Dark", The Fellowship of the Ring, p. 237Since they cannot see the daylight world like living beings can, they may use spies or
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers is a 2002 epic fantasy adventure film directed by Peter Jackson and based on the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, it is the second instalment in The Lord of the Rings film series, preceded by The Fellowship of the Ring and concluding with The Return of the King. Continuing the plot of The Fellowship of the Ring, the film intercuts three storylines. Frodo and Sam continue their journey towards Mordor to destroy the One Ring and joined by Gollum, the ring's former owner. Aragorn and Gimli come to the war-torn nation of Rohan and are reunited with the resurrected Gandalf, before fighting at the Battle of Helm's Deep. Merry and Pippin escape capture, meet Treebeard the Ent, help to plan an attack on Isengard. Meeting high critical acclaim, the film was an enormous box-office success, earning over US$926 million worldwide, is the highest-grossing film of 2002; the film won numerous accolades and was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, won Best Visual Effects and Best Sound Editing.
Awakening from a dream of Gandalf the Grey battling the Balrog, Frodo Baggins and his friend Samwise Gamgee find themselves lost in the Emyn Muil near Mordor and soon become aware that they are being stalked by Gollum, the former owner of the One Ring. After capturing him, a sympathetic Frodo decides to use Gollum as a guide to Mordor, despite Sam's objections. Meanwhile, Aragorn and Gimli pursue the Uruk-hai to save their companions Merry and Pippin; the Uruk-hai are ambushed by the Rohirrim, the exiled army of Rohan, while the two Hobbits escape into Fangorn Forest and encounter the Ent Treebeard. Aragorn's group meets the Rohirrim and their leader Éomer, who reveals that their king Théoden is being manipulated by Saruman's servant Gríma Wormtongue into turning a blind eye to Saruman's forces running rampant in Rohan. While tracking down the Hobbits in Fangorn, Aragorn's group encounters Gandalf, after succumbing to his injuries while killing the Balrog in Moria, has been resurrected as Gandalf the White to help save Middle-earth.
Aragorn's group travels to Rohan's capital city Edoras, where Gandalf releases Théoden from Saruman's influence and Wormtongue is banished. After learning about Saruman's plans to wipe out Rohan with his Uruk-hai army, Théoden decides to move his citizens to Helm's Deep, an ancient fortress that has provided refuge to Rohan's people in times past, while Gandalf departs to acquire the aid of the Rohirrim. Aragorn builds a friendship with Théoden's niece, Éowyn, who becomes infatuated with him; when the exodus comes under attack by Warg-riding Orcs, Aragorn falls off a cliff into a river and is presumed dead. However, he is taken to Helm's Deep; the Uruk-hai army arrives at Helm's Deep that night, finding a makeshift army of civilians and Elves from Lothlórien waiting for them as a night-long battle follows. Using gunpowder-like explosives on a sewer drain that Wormtongue told Saruman about, the Uruk-hai breach the outer wall and force the remaining defenders to retreat into the inner castle. At Fangorn and Pippin, having met Gandalf in the forest and convincing Treebeard they were allies, are brought to an Ent Council where the Ents decide not to assist in the war.
Pippin tells Treebeard to take them to a route passing Isengard, where they witness the devastation caused to the forest by Saruman's war efforts. An enraged Treebeard summons the Ents and they storm Isengard, drowning the orcs by breaking their river dam and stranding Saruman in Orthanc. At Helm's Deep, Aragorn convinces a despairing Theoden to ride out and meet the Uruks in one last charge. Gandalf and the Rohirrim arrive at sunrise, turning the tide of the battle and decimating the Uruk-hai while those remaining flee and are slaughtered. Despite this victory, Gandalf warns that Sauron's retaliation will be swift. Meanwhile, becoming loyal to Frodo after taking him and Sam through the Dead Marshes, Gollum convinces the Hobbits of another entrance besides the Black Gate. Frodo and Sam are captured by the Rangers of Ithilien led by Faramir, brother of the late Boromir. After torturing Gollum while inadvertently instilling in him the notion that he has been betrayed when Frodo saves him from being killed, Faramir learns of the One Ring and takes his captives with him to Gondor to win his father's respect.
