Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin was a Serbian Chetnik military commander. He took part in the Balkan Wars and World War I and afterwards served as the president of the Association of Serb Chetniks for Freedom and the Fatherland in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Beginning in 1941 he collaborated with the Italians under the awareness and condonation of supreme Chetnik commander Draža Mihailović. In the spring of 1942, he was appointed by Mihailović as the commander of Chetniks in Dalmatia, western Bosnia and southwestern Croatia. In October 1942, Trifunović-Birčanin and his subordinate commanders, Dobroslav Jevđević and Petar Baćović, were responsible for the killing of over 500 Bosnian Muslim and Bosnian Croat civilians in the Prozor region in October 1942, he died in Split on 3 February 1943, having suffered from poor health for a considerable period of time. Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin was born in Topola, Principality of Serbia in 1877, he served as a volunteer on the Serbian side in the Balkan Wars. He fought with Serb forces during World War I, attaining the rank of Chetnik commander and losing an arm in combat.
Following the war, Trifunović-Birčanin fought against Albanian forces in Kosovo. From 1929 to 1932, during a period in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia when other political parties were banned, he served as president of the Association of Serb Chetniks for Freedom and the Fatherland. After 1932, he served as chairman of the Narodna Odbrana, a Serbian patriotic association composed of World War I veterans. In 1934, he became the leader of the Organization for Chetnik Veterans. An organisation with considerable influence with the Serbian public, Narodna Odbrana petitioned Prince Paul on various occasions urging him to resist pressure from Adolf Hitler for Yugoslavia to join the Tripartite Pact. Trifunović-Birčanin was in close contact at this time with the British Special Operations Executive, attempting to prevent Yugoslavia from joining the Axis powers. SOE funded the Narodna Odbrana and established close ties to Trifunović-Birčanin. After discovering that Yugoslav Prime Minister Dragiša Cvetković and Foreign Minister Aleksander Cincar-Marković were travelling to Vienna on 24 March 1941 to sign a limited form of the Pact, the SOE opted to foment a coup d'etat.
According to Williams, Trifunović-Birčanin was involved in its preparation and execution, informing the SOE that the coup was 99% certain to succeed and that preparations were making good progress. In contrast, Professor Jozo Tomasevich states that whilst Trifunović-Birčanin was informed of the coup, he was not among its organisers; the coup by predominantly Serbian military officers led by the Head of the Air Force General Dušan Simović took place on 27 March, Prince Paul was replaced by King Peter II. Within days, it became clear that Simović was not as anti-Axis as the SOE had hoped, Trifunović-Birčanin and others began "discussing the possibility of a second coup". With the defeat of Yugoslavia, Trifunović-Birčanin fled to Kolašin in Montenegro before moving to the Italian-controlled city of Split in October 1941; the Chetnik movement was and hostile to the nascent Yugoslav Partisans, this led to Chetnik commanders negotiating a series of local co-operation agreements with Italian occupying forces, based on the strong mutual wish that the Partisan insurrection be extinguished.
In essence, these agreements were that Italian and Chetnik forces would leave one another alone, in return there would be an end to persecution of Serbs by the Italians. One such Chetnik-Italian agreement was concluded at a meeting in Split on 20 October 1941 by Trifunović-Birčanin, Dobroslav Jevđević, a leading Chetnik in the inter-war kingdom, Angelo de Matteis, head of the information division of the Italian 6th Army Corps. Chetnik leader Draža Mihailović was aware of the collaborationist arrangements entered by Jevđević and Trifunović-Birčanin and condoned them. In addition to Jevđević, with whom he worked on liaison with the Italian forces, Trifunović-Birčanin's subordinate commanders included Momčilo Đujić, Ilija Mihić and Slavko Bjelajac, Petar Baćović. In early January 1942, Trifunović-Birčanin played a central role in organizing the units of Chetnik leaders in western Bosnia and northern Dalmatia into the Dinara Division and dispatched former Royal Yugoslav Army officer to help. Đujić was to be the commander of the division and its goal was for the "establishment of a Serb national state" in which "an Orthodox population is to live."