While passing through the besieged Gondorian city of Osgiliath, Sam reveals that Boromir's death was because he was driven mad by and tried to take the Ring. An attacking Nazgûl nearly captures Frodo, who momentarily attacks Sam before coming to his senses, forcing Sam to remind him that they are fighting for the good still left in Middle-earth. Faramir releases them along with Gollum. While leading the hobbits once more, Gollum decides to take revenge on Frodo and reclaim the ring by leading the group to "Her" upon arriving at Cirith Ungol. Like the other films in the series, The Two Towers has an ensemble cast, the cast and their respective characters include: Elijah Wood as Frodo Baggins: a young hobbit sent on a quest to destroy the One Ring, the burden of, becoming heavier. Sean Astin as Samwise Gamgee: Frodo's loyal hobbit gardener and companion. Viggo Mortensen as Aragorn: the heir-in-exile to Gondor's throne who has come to Rohan's defence. Ian McKellen as Gandalf: an Istari wizard who fell fighting a Balrog and has now returned, more powerful than to finish his task.
Billy Boyd as Peregrin Took: a hobbit mistakenly captured by the Uruk-hai. Dominic Monaghan as Meriadoc Brandybuck: a distant cousin of Frodo's, mistakenly captured along with Pippin by th
Bad Taste is a 1987 science-fiction comedy horror splatter film directed, produced, photographed and co-edited by and co-starring Peter Jackson, who made most of the makeup and special effects. Produced on a low budget, it is Jackson's first feature film. Jackson and friends take on most of the key roles, both on and off-screen; the plotline sees aliens invade the fictional New Zealand village of Kaihoro to harvest humans for their intergalactic fast food franchise, where they face off against a four-man paramilitary force, of which at least one member appears to have gone insane. It was a film. Since its release, Bad Taste has become a cult film and has received positive reviews; the Astro Investigation and Defence Service sends their agents, Frank and Barry to investigate the disappearance of the entire population of the town of Kaihoro. They find. Barry is attacked by others. After Derek notifies Frank and Ozzy, he begins torturing an alien they caught earlier. Robert's screaming attracts a number of aliens in the area.
Derek kills the would-be rescuers, but he is attacked by Robert and falls off a cliff ledge, to his presumed death. Meanwhile, a charity collector named, he escapes in his car. He stops at a nearby house for help. Another alien captures Giles, he wakes up in a tub of water filled with vegetables and is told he is about to be cooked and eaten. Derek wakes up to find that he landed in a seagull's nest, he finds that his brain is leaking out the back of his head, so he stuffs it back in and uses a hat to hold it in place. That night, Frank and Barry infiltrate the aliens' house and find a room filled with bloody cardboard boxes, they kill Frank wears its shirt to infiltrate an alien meeting. He finds out. Robert vomits into a bowl, including the disguised Frank, he tells the others of the plan. They sneak out to save Giles as the aliens sleep. At sunrise, they try to leave but are attacked by the aliens, which dissolves into a gunfight. Derek emerges and his hat is shot off due to the ensuing gunfire, he starts losing more of his brain, so he uses his belt as a headband.
He heads for the alien house. As the boys leave with Giles, the alien leader and his followers transform into their true form and follow. Ozzy uses a rocket launcher to blow up Frank's car, overrun by aliens. Frank and Ozzy kill many aliens along the way. Meanwhile, Derek kills an alien with his chainsaw and replaces the missing parts of his brain with its brain. An alien prepares to shoot Frank and Ozzy, but it is beheaded by Derek after he bursts through the wall behind it. Frank and Ozzy are shocked to see him alive. After they escape the house, Lord Crumb shoots Ozzy in the leg and Frank fires his rocket launcher at the leader, but it misses and hits Derek taking out a sheep in a nearby meadow. Derek is knocked out by Lord Crumb and the house transforms into a giant space ship, which blasts off into space with Derek still aboard. On board, Derek looks out the window to see. Crumb is killed by Derek, who ambushes him and cuts through the alien with his chainsaw. Derek proclaims into his phone: "I'm coming to get you bastards!"