In the same month General Renzo Dalmazzo, Italian Sixth Army Corps commander organised a meeting in the hope that the Chetniks would take part in a joint operation against the Partisans. This was attended by Trifunović-Birčanin, Jevđević, Jezdimir Dangić and Stevo Rađenović, although "for the time being, the Germans vetoed any use of the Chetniks in such a capacity". Based in Split, Trifunović-Birčanin was appointed by Mihailović to command Chetnik forces over Dalmatia, western Bosnia and southwestern Croatia in the spring of 1942. According to historian Jozo Tomasevich, "both Chetnik and Italian documents show that his role as liaison officer between the Chetniks and the Italian Second Army was just as important as his command over the Chetnik formations in those areas." On 23 June 1942, assisted by Trifunović-Birčanin, the Italians set up the first units of an Italian-controlled Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia known as MVAC, dedicated to "the annihilation of communism". In 1942 and 1943, 19,000–
The Ten-Day War, or the Slovenian Independence War, was a brief conflict that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991. It was fought between the Yugoslav People's Army, it lasted from 27 June 1991 until 7 July 1991. It marked the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. Following the death of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito in 1980, underlying political, ethnic and economic tensions within Yugoslavia surfaced. In 1989 Slobodan Milošević, Chairman of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia since 1986, became president of Serbia, the largest and most populous of the six Yugoslav republics; as Milošević moved to consolidate power by centralizing the state, the governments of the other republics sought to loosen the central grip on power by devolving as much constitutional power as possible to each of the republics and autonomous provinces. A series of disagreements among delegates persisted until four of the six republics each made the decision to secede from Yugoslavia.
Supported by Germany and the Vatican, Slovenia was among those republics aiming for independence. The first action in defence of Slovenian independence, that united both the opposition and democratized communist establishment in Slovenia was, carried out by the Slovene police forces, in an action named Action North in 1989. In April 1990, Slovenia held its first democratic multi-party elections. On 23 December 1990, Slovenia held a referendum, which passed with 88.5% of overall electorate supporting independence, with a turnout of 93.3%. The Slovenian government was well aware that the federal government in Belgrade might seek to use military force to quash Slovenia's move towards independence. After the Slovenian elections, the Yugoslav People's Army announced a new defence doctrine that would apply across the country; the Tito-era doctrine of "General People's Defence", in which each republic maintained a Territorial Defence Force, was to be replaced by a centrally directed system of defence.
The republics would lose their role in defence matters, their TOs would be disarmed and subordinated to JNA headquarters in Belgrade. The Slovenian government resisted these moves and ensured that the majority of Slovenian Territorial Defence equipment was kept out of the hands of the JNA, it declared in a constitutional amendment passed on 28 September 1990 that its TO would be under the sole command of the Slovenian government. At the same time, the Slovenian government set up a secret alternative command structure, known as the Manoeuvre Structures of National Protection; this was an existing but antiquated institution, unique to Slovenia, intended to enable the republic to form an ad hoc defence structure, akin to a Home Guard. It was of negligible importance prior to 1990, with few members. However, the DEMOS-led government realised that the MSNZ could be adapted to provide a parallel organisation to the TO that would be in the hands of the Slovenian government; when the JNA tried to take control of the Slovenian Territorial Defence, the TO's command structure was replaced by that of the parallel MSNZ.
Between May and October 1990, some 21,000 Slovenian Territorial Defence and police personnel were secretly mobilised into the MSNZ command structure, of which the federal government was wholly unaware. The Slovenian government undertook detailed planning of a military campaign against the JNA, which resulted in the production of an operational and tactical plan by November 1990 — over seven months before the conflict began; the Slovenes were aware that they would not be able to deter the JNA forces for an extended period of time. Under Defence Minister Janez Janša, they adopted a strategy based on an asymmetric warfare approach. TO units would carry out a guerrilla campaign, using anti-tank weapons and anti-aircraft missiles to ambush JNA units. Tank columns could be trapped by destroying the lead and rear vehicles in favourable terrain — for instance, on a narrow mountain road where room for manoeuvre was limited – enabling the rest to be tackled more easily. In preparation for this, the Slovenian government covertly bought lightweight missile systems from foreign suppliers, notably the SA-7 Grail anti-aircraft missile and the German-designed Armbrust anti-tank system.
Hit-and-run and delaying tactics were to be preferred and frontal clashes were to be avoided since in such situations the JNA's superior firepower would have been difficult to overcome. Slovenia and Croatia passed the acts about their independence on 25 June 1991; this "advance" on the date of independence was a critical element of the Slovenian plan to gain an early advantage in the expected conflict. The Slovenian government expected the Yugoslav military to respond with force on the day of the declaration of independence or shortly afterwards. By secretly advancing the date by 24 hours, the Slovenians wrongfooted the Yugoslav government, which had set 26 June as the date for its move. Although the Yugoslav army was adamantly opposed to Slovenian independence, it was divided about what to do; the YPA Chief of Staff, Colonel-General Blagoje Adžić, advocated a large-scale military operation to remove the Slovenian government and bring "healthy forces" to power in the republic. His political superior, the Yugoslav Defence Minister General of the Army Veljko Kadijević, insisted on a more cautious approach – a show of force that would convince the Sloveni
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, most Yugoslavs considered him popular and a benevolent dictator, he was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation, he gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Nicolae Ceaușescu of Romania, Sukarno of Indonesia, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Broz was born to a Croat Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary. Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time.
After being wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, he was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in some events of the Russian Revolution in subsequent Civil War. Upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, he was General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans. After the war, he was the Prime President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the supreme commander of the Yugoslav military, the Yugoslav People's Army. With a favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, he received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour and the Order of the Bath. Tito was the chief architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from November 1943 until April 1992.
Despite being one of the founders of Cominform, he became the first Cominform member to defy Soviet hegemony in 1948 and the only one in Joseph Stalin's time to manage to leave Cominform and begin with its own socialist program with elements of market socialism. Economists active in the former Yugoslavia, including Czech-born Jaroslav Vanek and Croat-born Branko Horvat, promoted a model of market socialism dubbed the Illyrian model, where firms were owned by their employees and structured on workers' self-management and competed with each other in open and free markets. Josip Broz was born on 7 May 1892 in Kumrovec, a village in the northern Croatian region of Hrvatsko Zagorje which at that time was part of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the seventh or eighth child of Franjo Broz and Marija née Javeršek, his parents having lost a number of children in early infancy. He was raised as a Roman Catholic, his father, was a Croat whose family had lived in the village for three centuries, while his mother Marija, was a Slovene from the village of Podsreda.
The villages were only 16 kilometres apart, his parents had been married on 21 January 1881. Franjo Broz had inherited a 4.0-hectare estate and a good house, but he was unable to make a success of farming. Josip spent a significant proportion of his pre-school years living with his maternal grandparents at Podsreda, where he became a favourite of his grandfather Martin Javeršek, by the time he returned to Kumrovec to commence school he spoke Slovene better than Croatian, had learned to play the piano. Despite his mixed parentage, Broz referred to himself as a Croat. In July 1900, at the age of eight, Broz entered primary school at Kumrovec, but only completed four years of school, failing the 2nd grade graduating in 1905; as a result of his limited schooling, throughout his life he was poor at spelling. After leaving school, he worked for a maternal uncle on the family farm. In 1907, his father wanted him to emigrate to the United States, but could not raise the money for the voyage. Instead, aged 15 years, Josip left Kumrovec and travelled about 97 kilometres south to Sisak where his cousin Jurica Broz was doing army service.