He puts on the alien leader's skin, laughing maniacally as he rockets towards the alien planet. On Earth, the rest of the group drive away into the sunset in Derek's car. Terry Potter as Ozzy / 3rd Class Alien Pete O'Herne as Barry / 3rd Class Alien Peter Jackson as Derek / Robert Mike Minett as Frank / 3rd Class Alien Craig Smith as Giles / 3rd Class Alien Ken Hammon as 3rd Class Alien Costa Botes as 3rd Class Alien Doug Wren as Lord Crumb Dean Lawrie as Lord Crumb SPFX double / 3rd Class Alien Peter Vere-Jones as Lord Crumb's voice Much of the film was shot in and around Jackson's hometown of Pukerua Bay, north of Wellington, New Zealand using a 25-year-old 16mm Bolex camera. Begun as a 20 minute short film called'Roast of the Day', Bad Taste was shot on weekends over the course of four years, at an initial cost of around $25,000. Toward the end of the shoot the New Zealand Film Commission invested around NZ$235,000 into the film to ensure its completion. Influenced by special effects pioneer Tom Savini, Jackson incorporated many absurdly gory special effects.
Peter Jackson himself plays two acting roles. In one early scene halfway down a cliff, careful editing, utilising shots taken months apart, makes it possible for the two characters and the alien Robert, to fight one another. Bad Taste begins Jackson's penchant for using the Morris Minor in his films - Giles drives a Morris Minor. Subsequently, every car in Meet the Feebles is a Morris Minor and several are seen in Braindead; the firearms used in the film were all fake. They were made using aluminium tubing and the actors had to shake them to simulate the recoil. A flash and sound effect was added during post production. All the alien masks in the film were baked in Peter Jackson's mother's oven. Kaihoro, the name of the town whose inhabitants are butchered, is a Māori word coined by Jackson and his crew early in the shooting of the film, it has two parts - "kai" which means food and "horo" which means village. Foodtown is the name of a New Zealand chain of grocery stores
The Frighteners is a 1996 New Zealand-American horror comedy film directed by Peter Jackson and co-written with his partner, Fran Walsh. The film stars Michael J. Fox, Trini Alvarado, Peter Dobson, John Astin, Dee Wallace Stone, Jeffrey Combs, R. Lee Ermey and Jake Busey; the Frighteners tells the story of Frank Bannister, an architect who develops psychic abilities allowing him to see and communicate with ghosts after his wife's murder. He uses his new abilities to befriend ghosts, whom he sends to haunt people so that he can charge them handsome fees for "exorcising" the ghosts. However, the spirit of a mass murderer appears able to attack the living and the dead, posing as the ghost of the Grim Reaper, prompting Frank to investigate the supernatural presence. Jackson and Walsh conceived the idea for The Frighteners during the script-writing phase of Heavenly Creatures. Executive producer Robert Zemeckis hired the duo to write the script, with the original intention of Zemeckis directing The Frighteners as a spin-off film of the television series, Tales from the Crypt.
With Jackson and Walsh's first draft submitted in January 1994, Zemeckis believed the film would be better off directed by Jackson, produced by Zemeckis and funded/distributed by Universal Studios. The visual effects were created by Jackson's Weta Digital, which had only been in existence for three years. This, plus the fact that The Frighteners required more digital effects shots than any movie made until that time, resulted in the eighteen-month period for effects work by Weta Digital being stressed. Despite a rushed post-production schedule, Universal was so impressed with Jackson's rough cut on The Frighteners, the studio moved the theatrical release date closer by four months; the film was not a box office success, but received positive reviews from critics. The Frighteners is Fox's last leading role in a live-action feature film. In 1990, architect Frank Bannister's wife, dies in a car accident, he abandons his unfinished "dream house" sits incomplete. Following the accident, Frank gained the power to see ghosts and befriends three: 1970s street gangster Cyrus, 1950s nerd Stuart, The Judge, a gunslinger from the Old West.