Jurica helped him get a job in a restaurant, but Broz soon tired of that work and approached a Czech locksmith, Nikola Karas, for a three-year apprenticeship, which included training and room and board. As his father could not afford to pay for his work clothing, Josip paid for it himself. Soon after, his younger brother Stjepan became apprenticed to Karas. During his apprenticeship he was encouraged to mark May Day in 1909, read and sold Slobodna Reč, a socialist newspaper. After completing his apprenticeship in September 1910, Broz used his contacts to gain employment in Zagreb and at the age of 18 joined the Metal Workers' Union and participated in his first labour protest, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. He returned home in December 1910 and in early 1911 began a series of moves, first seeking work in Ljubljana Trieste and Zagreb, where he worked repairing bicycles and joined his first strike action on May Day 1911. After a brief period of work in Ljubljana, between May 1911 and May 1912 he worked in a factory in Kamnik in the Kamnik–Savinja Alps, a
Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation
The Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation, or Liberation Front called the Anti-Imperialist Front, was the main anti-fascist Slovene civil resistance and political organization. It was active in the Slovene Lands during World War II, its military arm were the Slovene Partisans. The organisation was established in the Province of Ljubljana on 26 April 1941 in the house of the literary critic Josip Vidmar, its leaders were Edvard Kardelj. The programme of the Fronta was outlined by the following fundamental points: Armed struggle United Slovenia Continuity of Yugoslavia and closeness with the Russian Nation. Loyalty of all factions to the Liberation Front Adherence to democracy after the liberation Acceptance of the Atlantic Charter Outgrowth of the Partisan Units and People’s Guards into a broader front of the National Liberation Struggle. Although the Front consisted of multiple political groups of left-wing orientation, including some Christian Socialists, a dissident group of Slovene Sokols, a group of intellectuals around the journals Sodobnost and Ljubljanski zvon, during the course of the war, the influence of the Communist Party of Slovenia started to grow, until the founding groups signed the so-called Dolomite Declaration, giving the exclusive right to organize themselves as a political party only to the communists, on 1 March 1943.
On 3 October 1943, on the session, known as Assembly of the Delegates of the Slovene Nation, held in Kočevje by the 572 directly elected and 78 indirectly elected members, the 120-member plenum was constituted as the highest civil governing organ of anti-fascist movement in Slovenia during the World War II. After the war, the Liberation Front was transformed into the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Slovenia. On 19 February 1944, the 120-member Črnomelj plenum of Liberation Front of the Slovenian People changed its name to SNOS and proclaim itself as the temporary Slovenian parliament. One of its most important decisions was that after the end of the war Slovenia would become a state within the Yugoslav federation. Just before the end of the war, on May 5, 1945, the SNOS met for the last time in the town of Ajdovščina in the Julian March and established the Slovenian government with the Communist leader Boris Kidrič as its president; the Liberation Front led an specific propaganda system.
It printed flyers and other material to persuade people about its cause and slander the occupying forces. The Front's radio, called Kričač, was the only one of its kind in the occupied Europe, it emitted from various locations and occupying forces confiscated the receivers' antennas from the local population in order to prevent listening to it. The Slovene Partisans were the armed wing of the Liberation Front, which fought in the beginning as a guerilla and as an army, it was ethnically homogenous and communicated in Slovene. These two features have been considered vital for its success, it was the first Slovene military force. Its most characteristic symbol was the Triglav cap. Contrary to elsewhere in Yugoslavia, where on the freed territories the political life was organized by the military itself, the Slovene Partisans were subordinated to the civil political authority of the Front; the partisan activities in Slovenia were independent of Tito's Partisans in the south. The merger of the Slovene Partisans with Tito's forces happened in 1944.
It has been traditionally claimed by Slovene historians that the term Anti-Imperialist Front was the first to occur. This may be read for example in a work by Peter Vodopivec from 2006. In 2008, the historian Bojan Godeša published a peer-reviewed discussion about the name, he mentions a leaflet from the end of April 1941 with liberation front written on it, two months before the first known mention of the anti-imperialist front on 22 June 1941. He mentions that Josip Rus, who represented the Slovene Sokol Society in the founding meeting of the OF, always claimed they had only discussed the organisation as the Liberation Front. That's contrary to the opinion by Josip Vidmar a founding member, who stated that the organisation was renamed as Liberation Front only on 30 June 1941; the claims by Godeša have been cited in a seminar by Božo Repe, another eminent historian, who added that the name Anti-Imperialist Front, written with capital letters, was used in the communication with the Communists of the Soviet Union.