The ghosts haunt houses so Frank can "exorcise" them for a fee. Most locals consider him a con man. Soon after Frank cons local health nut Ray Lynskey and his wife Lucy, a physician, Ray dies of a heart attack. Frank discovers there is an entity, appearing as the Grim Reaper, killing people, first marking numbers on their foreheads that only Frank sees. Debra had a similar number. Frank's ability to foretell the murders puts him under suspicion with the police and FBI agent Milton Dammers, convinced Frank is responsible. Frank is arrested for killing newspaper editor Magda Rees-Jones, it was the Grim Reaper who killed Rees-Jones, despite Frank's attempts to prevent it. Lucy becomes a target of the Grim Reaper, she is attacked while visiting Frank in jail. Frank wants to commit suicide to stop the Grim Reaper. Lucy helps Frank have a near-death experience by putting him into hypothermia and using barbiturates to stop his heart. Dammers abducts Lucy, revealing that he had been a victim of Charles Manson and his "Family" in 1969.
In his ghostly form, Frank confronts the Grim Reaper and discovers that he is the ghost of Johnny Bartlett, a psychiatric hospital orderly who killed twelve people in 1964, before being captured and executed. Newspaper reports reveal that his greatest desire was to become the most prolific serial killer showing pride at killing more than contemporaries like Charles Starkweather. Patricia Bradley a teenager, was accused as his accomplice, although she escaped the death penalty due to her underage status. Lucy resuscitates Frank and they visit Patricia. Unknown to them, Patricia is still in love with Bartlett and on friendly, homicidal terms with Bartlett's ghost, kills her own mother, trying to monitor her daughter's behavior. Lucy and Frank trap Bartlett's spirit in his urn; the pair make for the chapel of the now-abandoned psychiatric hospital hoping to send Bartlett's ghost to Hell. Patricia and Dammers chase them through the ruins. Dammers throws the ashes away. Bartlett's ghost and Patricia hunt down Lucy.
Frank realizes that Bartlett's ghost, with Patricia's help, was responsible for his wife's death and the number on her brow, that he is still trying to add to his body count after his death. Out of bullets, Patricia strangles Frank to death, but Frank in spirit form rips Patricia's spirit from her body, forcing Bartlett to follow them. Bartlett grabs Patricia's ghost, while Frank makes it to Heaven, where he is reunited with Cyrus and Stuart, along with his wife Debra. Bartlett and Patricia's spirits claim they will now go back to claim more lives, but the portal to Heaven changes to a demonic-looking appearance and they are both dragged to Hell by a giant worm-like creature. Frank learns it is not yet his time and is sent back to his body as Debra's spirit tells him to "be happy." Frank and Lucy fall in love. Lucy is now able to see ghosts as well. Frank begins demolishing the unfinished dream house and building a life with Lucy while the morose-looking ghost of Dammers is riding around in the sheriff's car.
Frank and Lucy enjoy their picnic. Michael J. Fox as Frank Ba
Meet the Feebles
Meet the Feebles is a 1989 New Zealand musical black comedy film directed by Peter Jackson, written by Jackson, Fran Walsh, Stephen Sinclair and Danny Mulheron. It features Jim Henson-esque puppets in a perverse comic satire. Like Henson's Muppets, the Feebles are animal-figured puppets. However, whereas the Muppets characterize positivity, naïve folly and innocence, the Feebles present negativity and other misanthropic characteristics, it is the first Jackson film, co-written by his future wife Fran Walsh, who has gone on to act as co-writer for all his subsequent films. A commercial failure on release, grossing only NZ$80,000, the film went on to win a cult following, won over new viewers following Jackson's success with The Lord of the Rings trilogy. During his acceptance speech at the 2004 Academy Awards, Jackson mentioned Meet the Feebles, joking that it had been "wisely overlooked by the Academy." The eponymous theatre troupe is rehearsing the title song with hopes of finding success through being picked up for a syndicated television show.