He attributed this to the desire of the Slovene Communists to demonstrate that their work corresponded to the aims of the Comintern. AVNOJ Slovene Home Guard
Arsenije "Arso" Jovanović was a Yugoslav partisan general and their foremost military commander to participate in World War II in Yugoslavia. Educated through the Yugoslav Royal Army academies, General Jovanović was one of the best-educated generals among the partisan forces in Yugoslavia, speaking French and English, his military reports distinguished him, sometimes running to as many as ten pages, he stayed close to the partisan High Command, lecturing in the first partisan officer school in Drvar, 1944. After the Tito–Stalin Split in 1948, General Jovanović sided with the Soviet Union, he was killed by Yugoslav border guards while trying to escape to Romania with two other Montenegrin dissidents, Vlado Dapčević and Branko Petričević, who were captured alive. Arso Jovanović was born in Zavala village near Podgorica, Principality of Montenegro on March 24, 1907 into a family with a strong military tradition, belonging to the Piperi clan, his father was, until 1910, an officer of the Kingdom of Serbia army, stationed with the artillery regiment in Topčider, a suburb of Belgrade.
Jovanović went to school in Nikšić, progressed to the Yugoslav Royal Army's military academy in Belgrade in 1924. There he was a contemporary of Velimir Terzić and Petar Ćetković, who would also become significant commanders in the partisan forces during World War II, he graduated the top of his class, was recommended to go to France for'professional perfection'. He finished with top grades at the academy and went on to its higher school, graduating in 1934. By this time he had continued with his studies, he completed the additional course of the military academy in 1940, being promoted to the rank of captain on January 18, 1938 and to first class captain on December 20, 1938. On the recommendation of military experts and the minister of defense, Milan Nedić, in recognition of his abilities, Jovanović was transferred to become troop commander of the school of reserve infantry officers. Not long before the Nazi German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941, he was posted as commander of the school battalion of the infantry school of active officers.
In the meantime, he had married Senka, a law student at the Belgrade Law School. They were separated when the war started, meeting up again in Drvar in 1944; when the German invasion started, Arso Jovanović was commander of the school battalion. He was subject to the Second Army Group under General Dragoslav Miljković, his task was to take action in the direction of Sarajevo - Travnik. An interesting fact is that here he served with a number of future high commanders in the army such as Dragoslav Mihailović, Major Miodrag Palošević and Major Radoslav Đurić. Following the breakdown of the front at Sarajevo on April 15, the entry of a German armoured group into the city, Captain Jovanović did not go forward to support Colonel Mihailović, being attacked near Derventa. Instead he returned to his birthplace. There he awaited the famous 13 July uprising in Montenegro. In these actions other active officers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia who subsequently crossed over to the partisan lines excelled themselves.
Examples include infantry Colonel Savo Orović, reserve Lt. Colonel Veljko Bulatović, infantry Captain 1st Class Velimir Terzić and infantry Captain 1st Class Petar Ćetković. All fought in the Royal Yugoslav Army that renounced the country's capitulation to the invaders, alongside the partisan units commanded by Peko Dapčević, Vlado Ćetković, Jovo Kapičić and others. Since Montenegrins had traditionally held great affection for Russia, when the Soviet-German war broke out Montenegro rose in revolution. Despite the fact that plans and preparations for guerrilla warfare had not been made, a universal uprising was under way. Jovanović commanded his forces in a drive against the Italians near Crmnica, where they defeated one Italian battalion. Alone, Jovanović's unit captured a significant amount of war equipment. Captain Jovanović joined the partisan forces. Jovanović was well received among the partisans. Due to his experience, he was assigned as chief of staff of the partisan guerrilla units for Montenegro and Boka.