Heidi, the star of the show, is insulted by pornographic director Trevor and complains to her boss and lover, in an adulterous relationship with Samantha. Meanwhile, the newest member of the team, arrives at the theatre and falls in love with another newcomer, Lucille. Samantha confronts Heidi, insults her, reveals her relationship with Bletch. Robert confesses his love to Lucille, the two become engaged. Sid receives a visit from his ex-girlfriend Sandy with his alleged son Seymour. Sandy informs him she will be preparing a paternity case against him. At the toilet, the second most important star of the show, Harry, is suffering from a mystery disease, given only twelve hours to live. Meanwhile, drug-addicted knife thrower Wynyard tells Robert his story of Vietnam, convinces Robert to give him $50 to buy drugs from Trevor. After seeing Trevor's latest porno film, Bletch decides they need a new porn star, Trevor chooses Lucille; when he walks in on the scene Robert thinks that Lucille was drinking and throwing herself at Trevor, tells her he never wants to see her again.
After a good beginning – the Feebles sign with a TV chain to appear in a prime-time television show – Bletch confesses to Heidi that he hates her and wants to give the main role to Samantha. After trying unsuccessfully to commit suicide, Heidi goes on a shooting spree with an M60 machine gun and kills many of the cast, including Harry, told by his doctor that he was indeed going to recover; the epilogue reveals the fates of only six survivors: Sid gets extensive repair on his kneecaps after being shot by Heidi and works in an orchard as a struggling horticulturist with Seymour. Arthur retires to the country. Sebastian recovers from his injuries and became a successful writer who achieved worldwide fame for his best seller The Feeble Variety Massacre: One Man's Act of Heroism! and is negotiating film rights. Robert, now an award-winning fashion photographer for a women's magazine, Lucille are married with two children. Heidi, whose killing spree resulted in her imprisonment in a women's penitentiary for ten years, has been rehabilitated under the community and now works under a new identity on the check-out counter of a large supermarket.
Mark Hadlow as: Robert the Hedgehog Heidi the Hippo Barry the Bulldog Chorus Girl #3 Peter Vere-Jones as: Bletch the Walrus Arthur the Worm The Baker Newspaper Mouse The Announcer Donna Akersten as: Lucille the Poodle Samantha the Cat Dorothy the Sheep Female Rabbit #1 Chorus Girl #2 Fitness Tape Voice Stuart Devenie as: Sebastian the Fox Dr. Quack the Duck Daisy the Cow Sandy the Chicken Cedric the Warthog Seymour the Elechicken Mr. Big the Whale Female Rabbit #2 Chorus Girl #1 Brian Sergent as: Wynyard the Frog Trevor the Rat F. W. Fly Jim the Frog Chuck the Frog The Spider Vietnamese Gophers Ross Jolly as: Harry the Hare Dennis the Aardvark Abi the Contortionist Pekingese Vietnamese Gophers Mark Wright as: Sid the Elephant The Masked Masochist Louie the Dog Guppy the Fish Poodle Bartender Crab Chorus Girl #4 Fane Flaws as Musician Frog Danny Mulheron as Heidi the Hippo The film was conceived as part of a television series, only belatedly became a feature after Japanese investors proposed expanding it.
The dialogue was recorded. Made on an low budget considering the time-consuming process of working with puppets, the film went over budget and schedule; some scenes, including the Vietnam flashback, were funded by members of the film crew, filmed secretly under the title The Frogs of War. The Vietnam flashback includes a game of Russian roulette as a parody of The Deer Hunter. An initial application for Film Commission money was rejected by executive director Jim Booth, who a short time became Jackson's producer; the Commission granted the production two-thirds of its $750,000 budget, though relationships between the funders and the production soured and the Film Commission removed its credit from the film. It is mistakenly stated that there are no human characters in the film. Howe
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit fear. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, Mary Shelley, horror has existed as a film genre for more than a century; the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction, thriller genres. Horror films aim to evoke viewers' nightmares, fears and terror of the unknown. Plots with in the horror genre involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, extraterrestrials, werewolves, Satanism, evil clowns, torture, vicious animals, evil witches, zombies, psychopaths, ecological or man-made disasters, serial killers; some sub-genres of horror film include low-budget horror, action horror, comedy horror, body horror, disaster horror, found footage, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological horror, science fiction horror, supernatural horror, gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, disaster films, first-person horror, teen horror.
The first depiction of the supernatural on screen appear in several of the short silent films created by the French pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès in the late 1890s. The best known of these early supernatural-based works is the 3-minute short film Le Manoir du Diable known in English as The Haunted Castle or The House of the Devil; the film is sometimes credited as being the first horror film. In The Haunted Castle, a mischievous devil appears inside a medieval castle and harasses the visitors. Méliès' other popular horror film is La Caverne maudite, which translates to "the accursed cave"; the film known for its English title The Cave of the Demons, tells the story of a woman stumbling over a cave, populated by the spirits and skeletons of people who died there. Méliès would make other short films that historians consider now as horror-comedies. Une nuit terrible, which translates to A Terrible Night, tells a story of a man who tries to get a good night's sleep but ends up wrestling a giant spider.
His other film, L'auberge ensorcelée, or The Bewitched Inn, features a story of a hotel guest getting pranked and tormented by an unseen presence. In 1897, the accomplished American photographer-turned director George Albert Smith created The X-Ray Fiend, a horror-comedy that came out a mere two years after x-rays were invented; the film shows a couple of skeletons courting each other. An audience full of people unaccustomed to the idea would have found it frightening and otherworldly; the next year, Smith created the short film Photographing a Ghost, considered a precursor to the paranormal investigation subgenre. The film portrays three men attempting to photograph a ghost, only to fail time and again as the ghost eludes the men and throws chairs at them. Japan made early forays into the horror genre. In 1898, a Japanese film company called Konishi Honten released two horror films both written by Ejiro Hatta. Though there are no records of the cast, crew, or plot of Bake Jizo, it was based on the Japanese legend of Jizo statues, believed to provide safety and protection to children.
The presence of the word bake—which can be translated to "spook," "ghost," or "phantom"—may imply a haunted or possessed statue. Spanish filmmaker Segundo de Chomón, regarded as one of the most significant silent film directors, was popular for his frequent camera tricks and optical illusions, an innovation that contributed to the popularity of trick films in the period, his famous works include Satan at Play. The Selig Polyscope Company in the United States produced one of the first film adaptations of a horror-based novel. In 1908, the company released Mr. Hyde, now a lost film, it is based on Robert Louis Stevenson's classic gothic novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, published 15 years prior, about a man who transforms between two contrasting personas. Georges Méliès liked adapting the Faust legend into his films. In fact, the French filmmaker produced at least six variations of the German legend of the man who made a pact with the devil. Among his notable Faust films include Faust aux enfers, known for its English title The Damnation of Faust, or Faust in Hell.