Until December, he was chief of staff for Montenegro. Meanwhile, the Italian army had managed to transfer one army corps and three squadrons from Albania in order to quell the uprising. Jovanović found himself pressed between strong forces that cleared the partisan units from the territory, he ordered a move towards Cetinje, where partisan units managed to surround the Italian governor. The Italians however succeeded in deblocking Cetinje. Captain Jovanović ordered an attack on Kolašin and Šavnik but the enemy forces were too strong, the partisans were forced to retreat. Arso Jovanović faced the ire of the people due to the deteriorating military situation. In this situation, he ordered a retreat on the entire front until the arrival of troops from Sandžak. For this action, 3,500 people were mobilised in Montenegro. On November 20, these forces commenced a march-manoeuvre in all parts of Montenegro; the main objectives were Kolašin, Mioče, Donja Morača, Gornja Morača, Boan, Đurđevića Tara, Nikšić, Šavnik and Žabljak.
Jovanović ordered his troops to take the city of Pljevlja at any cost, manoeuvres were made to surround the city. The Battle of Pljevlja commenced on December 1 when the majority of the forces entered the city itself. Arso Jovanović was among his fighters, ordered charge retreat, followed by another charge; the Komski, "Bajo Pivljanin" and "Zetsko-lješanski" battalions all participated in this battle. The city was taken, but the enemy counter-attack was s
The Slovenes known as Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, to Italy and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture and speak Slovene as their native language. Most Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia. In the Slovenian national census of 2002, 1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes, while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language; the autochthonous Slovenian minority in Italy is estimated at 83,000 to 100,000, the Slovene minority in southern Austria at 24,855, in Croatia at 13,200, in Hungary at 3,180. Significant Slovene expatriate communities live in the United States and Canada, in other European countries, in Argentina, in Australia; the largest population of Slovenes outside of Slovenia is in Ohio. In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a, more frequent than in South Slavic peoples, constituting 41% in the capital region and greater in some regions.
Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West Slavic populations. The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a common ancestral Slavic population in central European region; the M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280 its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the same as that of their Slavic and not Slavic neighbours. The Z92 branch of Z280, significant among East Slavs is recorded as absent among Slovenes. Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern and 4% to U106; the Dinaric-North haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming higher frequency than Dinaric-South in regions with high frequency. In the 6th century AD, Slavic people settled the region between the Alps and the Adriatic Sea in two consecutive migration waves: the first wave came from the Moravian lands around 550, while the second wave, coming from the southeast, moved in after the retreat of the Lombards to Italy in 568.
From 623 to 658 Slavic peoples between the upper Elbe River and the Karavanke mountain range united under the leadership of King Samo in what was to become known as "Samo's Tribal Union". The tribal union collapsed after Samo's death in 658, but a smaller Slavic tribal principality, remained, with its centre in the present-day region of Carinthia. Faced with the pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians accepted a union with Bavaria in 745, in the 8th century recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity; the last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocel, lost its independence in 874. Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to pressure from Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain; the first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During this period, the first books in Slovene were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of standard Slovene.
In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. At the beginning of the 17th century, Protestantism was suppressed by the Habsburg-sponsored Counter Reformation, which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque culture; the Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social and cultural progress to the Slovene people. It facilitated the appearance of a middle class. Under the reign of Maria Theresa and Emperor Joseph II many reforms were undertaken in the administration and society, including land reforms, the modernization of the Church and compulsory primary education in Slovene; the start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern sense of the word. Before the Napoleonic Wars, some secular literature in Slovene emerged. During the same period, the first history of the Slovene Lands as an ethnic unity was written by Anton Tomaž Linhart, while Jernej Kopitar compiled the first comprehensive grammar of Slovene.
Between 1809 and 1813, Slovenia was part of the Illyrian Provinces, an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire, with Ljubljana as the capital. Although the French rule was short-lived, it contributed to the rise of national consciousness and political awareness of Slovenes. After the fall of Napoleon, all Slovene Lands were once again included in the Austrian Empire. A distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes became widespread. In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists advancing the first steps towards a standardization of the language. Illyrian movement, Pan-Slavic and Austro-Slavic ideas gained importance. However, the intellectual circle around the philologist Matija Čop and the Romantic poet France Prešeren was influential in affirming the idea of Slovene linguistic and cultural individuality, refusing the idea of merging Slovenes into a wider Slavic nation.
In the 1840s, the Slovene national movement developed far beyond literary expression. In 1848, the first Slovene national political programme, called United Slovenia, was wr
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well