It is the filmmaker's third film adaptation of the Faust legend. In it, Méliès took inspiration from Hector Berlioz's Faust opera, but it pays less attention to the story and more to the special effects that represent a tour of hell; the film takes advantage of stage machinery techniques and features special effects such as pyrotechnics, substitution
New Zealand Order of Merit
The New Zealand Order of Merit is an order of merit in New Zealand's honours system. It was established by royal warrant on 30 May 1996 by Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand, "for those persons who in any field of endeavour, have rendered meritorious service to the Crown and nation or who have become distinguished by their eminence, contributions or other merits", to recognise outstanding service to the Crown and people of New Zealand in a civil or military capacity. In the order of precedence, the New Zealand Order of Merit ranks after the Order of New Zealand. Prior to 1996 New Zealanders received appointments to various British orders, such as the Order of the Bath, the Order of St Michael and St George, the Order of the British Empire, the Order of the Companions of Honour, as well as the distinction of Knight Bachelor; the change came about after the Prime Minister's Honours Advisory Committee was created "to consider and present options and suggestions on the structure of a New Zealand Royal Honours System in New Zealand, designed to recognise meritorious service and bravery and long service".
The monarch of New Zealand is the Sovereign of the order and the Governor-General is its Chancellor. Appointments are made at five levels: Knight or Dame Grand Companion Knight or Dame Companion Companion Officer Member; the number of Knights and Dames Grand Companion is limited to 30 living people. Additionally, new appointments are limited to 15 Knights or Dames Companion, 40 Companions, 80 Officers and 140 Members per year; as well as the five levels, there are three different types of membership. Ordinary membership is limited to citizens of a Commonwealth realm. "Additional" members, appointed on special occasions, are not counted in the numerical limits. People who are not citizens of a Commonwealth realm are given "Honorary" membership. There is a Secretary and Registrar and a Herald of the Order; the Collar, worn only by the Sovereign and Chancellor, comprises "links of the central medallion of the badge" and "S"-shaped Koru, with the Coat of Arms of New Zealand in centre. Hanging from the Coat of Arms is the badge of the Order.
The Star is an eight-pointed star with each arm bearing a representation of a fern frond, with the Order's badge superimposed in the centre. Grand Companions wear Knight Companions wear a silver star; the Badge for the three highest classes is a gold and white enamel cross with curved edges bearing at its centre the coat of arms of New Zealand within a green enamel ring bearing the motto For Merit Tohu Hiranga, topped by a royal crown. The badge for Officers and Members in silver-gilt and silver respectively. Grand Companions wear the badge on a sash over the right shoulder. Officers and Members wear the badge from a bow on the left shoulder; the ribbon and sash are plain red ochre. Knight/Dames Grand Companion and Knight/Dames Companion are entitled to use the style Sir for males and Dame for females; the order's statutes grant heraldic privileges to members of the first and second level, who are entitled to have the Order's circlet surrounding their shield. Grand Companions are entitled to heraldic supporters.
The Chancellor is entitled to supporters and a representation of the Collar of the Order around his/her shield. Sovereign: The Queen Chancellor and Principal Dame Grand Companion: The Governor-General Knights and Dames Grand Companion:Officials:Two positions, were created in the Statutes of the Order with all appointments published in the New Zealand Gazette. Secretary and Registrar: Michael L. C. Webster Herald: Philip O'Shea From 2000 to 2009, the two highest levels of the Order were Principal Companion and Distinguished Companion, without the appellation of "Sir" or "Dame"; the following contains the names of the small number of members of the grades Principal Companion and Distinguished Companion who chose not to convert their appointment to a Knight or Dame Grand Companion, or Knight or Dame Companion, thus not to accept the respective appellation of "Sir" or "Dame". The majority of those affected chose the aforereferenced appellations. A change to non-titular honours was a recommendation contained within the original report of the 1995 honours committee which prompted the creation of the New Zealand Order of Merit.
Titular honours were incorporated into the new system before its implementation in 1996 after the National Party caucus and public debate were split as to whether titles should be retained. There has long been debate in New Zealand regarding the appropriateness of titles; some feel it is no longer appropriate as New Zealand has not been a colony since 1907, to these people titles are out of step with present-day New Zealand. Others feel that titles carry both domestic and international recognition, that awarded on the basis of merit they remain an appropriate recognition of excellence. In April 2000 the new Labour Prime Minister, Helen Clark, announced that knighthoods and damehoods had been abolished and the order's statutes amended. From 2000 to 2009